Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Sports facilities in vinicity

StudyKye & Park (2014): study KR 2009
TitleHealth-related determinants of Happiness in Korean Adults.
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2014, Vol. 59, 731-738
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00038-014-0588-0
Public30-69 aged, general population, South Korea 2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Respondents N =1530

Author's labelExercise environment
Page in Source 735
Our classificationSports facilities in vinicity
Selfreport on questions on exercise environment. 
Participants were asked if they had an access to 
exercise facilities near their homes, 
a: fitness clubs
b: parks
c: mountain trails.
1: yes
0: no
Observed distribution% yes, a: 72.4%,b: 79.1%, c: 69.8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mD%=+ p < .001
Fitness clubs near home   
             % happy %unhappy  %difference
- yes            62.1     37.9        +24.2
- no             52.7     47.3        +5.4
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mOR=1.08 p < .05
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mD%=+ p < .003
Parks near home   
             % happy %unhappy  %difference
- yes            61.5     38.5       +23
- no             52.2     47.8       +4.4
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mOR=1.15 p < .05
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mD%=+ p < .001
Mountain trails near home   
             % happy %unhappy  %difference
- yes            62.6    37.4       +25.2
- no             52.4    47.6       +4.8
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mOR=1.31 p < .05

OR's controled for:
- socio-demographic factors
  - age
  - marital status
  - income
  - education
- stress
- healthy behavior
  - smoking
  - regular exercise
  - healthy eating

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mSelfreport on single question

In general, how would you describe your happiness?
4 very happy
3 mostly happy
2 a little bit happy
1 not happy at all

Appendix 2: Statistics used
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
OROR: Odds ratio in binary logistic regression.

Happiness is a binary or dichotomous variable with Happy =1 and Unhappy=0.

OR < 1 indicates that the odds of being happy-to-being unhappy
decreases by a factor OR when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases by one unit
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OR > 1 indicates an increase by a factor OR for both the above cases.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.