Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Efficacious, productive

StudyPettay (2008a): study US 2006
TitleHealth Behaviors and Life Satisfaction in college Students.
SourcePhD Thesis, Kansas State University, 2008, USA
PublicUniversity students, Illinois, USA, 2007
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =796

Correlate
Author's labelUse of stress management skills
Page in Source 48-51
Our classificationEfficacious, productive
Operationalization
Selfreport on 7 questions:
a: I organize each day in order to accomplish 
activities that need to be completed
b: When unexpected interruptions or distractions happen 
to me, I am able to make adjustments and still get my 
nesessary tasks done
c:  I use unhealthy ways to relieve tension and anxiety 
that may occasionally build up in me
d: I stay positive in my attitudes and thoughts about 
tasks and objectives I want to achieve
e: When thinking or talking on my new endeavor, I am 
able to create a very clear picture of my goals and 
what I need to do to reach my goals
f:  When solving a problem I can look at the whole 
picture and analyze what can be done personal, social 
academic and work 
Rated
1 rarely 
2 sometimes
3 half the time
4 more frequently than not,
5 most of the time.
Observed distributionM=21.98 , SD=4.63
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha .79

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcr=+.42 p < .01
All
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcr=+.35 p < .01
Males only
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcr=.45 p < .01
Females only
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcBeta=.40 p < .001
All
rpc controled for other health behaviors
- stress mnagement
- BMI
- Physical activity
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcrpc=.39
All
rpc controled for other health behaviors
- stress mnagement
- BMI
- Physical activity


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcSelfreport on 3 questions:

Using the 1-5 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life

Answers rated:
5 strongly agree
4 slightly agree
3 neither agree nor disagree
2 slightly disagree
1 strongly disagree

Computation:( A+B+C)/3

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl