Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Sex (male vs female)

StudyAverina, M. et al. (2005): study RU Archangelsk 1999
TitleSocial and lifestyle determinants of depression, aniety, sleeping disorders and self-evaluated quality of life in Russia
SourceSoc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemol (2005) 40: 511-518
DOIdoi: 10.1007/s00127-005-0918-x
Public15+ aged general public, Arkhangelsk, Russia, 2000
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3705

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 514, 516
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=+
Males      M = 5,8
Females    M = 5,2
- difference  +0,6
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=+
Age     Males     Females
        M    SD    M    SD    M/F difference
18-19   6,0  1,6   6,0  1,7   0
20-29   6,4  1,7   6,1  1,6   +.03
30-39   5,9  1,8   5,5  1,8   +0,4
40-49   5,9  1,6   5,4  1,8   +0,4
50-59   4,9  1,7   4,3  1,8   +0,6
60+     5,8  1,8   5,3  1,8   +0,5
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cD%=
% Unhappy (<5)
Males         21,1%
Females       32,6%
- difference +10.5%
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOR=1.2
Unhappiness by FEMALE sexe (males happier) 
CI(0.9-1.5)
Control variables not reported


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
OROR: Odds ratio in binary logistic regression.

Happiness is a binary or dichotomous variable with Happy =1 and Unhappy=0.

OR < 1 indicates that the odds of being happy-to-being unhappy
decreases by a factor OR when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases by one unit
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OR > 1 indicates an increase by a factor OR for both the above cases.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl