Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Active involvement in sports

StudyPettay (2008a): study US 2006
TitleHealth Behaviors and Life Satisfaction in college Students.
SourcePhD Thesis, Kansas State University, 2008, USA
PublicUniversity students, Illinois, USA, 2007
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =796

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical Activity frequency
Page in Source 46-53
Our classificationActive involvement in sports
Operationalization
The physical activity items include: 
a: On how many of the past 7 days did you exercise or 
participate in sports activities for at least 20 
minutes that made you sweat or breath hard?
b: How many days did you do stretching exercises?
c: How many days did you exercise to strenghten or tone 
your muscles?
d: How many days did you walk or bicycle for at least 
30 minutes at a time?
e: How many days did you participate in a physical 
activity for at least 30 minutes that made you sweat or 
breathe hard?
F: How many days were you physically active for at 
least 30 minutes a day?

Rated on 1-7 scale
Observed distributionM=17.29 , SD= 6.27

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcr=+.13 p < .01
All
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcr=+.13 p < .05
Males only
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcr=+.13 p < .01
Females only
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcBeta=+.03
All
rpc controled for other health behaviors
- stress mnagement
- BMI
- Physical activity
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcrpc=+.04
All
rpc controled for other health behaviors
- stress mnagement
- BMI
- Physical activity


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcSelfreport on 3 questions:

Using the 1-5 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life

Answers rated:
5 strongly agree
4 slightly agree
3 neither agree nor disagree
2 slightly disagree
1 strongly disagree

Computation:( A+B+C)/3

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl