Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Concern about character

StudyPettay (2008a): study US 2006
TitleHealth Behaviors and Life Satisfaction in college Students.
SourcePhD Thesis, Kansas State University, 2008, USA
PublicUniversity students, Illinois, USA, 2007
SampleSampling not reported
Respondents N =796

Author's labelStage of change in stress management skills
Page in Source 39, 59
Our classificationConcern about character
Self report on questions about change of stress 
management skill use 
1: Precontemplation: I have little awareness of stress 
management and have no intention to use it
2: Contemplation:  I am aware of stress-management and 
I am thinking of using it in the next 6 months
3; Preparation: I intend to use stress-magement in the 
next month
4: Action: I have been using stress-management for less 
than 6 months
5: Maitenance: I have been using stress-management for 
the past 6 months or longer.
Observed distribution1: 15%, 2: 22%, 3: 16%, 4: 12%, 5: 34%
Sress-management was described earlier in the 
questionnaire as using effectibe time-management, 
healthy relaxation strategies and/or positive thinking 
techniques to deal effectively with the stressors in my 

Observed Relation with Happiness
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcMW=+ ns
2 (va 1)similar among males and females
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcMW=+ ns
3 (vs 2)similar among males and females
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcMW=+ ns
4 (vs 3) similar among males and females
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcMW=+ p < .001
5 (vs4) stronger among females

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcSelfreport on 3 questions:

Using the 1-5 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life

Answers rated:
5 strongly agree
4 slightly agree
3 neither agree nor disagree
2 slightly disagree
1 strongly disagree

Computation:( A+B+C)/3

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)

Appendix 2: Statistics used
Type: statistical procedure.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: ordinal
Symbol test statistic: W (Wilcoxon) or U (Mann-Whitney).
Relationship: W = U + n1(n1 + 1), where n1 and n2 = Ne - n1 , while n1 <= n2, are the sizes of the two samples.
Range U [ 0; n1n2 ] and W [ n1(n1 + 1); n1(n1+ 2n2 +1].

At the limit values of U and W there is the strongest possible association.
U = n1n2 <-> W = n1(Ne + 1) no association.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.