Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Concern about character

StudyPettay (2008a): study US 2006
TitleHealth Behaviors and Life Satisfaction in college Students.
SourcePhD Thesis, Kansas State University, 2008, USA
PublicUniversity students, Illinois, USA, 2007
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =796

Correlate
Author's labelStage of change in stress management skills
Page in Source 39, 59
Our classificationConcern about character
Operationalization
Self report on questions about change of stress 
management skill use 
1: Precontemplation: I have little awareness of stress 
management and have no intention to use it
2: Contemplation:  I am aware of stress-management and 
I am thinking of using it in the next 6 months
3; Preparation: I intend to use stress-magement in the 
next month
4: Action: I have been using stress-management for less 
than 6 months
5: Maitenance: I have been using stress-management for 
the past 6 months or longer.
Observed distribution1: 15%, 2: 22%, 3: 16%, 4: 12%, 5: 34%
Remarks
Sress-management was described earlier in the 
questionnaire as using effectibe time-management, 
healthy relaxation strategies and/or positive thinking 
techniques to deal effectively with the stressors in my 
life

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcMW=+ ns
2 (va 1)similar among males and females
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcMW=+ ns
3 (vs 2)similar among males and females
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcMW=+ ns
4 (vs 3) similar among males and females
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcMW=+ p < .001
5 (vs4) stronger among females


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcSelfreport on 3 questions:

Using the 1-5 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life

Answers rated:
5 strongly agree
4 slightly agree
3 neither agree nor disagree
2 slightly disagree
1 strongly disagree

Computation:( A+B+C)/3

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
MWWILCOXON (MANN-WHITNEY) TWO SAMPLE TEST
Type: statistical procedure.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: ordinal
Symbol test statistic: W (Wilcoxon) or U (Mann-Whitney).
Relationship: W = U + n1(n1 + 1), where n1 and n2 = Ne - n1 , while n1 <= n2, are the sizes of the two samples.
Range U [ 0; n1n2 ] and W [ n1(n1 + 1); n1(n1+ 2n2 +1].

Meaning:
At the limit values of U and W there is the strongest possible association.
U = n1n2 <-> W = n1(Ne + 1) no association.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl