Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: What one eats

StudyFord et al. (2013): study ZZ Anglo-America 2002
TitleIntake of Meditteranean Foods Associated with Positive and Low Negative Affect
SourceJournal of psychosomatic research, 74 (2013) 142 - 148
URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002239991200311X
DOIdoi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.11.002
Public30+ aged, Adventist church atendees, North America 2002-2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =9255

Correlate
Author's labelNuts
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreported  intake of nuts during the last year
1  never or rarely
2  1-3 times per month
3  1-6  times per week
4  1-4 times per day
Observed distributionM = males: 127, females 140
Remarks
Assessd usung Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), which 
contains a list of 200 food items.

Nuts are: sunflower seeds, walnuts, peanuts, pumpkin 
seeds, mixed nuts, sesame, almonds, cashews.

Intake expressed in standard servings in grams
Food intake was energy adjusted using the residual 
method

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dBeta=+ p < .001
positive affect:  Beta =  +.05 (<.001)
negative affect:  Beta =  -.09 (<.001)

Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- ethnicity
- frequency of vigorous physical activity
- hours sleep
- total energy intake
- use of alcohol

Similar between males and females


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dSelfreport on 10 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. As I read each item, I ask that you refer to your response card an d tell me to wgat extent you have felt in that way during the past year :
A excited
B enthusiastic
C alert
D inspired
E determined
F distressed
G scared
H upset
I nervous
J ashamed

Answer options:
1 not at all
2 a little
3 somewhat
4 quite a bit
5 very much

Negative affect score (NAS): F to J
Positive affect score (PAS): A to G
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Shortened Watson's PANAS; Kiercher version


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl