Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: What one eats

StudyFord et al. (2013): study ZZ Anglo-America 2002
TitleIntake of Meditteranean Foods Associated with Positive and Low Negative Affect
SourceJournal of psychosomatic research, 74 (2013) 142 - 148
DOIdoi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.11.002
Public30+ aged, Adventist church atendees, North America 2002-2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Respondents N =9255

Author's labelLegumes
Our classificationWhat one eats
Selfreported  intake of legume during the last year
1  never or rarely
2  1-3 times per month
3  1-6  times per week
4  1-4 times per day
Observed distributionMales: 24, females 24
Assessed usung Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), 
which contains a list of 200 food items.

Legumes are: navy, red kidney, other red beans Lentils, 
plit peas, Pinto, black Lima, white Chick peas 
(garbanzos), black-eyed.

Intake expressed in standard servings in grams
Food intake was energy adjusted using the residual 

Observed Relation with Happiness
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dBeta=+ p < .001
positive affect:  Beta =  +.06 (001)
negative affect:  Beta =  -.03 (017)

Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- ethnicity
- frequency of vigorous physical activity
- hours sleep
- total energy intake
- use of alcohol

Similar among males and females

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dSelfreport on 10 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. As I read each item, I ask that you refer to your response card an d tell me to wgat extent you have felt in that way during the past year :
A excited
B enthusiastic
C alert
D inspired
E determined
F distressed
G scared
H upset
I nervous
J ashamed

Answer options:
1 not at all
2 a little
3 somewhat
4 quite a bit
5 very much

Negative affect score (NAS): F to J
Positive affect score (PAS): A to G
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Shortened Watson's PANAS; Kiercher version

Appendix 2: Statistics used
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.