Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCavalcanti et al. (2009): study ZZ 2005
TitleIs Brazil the Land of Happiness? A comparative Study Using a Sample with conomics Students from UFPE and purdue.
SourceBrazilian Review of Econometrics, 2009, Vol. 29, 17 - 35
URLhttp://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/index.php/bre/article/viewArticle/2694
PublicUniversity students, Brazil and United States, 2005-2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =185

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 22-23
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Single direct question on the income background of the 
student's family:
2 High income (reference)
1 Middle-income
0 Low Income
Observed distribution INCOME in % Low Middle High Purdue students 5 62 33 UFPE students 7 81 12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-dOLRC=-2.3 p < .01
LOW income (vs. HIGH)

ORLC controlled for:
- nationality
- age
- gender
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-dOLRC=-2.4 p < .01
OLRC additionally controlled for:
- employment status

When not controlled for nationality:
USA:    OLRC= -1.896 (ns)
UFPE:   OLRC= -3.757 (p<.01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-dOLRC=-.81 p < .05
MIDDLE income (vs. HIGH)

ORLC controlled for:
- nationality
- age
- gender
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-dOLRC=-.83 p < .05
OLRC additionally controlled for:
- employment status

When not controlled for nationality:
USA:    OLRC= -0.340 (ns)
Brazil: OLRC= -2.074 (p<.01)


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-dSelfreport on single question:

Are you happy?
1 I am not happy
2 I am pretty happy
3 I am very happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
OLRCOLRC: Regression coefficient in ordered categorical logistic regression.
Only the sign of the computed coefficient is informative.

Happiness is an ordered categorical variable. Higher categories correspond to being happier.

OLRC < 0 indicates that the odds of being beyond a chosen happiness category-to- be-ing at or below that category decreases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OLRC > 0 indicates an increase in the odds for both the above cases.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl