Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Local nature

StudyTsurumi et al. (2018): study JP Tokyo 2014
TitleGreenery and Subjective Well-Being: Assessing the Monetary Value of Greenery by Type.
SourceEcological Economics, 2018, Vol. 148, 152 - 169
URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800917309503
Public20-83 aged, general public, Tokyo, Japan, 2014
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =2758

Correlate
Author's labelProximity to greenery
Page in Source 160-161,166-168
Our classificationLocal nature
Operationalization
Proximity to nearest greenery in:
a residential area
b roadsides
c commercial areas
d industrial area
e farmland
f  forests and wilderness
g waterfronts, parks
h public faciities
I  railroads.
Distances:
4 0-100 m
3 100-500 m
2 500-1000 m
1 1000-1500 m
Observed distribution1: M = 12% SD = 0.11 2: M =15%, SD = 0.09 3: M =16%, SD = 0.09 4: M =15 %, SD = 0.08
Remarks
Author refers to 'distance from nearest greenery', but 
the reported b's reflect 'proximity'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ccb=+.08 p < .05
Distance 0-100 m
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ccBeta=+.01
Beta (+.004) computed by WDH
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ccb=+.07 p < .10
Distance 100-500 m
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ccBeta=+.00
Beta (+.004) computed by WDH team
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ccb=+.11 p < .10
Distance 500-1000 m
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ccBeta=+.00
Beta (+.004) computed by WDH team
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ccb=+.12 p < .10
Distance 1000-1500 m
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ccBeta=+.00
Beta (+.004) computed by WDH team
O-HL-g-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.00
Beta (+.005) computed by WDH team
A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-aBeta=+.03
Beta (+.029) computed by WDH team

b's controlled for:
- age and age squared
- gender (male)
- chronic illness
- marital status
- extraversion
- agreeableness
- neuroticism
- conscientiousness
- openness to experience
- household income (log)
- employment status
- floorspace per person
- education
- number of people who can be relied upon
- community participation
- participation in elections
- experience of crime
- satisfaction with accessibility
- lifelong learning

Ordered probit analysis results in a similar 
pattern

Remarkable: Separate analysis for each type of 
greenery shows that the highest positive b's are 
for industrial areas, roadsides and commercial 
areas, while the b's for greenery along 
waterfronts are negatively associated with 
happiness. Correlations with proximity to greenery 
in residential areas are marginally positive.
O-HL-g-sq-n-11-bb=+.11 p < .05
Distance 0-100 m
O-HL-g-sq-n-11-bb=+.13 p < .05
Distance 100-500 m
O-HL-g-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.00
Beta (+.005) computed by WDH team
O-HL-g-sq-n-11-bb=+.12 p < .05
Distance 500-1000 m
O-HL-g-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.00
Beta (+.005) computed by WDH team
O-HL-g-sq-n-11-bb=+.11 p < .05
Distance 1000-1500 m
O-HL-g-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.00
Beta (+.004) computed by WDH team
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.08 p < .01
Distance 0-100 m
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=+.00
Beta (+.004) computed by WDH team
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.07 p < .01
Distance 100-500 m
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=+.00
Beta (+.003) computed by WDH team
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.05 ns
Distance 500-1000 m
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=+.00
Beta (+.002) computed by WDH team
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.04 ns
Distance 1000-1500 m
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=+.00
Beta (+.001) computed by WDH team
A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-ab=+.26 ns
Distance 0-100 m
A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-aBeta=+.02
Beta (+.024) computed by WDH team
A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-ab=+.58 p < .01
Distance 100-500 m
A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-aBeta=+.04
Beta (+.044) computed by WDH team
A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-ab=+.52 p < .01
Distance 500-1000 m
A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-aBeta=+.04
Beta (+.040) computed by WDH team
A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-ab=+.42 p < .10
Distance 1000-1500 m


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on feelings during activities in the previous day (Day Reconstruction Method)

A worried
B rushed
C irritated or angry
D depressed
E tense or stressed
F calm or relaxed
G enjoying

Rated:
1 not at all
2 a little
3 very much

Computation: (A+B+C+D+E)/5 - (F+G)/2
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
O-HL-g-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

In general terms, how happy do you feel with your life?
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very unhappy
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ccSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl