Study | Tsurumi et al. (2018): study JP Tokyo 2014 |

Title | Greenery and Subjective Well-Being: Assessing the Monetary Value of Greenery by Type. |

Source | Ecological Economics, 2018, Vol. 148, 152 - 169 |

URL | https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800917309503 |

Public | 20-83 aged, general public, Tokyo, Japan, 2014 |

Sample | Probability stratified sample |

Non-Response | 38% |

Respondents N = | 2758 |

Correlate | |

Author's label | Proximity to greenery |

Page in Source | 160-161,166-168 |

Our classification | Local nature |

Operationalization | Proximity to nearest greenery in: a residential area b roadsides c commercial areas d industrial area e farmland f forests and wilderness g waterfronts, parks h public faciities I railroads. Distances: 4 0-100 m 3 100-500 m 2 500-1000 m 1 1000-1500 m |

Observed distribution | 1: M = 12% SD = 0.11 2: M =15%, SD = 0.09 3: M =16%, SD = 0.09 4: M =15 %, SD = 0.08 |

Remarks | Author refers to 'distance from nearest greenery', but the reported b's reflect 'proximity' |

Observed Relation with Happiness | ||

Happiness Measure | Statistics | Elaboration/Remarks |

O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cc | b=+.08 p < .05 | Distance 0-100 m |

O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cc | Beta=+.01 | Beta (+.004) computed by WDH |

O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cc | b=+.07 p < .10 | Distance 100-500 m |

O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cc | Beta=+.00 | Beta (+.004) computed by WDH team |

O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cc | b=+.11 p < .10 | Distance 500-1000 m |

O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cc | Beta=+.00 | Beta (+.004) computed by WDH team |

O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cc | b=+.12 p < .10 | Distance 1000-1500 m |

O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cc | Beta=+.00 | Beta (+.004) computed by WDH team |

O-HL-g-sq-n-11-b | Beta=+.00 | Beta (+.005) computed by WDH team |

A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-a | Beta=+.03 | Beta (+.029) computed by WDH team b's controlled for: - age and age squared - gender (male) - chronic illness - marital status - extraversion - agreeableness - neuroticism - conscientiousness - openness to experience - household income (log) - employment status - floorspace per person - education - number of people who can be relied upon - community participation - participation in elections - experience of crime - satisfaction with accessibility - lifelong learning Ordered probit analysis results in a similar pattern Remarkable: Separate analysis for each type of greenery shows that the highest positive b's are for industrial areas, roadsides and commercial areas, while the b's for greenery along waterfronts are negatively associated with happiness. Correlations with proximity to greenery in residential areas are marginally positive. |

O-HL-g-sq-n-11-b | b=+.11 p < .05 | Distance 0-100 m |

O-HL-g-sq-n-11-b | b=+.13 p < .05 | Distance 100-500 m |

O-HL-g-sq-n-11-b | Beta=+.00 | Beta (+.005) computed by WDH team |

O-HL-g-sq-n-11-b | b=+.12 p < .05 | Distance 500-1000 m |

O-HL-g-sq-n-11-b | Beta=+.00 | Beta (+.005) computed by WDH team |

O-HL-g-sq-n-11-b | b=+.11 p < .05 | Distance 1000-1500 m |

O-HL-g-sq-n-11-b | Beta=+.00 | Beta (+.004) computed by WDH team |

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c | b=+.08 p < .01 | Distance 0-100 m |

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c | Beta=+.00 | Beta (+.004) computed by WDH team |

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c | b=+.07 p < .01 | Distance 100-500 m |

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c | Beta=+.00 | Beta (+.003) computed by WDH team |

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c | b=+.05 ns | Distance 500-1000 m |

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c | Beta=+.00 | Beta (+.002) computed by WDH team |

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c | b=+.04 ns | Distance 1000-1500 m |

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c | Beta=+.00 | Beta (+.001) computed by WDH team |

A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-a | b=+.26 ns | Distance 0-100 m |

A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-a | Beta=+.02 | Beta (+.024) computed by WDH team |

A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-a | b=+.58 p < .01 | Distance 100-500 m |

A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-a | Beta=+.04 | Beta (+.044) computed by WDH team |

A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-a | b=+.52 p < .01 | Distance 500-1000 m |

A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-a | Beta=+.04 | Beta (+.040) computed by WDH team |

A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-a | b=+.42 p < .10 | Distance 1000-1500 m |

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

Code | Full Text |

A-AB-yd-mq-v-3-a | Selfreport on feelings during activities in the previous day (Day Reconstruction Method) A worried B rushed C irritated or angry D depressed E tense or stressed F calm or relaxed G enjoying Rated: 1 not at all 2 a little 3 very much Computation: (A+B+C+D+E)/5 - (F+G)/2 |

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c | Selfreport on single question: Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time? 10 best possible 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 worst possible life This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now. |

O-HL-g-sq-n-11-b | Selfreport on single question: In general terms, how happy do you feel with your life? 10 very happy 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 very unhappy |

O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cc | Selfreport on single question: How satisfied are you with your life as a whole? 1 very dissatisfied 2 3 4 5 neutral 6 7 8 9 10 very satisfied |

Appendix 2: Statistics used

Symbol | Explanation |

b | REGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS) Type: test statistic Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric Theoretical range: unlimited Meaning: b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average. B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average. B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate. |

Beta | STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS) Type: test statistic. Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric. Range: [-1 ; +1] Meaning: beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average. beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average. beta = 0 « no correlation. beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation. |

Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.

https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl