Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Feeling lonely (vs not)

StudyArampatzi et al. (2018): study NL 2012
TitleSocial Network Sites, Individual Social Capital and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2018, Vol. 19, 99 - 122.
URLhttps://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10902-016-9808-z.pdf
Public15-44 aged, internet users, The Netherlands, 2012-2013
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1944

Correlate
Author's labelSocial loneliness
Page in Source T1,3,5,AppendixA
Our classificationFeeling lonely (vs not)
Operationalization
Social Loneliness Index :
a There are enough people I can count on in case of a 
misfortune
b I know many people on whom I can completely rely
c There are enough peopleto whom I feel closely 
connected"
1 Yes
0 No
Observed distributionScale:0-6; M:1,20; SD:1,81
Remarks
Social loneliness index: De Jong Gierveld et al.(2006) 
A 6-item scale for overall, emotional and social 
loneliness: tested on data from 7 countries in the UN 
generations and gender surveys. Research on aging, 
28(5), 582-598.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-jBeta=-.11 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- time spent on social network sites
- time spent on internet (other)
- time spent on online games
- trust in people
- gender
- age
- employment status
- marital status
- education
- year dummies
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-jBeta=-.04 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- infrequent contact with family 
- infrequent contact with friends 
- satisfaction with social contacts


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-jSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how happy would you say you are?
10 totally happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unhappy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl