Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Time on internet

StudyArampatzi et al. (2018): study NL 2012
TitleSocial Network Sites, Individual Social Capital and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2018, Vol. 19, 99 - 122.
URLhttps://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10902-016-9808-z.pdf
Public15-44 aged, internet users, The Netherlands, 2012-2013
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1944

Correlate
Author's labelTime per week spent on social network sites
Page in Source T1,3,5,AppendixA
Our classificationTime on internet
Operationalization
Time spent on social network sites (x10h)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-jr=-.12 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-jBeta=-.02 ns
Beta controlled for:
- time spent on internet (other)
- time spent on online games
- trust in people
- gender
- age
- employment status
- marital status
- education
- year dummies

Beta not significantly affected by additional 
control for:
- infrequent contact with friends
- infrequent contact with family 
- satisfaction with social contacts
- social loneliness


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-jSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how happy would you say you are?
10 totally happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unhappy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl