Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Religion in nation

StudyRotondi et al. (2016): study IT 2016
TitleConnecting Alone: Smartphone Use, Quality of Social Interactions and Well-Being.
SourceWorking Paper: Politecno di Milano and University of Milan Bicocca, Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering (DIG), 2016, Italy
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 2016
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =144809

Correlate
Author's labelAttending religious services
Page in Source 5-7,9
Our classificationReligion in nation
Operationalization
1 Attending religious services
0 Not attending religious services
Observed distributionAttending religious services: 80% ; not attending religious services: 20%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.12 p < .01
Beta's controlled for:
- time spent with friends
- gender
- education
- employment
- marital status
- smartphone use
- volunteering activity
- sport activity


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

'......on general estimate of life-satisfaction...'
(full text not reported)
0 entirely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 fully satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl