Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Life style awareness training

StudyLayous et al. (2018): study US 2014
TitleReframing the Ordinary: Imaging Time as Scarce Increases in Wellbeing
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2018, Vol 13, 301 - 308
DOIDOI: doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2017.127910
PublicStudents participating in happiness training, USA, 2014
SampleNon-probability self-selected
Non-Response
Respondents N =139

Correlate
Author's labelTime Scarcety Intervention
Page in Source 303
Our classificationLife style awareness training
Operationalization
Participants were randomly assigned to:

1. TIME SCARCETY INTERVENTION. Participants were asked 
to imagine that they were moving from their college 
town in one month. They were advised to do all the the 
things they are going to miss during this month. Each 
week they wrote on the website what they did, with whom 
the spent time and what thoughts and emotions they 
experienced.

0. CONTROL GROUP. During 4 weeks participants were 
asked to write each week on their daily activities
Observed distribution1: n = 70, 0: n = 69

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-ACO-cw-mq-v-3-aDMs=+.24
                Happiness LEVEL          CHANGE
                T1       T2      T3      T3-T1
Interventon     -0.11   +0.070   +0.35   +0.46
Control         -0.05   -0.002   +0.17   +0.22
- DIFFERENCE    +0.06   +0.068   +0.18   +0.24
M-ACO-cw-mq-v-3-ad=+.25 p < .05
Intervention    0.46
Controls        0.21
- DIFFERENCE   +0.25

Effect post-intervention

Happiness assessed at:
T1 pre-intervention
T2 post-4 week intervention
T3 after 2 weeks follow-up


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
M-ACO-cw-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 24 questions

A Indicate your agreement with the following statements
Aa In most ways my life is close to ideal
Ab The conditions of my life are excellent
Ac I am satisfied with my life
Ad So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
Ae If I could live my life over again, I would change nothing

B ; Today I felt.
Ba joyful
Bb grateful
Bc amused
Bd content
Be proud
Bf awed
Bg loving
Bh hopeful
Bi interested
Bj angry
Bk sad
Bl afraid
Bm ashamed
Bn contemptuous
Bo embarrassed
Bp guilty
Bq disgusted

Rating scales not reported

Computation: A and b standardized and summed

A is Diener's Satisfaction with life Scale SWLS
B is Fredrickson's modified Differential Emotions Scale mDES

Rated
1 very slight, or not at all
2 little
3 moderate
4 quite a bit
5 extreme

Computation: (A to I)/9 - (J to Q)/8

Name: Fredrickson et. al (2003) Differential Emotions Scale (mDES), Today version


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
dCohen's COEFFICIENT FOR GROUP DIFFERENCES. Also called EFFECT SIZE
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate : dichotomous, Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited.

Meaning: effect size indicator for difference of means.
Formula: Cohen's d = (M2 - M1) ? SDpooled
SDpooled = ?((SD1^2 + SD2^2) ? 2)
DMsSTANDARDIZED DIFFERENCE of MEANS (CRITICAL RATIO)
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning: DMs is the ratio of the difference of the, either untransformed or transformed, means and its standard error.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl