Study | Rotondi et al. (2016): study IT 2016 |

Title | Connecting Alone: Smartphone Use, Quality of Social Interactions and Well-Being. |

Source | Working Paper: Politecno di Milano and University of Milan Bicocca, Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering (DIG), 2016, Italy |

Public | 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 2016 |

Sample | Probability multistage stratified area sample |

Non-Response | |

Respondents N = | 144809 |

Correlate | |

Author's label | Smartphone use |

Page in Source | 6,9,11 |

Our classification | Ways to internet |

Operationalization | Single question: " Do you use your mobile phone to surf the web?" 1 Yes 0 No |

Observed distribution | 13% yes; 87% no |

Observed Relation with Happiness | ||

Happiness Measure | Statistics | Elaboration/Remarks |

O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-a | Beta=+.22 p < .01 | Beta's controlled for: - time spent with friends - gender - education - employment - marital status - volunteering - religiousness When controlling for 'time with friends: at least once a week' instead of all categories beta=+.15 (p<.01). When controlling for 'time with friends: more than once a week' instead of all categories beta=+.10 (p<.01). |

O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-a | b-iv=+12 p < .01 | b-iv= +12.8 b-iv controlled for: - availibility of 4G network - satisfaction with friends - time spent with friends - interaction effects |

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

Code | Full Text |

O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-a | Selfreport on single question: '......on general estimate of life-satisfaction...' (full text not reported) 0 entirely dissatisfied 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 fully satisfied |

Appendix 2: Statistics used

Symbol | Explanation |

b-iv | REGRESSION COEFFICIENT in regression ananlysis with instrumental variable as one or more explanatory variables Type: test statistic. Correlate level: metric, Happiness level: metric Theoretical range: unlimited The instrument must be correlated with the endogenous explanatory variables, conditionally on the other covariates. If this correlation is strong, then the instrument is said to have a strong first stage. A weak correlation may provide misleading inferences about parameter estimates and standard errors. The instrument cannot be correlated with the error term in the explanatory equation, conditionally on the other covariates. In other words, the instrument cannot suffer from the same problem as the original predicting variable. If this condition is met, then the instrument is said to satisfy the exclusion restriction. See Mardia Kent & Bibby (1979): Multivariate Analysis |

Beta | STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS) Type: test statistic. Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric. Range: [-1 ; +1] Meaning: beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average. beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average. beta = 0 « no correlation. beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation. |

Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.

https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl