Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Later internet behaviour

StudyKross et al. (2013): study US 2008
TitleFacebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults.
SourceOpen Access, 2013, Plos One, Vol. 8, 1 - 7
URLhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0069841
DOIDOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069841
PublicFacebook users, Ann Arbor, Michigan, followed 14 days, USA, 2013
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =82

Correlate
Author's labelFacebook use
Page in Source Page 3
Our classificationLater internet behaviour
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question text-beeped 5 times a 
day:
How much have you used Facebook since the last time we 
asked?
Rated on a sliderscale ranging from
100  very positive
:
0 very negative
Observed distributionM = 66,10 SD = 30,48
Remarks
Experience Sampling Method (ESM)
Original rating scale ranged from 0 positive to 100 
negative and was reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-mi-sqr-ol-101-ar=-.07 ns
AVERAGE Facebook use by average happiness during 
14 days.
A-AOL-mi-sqr-ol-101-ab=-.08 p < .0001
CHANGE happiness following Facebook use
T2 Facebook use by T2 happiness, controling T1 
happiness.
The more people use facebook the less happier they 
felt.
A-AOL-mi-sqr-ol-101-ab=+.01 ns
T1 happiness by T1-T2 facebook use. 
Happiness does not predict facebook use.
A-AOL-mi-sqr-ol-101-a
Set Image size:   



Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-AOL-mi-sqr-ol-101-aSelfreport on single question text messaged 5 times a day

How do you feel right now?
0 very positive
:
:
:
:
100 very negative


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl