Study | Rash et al. (2011): study CA 2011 |

Title | Gratitude and Well-Being: Who Benefits the Most from a Gratitude Intervention? |

Source | Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 2011, Vol. 3, 350 - 369 |

URL | https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1758-0854.2011.01058.x |

Public | Participants in a 4-week psychological training, Canada, 2011 |

Sample | Non-probability self-selected |

Non-Response | |

Respondents N = | 65 |

Correlate | |

Author's label | Gratitude inducing exercises vs recalling events |

Page in Source | 358-359 |

Our classification | Exercise |

Operationalization | Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups with different intervention conditions: A: Gratitude enhancing group. Participants were asked to think about items, people or events for which they are particular grateful, and to try to experience and maintain the sincere heart-felt feelings of gratitude associated with that thought. B: Memorizing events. Participants were asked to recall memorable events and to try to experience and maintain feelings associated with the events. Intervention period: 4-weeks; reflection exercises twice a week. |

Observed Relation with Happiness | ||

Happiness Measure | Statistics | Elaboration/Remarks |

A-BW-m-mq-v-5-a | DMe=+.43 ns | Mean Daily Affect Balance during intervention A: Gratitude intervention Ma = + 1,66 B: Memorizing intervention Ma = + 1,23 - difference + 0,43 T1 General Affect Balance not reported T2 Affect Balance computed by WDH team from separate Negative and Positive affect scores. |

A-BW-m-mq-v-5-a | AoC= ns | |

A-BW-m-mq-v-5-a | D%sr= | +5,4% assumed scale range -4 to +4 |

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

Code | Full Text |

A-BW-m-mq-v-5-a | Selfreport on 20 questions. This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you feel this way right now: A nervous B distressed C afraid D jittery E irritable F upset G scared H exiled I ashamed J guilty K hostile L active M determined N inspired O enthusiastic P alert Q attentive R proud S strong T interested Answer options: 1 very slightly or not at all 2 a little 3 moderately 4 quite a bit 5 extremely Negative affect score (NAS): A to K Positive affect score (PAS): L to T Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS Name: Watson's PANAS ('moment' version) |

Appendix 2: Statistics used

Symbol | Explanation |

AoC | ANALYSIS of COVARIANCE (ANCOVA) Type: statistical procedure Measurement level: Correlates: at least one nominal and at least one metric, Happiness: metric. Just as in an ANOVA, in an ANCOVA the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is partitioned into several parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least two of those sources are the variability of the correlates, in case there is one for each correlate, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value. In an Analysis of Covariance, the treatment means for all levels of the nominal correlate are 'adjusted' for differences in the mean values of the metric correlate. |

D%sr | DIFFERENCE in % of SCALE RANGE Scale range = highest theoretical value minus lowest theoretical value |

DMe | DIFFERENCE IN MEDIAN Type: descriptive statistic Measurement level: happiness metric correlate; dichotomous or nominal Seldom used in happiness research. |

Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.

https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl