Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Exercise

StudyEnrique et al. (2018): study ES 2015
TitleEfficacy of An Adaptation of The Best Possible Self Intervention Implemented Through Positive Technology: A Randomized Control Trial
SourceApplied Research in Quality of Life, 2018, Vol. 13, 671 - 689
DOIdoi: 10.1007/s11482-017-9552-5
PublicYoung adults participating in a happiness training, Spain, 201?
SampleNon-probability self-selected
Respondents N =78

Author's labelBest Possible Self Intervention
Page in Source 677
Our classificationExercise
Participants were randomly assigned to:

1. TREATMENT. Best Possible Self program. Participants 
were asked to write about and imagine a future in which 
they have reached all their goals and developed all 
their potential in personal, professional, social and 
health domains. After a first session in the 
laborartory all the content in the participants' Book 
of Life was exported to the web platform so they could 
continue the practice exercise at home in the same 

0. CONTROL. Daily activities programm. Participants 
were asked to think and write about everything they had 
done in the past 24 h.They were told that it would help 
them to identify problematic areas in their lives and 
work on improving them.

In both groups participants were asked to continue the 
practice the exercise for 5 minutes a day during a 
period of 1 month.
Observed distribution1: n = 38, 0: n = 40

Observed Relation with Happiness
A-BW-g-mq-v-5-gDM=+/- ns
              Happiness LEVEL
              T1    T2    T3    T4    T5
Treatment     1.47  1.76  1.88  1.85  1.60
Controls      1.46  1.55  1.83  1.92  1.77
-Difference   +0.01 +0.21 +0.05 -0.07 -0.17

Happiness CHANGE
             T2-T1  T3-T1  T4-T1  T5-T1
Treatment    +0.29  +0.41  +0.38  +0.13 
Control      +0.09  +0.37  +0.46  +0.31  
-Difference  +0.20  +0.04  -0.08  -0.18
Treatment            +5.1%         +1,6% 
Control              +4.6%         +3,9%  
-Difference          +0.5%         -2,3%

Hence an increase in happiness in both treatment 
and controls. Change occurs earlier in treatment 
and lasts longer in controls

Happiness assessed at
T1= pre training
T2= after 15 days training
T3= at the end of training
T4= follow-up 1 month
T5= follow-up 2 months

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BW-g-mq-v-5-gSelfreport on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you generally feel this way, that is, how you feel on average?
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exiled
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 very much

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('in general' version)

Appendix 2: Statistics used
Scale range = highest theoretical value minus lowest theoretical value
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.