Correlational finding on Happiness and Feeling lonely (vs not)
Subject code: M15ac05a

StudyOECD (2017): study PE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Peru, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6971

Correlate
Author's labelSense of belonging
Page in Source 250 + Table III.7.1,p.354
Our classificationFeeling lonely (vs not), code M15ac05a
Operationalization
Selfreport on 6 statements
a: I feel like an outsider at school
b: I make friends easily at school
c: I feel like I belong at school
d: I feel awkward and out of place in my school
e: other students seem to like me
f: I feel lonely at school

Each rated
4 strongly agree
3 agree
2 disagree
1 strongly disagree
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
The answers to three items were reserved-coded so that 
higher values in the index indicate a greater sense of 
belonging.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eRČ=.03 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by belongingness quarter

4 most belonging   M = 8,15
3                  M = 7,70
2                  M = 7,29
1 least belonging  M = 6.87

4-1 difference        +1,28


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. The top of the ladder '10' represents the best possible life for you and the bottom '0' is the worst possible life for you. In general , where on the ladder do you feel you stand at the moment? Tick the box next to the number that best describes where you stand
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
RČ = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
RČ = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl