Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Earlier (un)employment

StudyPalisi & Ransford (1987): study US 1972
TitleEffects of Urbanism, Race and Class on Happiness and Physical Health.
SourceSociological Spectrum, 1987, Vol. 7, 271 - 295
DOIDOI: 10.1080/02732173.1987.9981822
Public18+ aged, general public, USA 1972-1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15320

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment experience
Page in Source 281 + 282
Our classificationEarlier (un)employment
Operationalization
Ever unemployed during the past ten years

0 Never unemployed or looking for work
  for at least a month
1 Ever unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.03 ns
Whites, Central City, Largest SMSA, Less H.S.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.21 p < .01
Blacks, Central City, Largest SMSA, Less H.S. 

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.15 p < .001
Whites, Central City, Next Large SMSA, Less H.S.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.20
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.33 p < .001
Blacks, Central City, Next Large SMSA, Less H.S.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.12

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.08 p < .05
Whites, Suburbs, Less H.S.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.11 p < .001
Blacks, Suburbs, Less H.S.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.20

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.15 ns
Whites, Rural, Less H.S.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.10
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.17 ns
Blacks, Rural, Less H.S.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.10

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.11 ns
Whites, Central City, Largest SMSA, H.S. Grad.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.20 p < .01
Blacks, Central City, Largest SMSA, H.S. Grad.

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.10 p < .01
Whites, Central City, Next Large SMSA, H.S. Grad.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.15
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.09 ns
Blacks, Central City, Next Large SMSA, H.S. Grad.

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.14 p < .001
Whites, Suburbs, H.S. Grad.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.12 ns
Blacks, Suburbs, H.S. Grad.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.29

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.15 p < .001
Whites, Rural, H.S. Grad.   
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.08
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.17 p < .05
Blacks, Rural, H.S. Grad.

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.20 p < .01
Whites, Central City, Largest SMSA, College
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.29 ns
Blacks, Central City, Largest SMSA, College

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.14 p < .01
Whites, Central City, Next Large SMSA, College
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.03 ns
Blacks, Central City, Next Large SMSA, College

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.23 p < .001
Whites, Suburbs, College
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.11 ns
Blacks, Suburbs, College

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.12 p < .001
Whites, Rural, College
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.19 ns
Blacks, Rural, College

 controled for size of town, age, gender, race 
and education.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl