Correlational finding on Happiness and No particular setting, recruitment on interest
Subject code: H16ae06d

StudyKrejtz et al. (2016): study PL 2016
TitleCounting One's Blessings can reduce the Impact of Daily Stress.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2016, Vol. 17, 25 - 39
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-014-9578-4
DOIdoi: 10.1007/s10902-014-9578-4
PublicParticipants in a gratitude training and controls, Poland, 2016
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =58

Correlate
Author's labelGratitude exercise
Page in Source 28-29,31,33
Our classificationNo particular setting, recruitment on interest, code H16ae06d
Operationalization
1: TREATMENT: Direct question asked each day during 2 
weeks: "There are many things in our lives, both large 
and small, that we might be grateful about. Think back 
over the day and write down on the lines below all that 
you were grateful today." 
Participants could describe up to 6 things for which 
they were grateful.
0 CONTROL Recorded daily affects like the treated 
group, but did not do the gratitude exercise
Observed distributionNumber of daily gratitude statements: M = 4.49 within person variance= 1.13; between person variance= .61
Remarks
Participants were randomly assigned to either treatment 
or control group

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-md-mqr-n-7-ed=+ ns
Across person CHANGE: Treatment (vs control)
- Positive affect: d = +.19 (s?)
- Negative affect: d = +.02 (ns)
Hence non-significant positive effect on Affect 
Balance.
A-AB-md-mqr-n-7-eBeta=+ p < .01
Within person CHANGE in treated group
- Positive affect: Beta= +.58 (01)
- Negative affect: Beta= -.44 (01)
Hence significant positive effect on Affect 
Balance

Cross-lagged analysis does not shown a causal 
effect of gratitude on happiness, but rather from 
happines on gratitude

The study distinguished betweem 'active' and 
'deactive' positive and negative affect and found 
only active positive effect significant (05). The 
above coefficient for total PA and NA were 
computed by the WDH team.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-AB-md-mqr-n-7-eselfreport on 12 questions repeated 14 days

Today I felt
A happy
B proud
C excited/ enthusiastic
D calm
E satisfied
F relaxed
G upset
H stressed
I angry
J sad
K sad
L bored
M disappointed

Rated
1 did not feel this way at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 felt thisd way very strongly
Computation: (A to F)/6 - (G to M)/6


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
dCohen's COEFFICIENT FOR GROUP DIFFERENCES. Also called EFFECT SIZE
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate : dichotomous, Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited.

Meaning: effect size indicator for difference of means.
Formula:
Cohen's d = (M2 - M1) ? SDpooled
SDpooled = ?((SD1^2 + SD2^2) ? 2)
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl