Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Actual changes in happiness

StudyFordyce (1983): study US 1980
TitleA Program to Increase Happiness: Further Studies.
SourceJournal of Counseling Psychology, 1983, Vol. 30, 483 - 498
DOIDOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.30.4.483
PublicStudent participants in a happiness training, USA 198?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =71

Correlate
Author's labelProgram to increase personal happiness
Page in Source 490
Our classificationActual changes in happiness
Operationalization
In the context of a regular course, students were 
introduced in the science of happiness and presented a 
brief overview of the '14 fundamentals', which program 
was presented as 'new information on happiness 
self-help resulting from research'

1  TREATMENT: Additional FULL exposure
Students were additionally given detailed instruction 
in each of the 14 fundamentals and were stimulated to 
practice these behaviors on a daily basis.

0: CONTROL: PARTIAL additional exposure of 4 
fundamentals only
Remarks
The '14 fundamental' behaviours are:
- keep busy and be more ctive
- spend more time socializing
- beproductive at meaningful work
-get better organized and plam
-stop worrying
- lower your expectations
- develop positive thinking
- become present oriented
- work on a healthy personality
- develop an outgoing social personality
- be yourself
- eliminate negative feeling and problems
- close relations are number one for happiness
- put happiness as your number one priority

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-Sum-g-mq-*-111-aDMa=+ ns
Post-test mean LEVEL of happiness, corrected for 
pre-test differences in happiness between treated 
and controls

Treated       Ma = 71,2
Controls      Ma = 67,2
- difference      + 4,0
A-Sum-g-mq-*-111-aD%sr=+3,6
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aDMa=+ ns
Treated       Ma = 7,7
Controls      Ma = 7,4
- difference      +0,3
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aDMa=+ ns
Treated       Ma = 50,5
Controls      Ma = 40,4
- difference       10,1

Net time happy computed by WDH team

Happiness assessed unobtrusively in both groups as 
part of the course work

Pre-post test difference 10 weeks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aD%sr=+3%
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aD%a=+10%


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aSelfreport on single question:

." In general how happy or unhappy do you usually feel....?"
Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic)
9 very happy (feeling really good, elated)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy (just a bit above neutral)
5 neutral (not particularly happy or unhappy)
4 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
3 mildly unhappy (just a little low)
2 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
1 very unhappy (depressed, spirits very low)
0 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

Fordyce Happiness Scale
A-Sum-g-mq-*-111-aSelfreport on two questions:

A
Use the list below to answer the following question: IN GENERAL, HOW HAPPY OR UNHAPPY DO YOU USUALLY FEEL? Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic!)
9 very happy (feeling really good and elated!)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy ( just a bit above neutral)
5 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
4 mildly unhappy (just a bit low)
3 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
2 very unhappy ( depressed, spirits very low)
1 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

B)
Consider your emotions a moment further. On the average, what percentage of the time do you feel Happy? What percent of the time do you feel unhappy? What percent of the time do you feel neutral (neither happy nor unhappy)? Write down your best estimate, as well as you can, in the space below. Make sure the figures add-up to equal 100%
The percent of time I felt happy _____%
The percent of time I felt unhappy _____%
The percent of time I felt neutral _____%

Summation: A + % happy on B

Name: Fordyce's 'Happiness measure'
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

"What percentage of the time would you say you are....?" (Percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Computation: Net Time Happy (NTH) % time happy - % time unhappy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
D%aDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED PERCENTAGES, See also D%
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
D%srDIFFERENCE in % of SCALE RANGE
Scale range = highest theoretical value minus lowest theoretical value
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl