Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Nature in region

StudyWhite et al. (2013): study GB 1991
TitleWould You Be Happier Living in a Greener Urban Area? A Fixed-Effects Analysis of Panel Data.
SourcePsychological Science, 2013, Vol. 24, 920- 928
URLhttp://pss.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/04/23/0956797612464659.abstract
DOIdoi: 10.1177/0956797612464659
Public18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, followed 18 years 1991 - 2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56574

Correlate
Author's labelWater %
Page in Source 923, 925
Our classificationNature in region
Operationalization
Water % of lower-layer super output areas (LSOA's) 
accounted for by water.
Observed distributionMean: 1.73% (6.59)
Remarks
Source: Data from the Generalised Land Use Database 
(GLUD, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, 2005). GLUD 
classifies land use at high geographical resolution 
across England and has been applied to 32,482 
lower-layer super output areas (LSOAs), a standard 
geographic unit used to report small-area statistics. 
LSOA encompass similarly sized populations with each 
containing around 1,500 people. Mean physical area is 
4km2. Area cover approximately 10m2 (2005). Focused 
mainly on BHPS observations (84%). GLUD devides total 
land cover in each LSOA into 9 categories=green space, 
domestic gardens, fresh water, domestic buildings, 
nondomestidc buildings, roads, paths, railways, and 
other.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta-f=+.01 p < .202
Beta-fix controlled for:
- local characterits (LSOA):
  - Green % surface
  - Average income
  - Average employment
  - Average education
  - Crime rate
- individual characteristics
  - Age
  - Education
  - Married
  - Children
  - Household income
  - Heatth limitation
  - Employment
  - Household residence
  - Household space
  - Commuting time

Analysis at diffferent point in time covering both 
people who changed residence and not


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport on single question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta-fREGRESSION COEFICIENT (standardized) in fixed effects analysis
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl