Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyGlenn & Weaver (1981): study US 1973 /1
TitleEducation's Effects on Psychological Well-Being.
SourcePublic Opinion Quarterly, 1981, Vol. 45, 22 - 39
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2748316
Public25-54 aged, general public, ,USA, 1973-1978
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3350

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 26,27
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Years of school completed (number).
       
         
          
         

0. Less than 9 years of school.
1. 12 years or more.    
          

           
             
Having 4 or more years of college relative to having 12 
years of school.
0. 12 years of school.
1. 4 or more years college.




Remarks
             1          2          3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.04 ns
white men:   +.03 (ns)   -.02 (ns)   -.01 (ns) 
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.06 p < .05
white women: +.03 (ns)   +.01 (ns)   -.02 (ns)  
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.03 ns
black men:   +.02 (ns)   -.00 (ns)   +.01 (ns)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.06 ns
black women: +.03 (ns)   +.07 (ns)   +.06 (ns)
                  
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=
white men:   +.02 (ns)   -.01 (ns)   -.02 (ns) 
white women: +.09 (01)   +.07 (05)   +.06 (00) 
black men:   +.02 (ns)   -.05 (ns)   -.02 (ns) 
black women: -.05 (ns)   -.05 (ns)   -.04 (ns)
                
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta= ns
white men:   +.02 (ns)   -.04 (ns)   -.03 (ns) 
white women: +.05 (ns)   +.03 (ns)   +.04 (ns)
black men:   +.08 (ns)   -.00 (ns)   -.04 (ns)
black women: +.18 (ns)   +.15 (ns)   +.16 (ns)

1: Controlled for father's years of school and
    occupational prestige, number of siblings,
    size of community of origin, and age.
2: Controlled for (1) plus family income,
    occupational prestige for men, and work
    status for women.
3: Controlled for (2) plus marital status,
    frequency of attendance at religious
    services, and presence-absence of children in
    each of three age ranges (0-5, 6-12, 13-17).


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl