Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Household income

StudyMolnar (1985): study US 1981
TitleDeterminants of Subjective Well-Being among Farm Operators.
SourceRural Sociology, 1985, Vol. 50, 141 - 162
PublicFarm operators, Alabama, USA, 1981
Sample
Non-Response29,9%
Respondents N =705

Correlate
Author's labelTotal family income
Page in Source 150/156
Our classificationHousehold income
Operationalization
Single closed question: "What is your average annual 
family income, before taxes, over the last three 
years?"
Rated on a 7-point scale, ranging from 'under $ 5,000' 
to '$ 30,000 or more'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.21 p < .05
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aBeta=+.17 p < .05
 controlled for:gross farm sales, percent farm 
income, land operated, off-farm work days, wife's 
work status, growth plans, commitment to farming, 
economic constraints, self-definition, age, and 
education.
When specified for size of farm:
-small   =+.14
-medium  =+.32
-large   =+.08 
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aBeta=+.17 p < .05
 controlled for:
- gross farm sales
- percent farm income
- land operated_
- off-farm work days
- wife's work status
- growth plans
- commitment to farming
- economic constraints
- self-definition
- age
- education

When specified for size of farm:
-small   =+.14
-medium  =+.32
-large   =+.08


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?"
[ 9 ] best life you might expect to have
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst life you might expect to have


Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl