Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Public health in nation

StudyVeenhoven (1984): study ZZ 1974 /1
TitleConditions of Happiness.
SourceKluwer Academic, 1984 (reprint), Dordrecht, The Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84a-con.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, 14 nations and regions, 1974-1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6563

Correlate
Author's labelPublic health expenditure
Page in Source 155
Our classificationPublic health in nation
Operationalization
Data drawn from Kurian (1979:90/91).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-ar=+.69 p < .001
                  Mt happiness   $ Expenditure
                                   per capita
Australia             7.0             293.0
USA                   6.7             218.0
Canada                7.0             413.0
Great Britain         6.8             193.0
France                5.8             340.0
W-Germany             6.6             424.0
Italy                 5.6             137.0
Benelux               6.0             321.0
Scandinavia           7.6             464.0
Brasil                6.2               9.0
Mexico                6.2               8.0
Africa (South
of the Sahara)        4.6               3.0
India                 3.4               1.0
Japan                 5.8             173.0


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"To indicate how you feel about your life at this time, would you use this card? Suppose the top of the mountain represents the best life you can imagine, and the bottom step of the mountain represents the worst possible life you can imagine. On which step of the mountain would you say you personally feel you stand at this time? - assuming that the higher the step the better you feel about your life, and the lower the step the worse you feel about it. Just point to the step that comes closest to how you feel"
10 best possible life
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

(Mountain scale not reproduced here)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl