Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Parliamentary democracy in nation

StudyVeenhoven (1984): study ZZ 1974 /1
TitleConditions of Happiness.
SourceKluwer Academic, 1984 (reprint), Dordrecht, The Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84a-con.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, 14 nations and regions, 1974-1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6563

Correlate
Author's labelLiberal democracy
Page in Source 164
Our classificationParliamentary democracy in nation
Operationalization
Degree to which the political reality in the various 
countries matched the ideal of a parliamentary 
democracy, based on the following indicators:
1.  the constitutional status of the
    regime;
2.  separation between legislative and
    executive powers;
3.  freedom of press;
4.  freedom of opposition;
5.  free elections;
6.  representativeness of the regime;
7.  absence of bans on any political
    party;
8.  existence of a multi party system;
9.  actual interest articulation by
    political parties;
10. actual interest integration in the
    parliament;
11. legislative influence of the
    parliament;
12. dominance of the political leader
    in the country;
13. relative dominance of the biggest
    party;
14. possibilities of opposition and
    coalitions;
15. absence of restrictions for
    minority groups.
Data drawn from Bertand (1981:162).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-ar=+.47 p < .05
                  Mt happiness   Liberal
                                 democracy
Australia             7.0             40.5
USA                   6.7             38.5
Canada                7.0             37.5
Great Britain         6.8             39.5
France                5.8             35.5
W-Germany             6.6             37.5
Italy                 5.6             39.5
Benelux               6.0             43.1
Scandinavia           7.6             42.2
Brasil                6.2             35.5
Mexico                6.2             25.0
Africa (South
of the Sahara)        4.6              9.3
India                 3.4             36.0
Japan                 5.8             38.5


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"To indicate how you feel about your life at this time, would you use this card? Suppose the top of the mountain represents the best life you can imagine, and the bottom step of the mountain represents the worst possible life you can imagine. On which step of the mountain would you say you personally feel you stand at this time? - assuming that the higher the step the better you feel about your life, and the lower the step the worse you feel about it. Just point to the step that comes closest to how you feel"
10 best possible life
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

(Mountain scale not reproduced here)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl