Correlational finding on Happiness and Comparison of specific social categories in nations
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyCargan et al. (1989): study ZZ East-West pairs 1987
TitleLeisure Time and Happiness: A Crosscultural Comparison of East and West.
SourceUnpublished Paper, Wright State University, 1989, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/cargan_l_1989A.pdf
Public21+ aged, married, Japan and USA, 1987
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelNationality
Our classificationComparison of specific social categories in nations, code N10ab02
Operationalization
0 Japanese
1 American

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-g-sq-v-3-aG=+.24 p < .01
Japanese  81% happy
M-TH-g-sq-v-3-atau=+.06 p < .05
Americans 88% happy


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
M-TH-g-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

"How happy are you most of the time.....?"
3 happy
2 neither happy nor unhappy
1 unhappy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl