Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyHerzog et al. (1982): study US 1975
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Different Age Groups.
SourceResearch Report I.S.R., University of Michigan, 1982, Ann Arbor, USA
Public50+ aged, general public, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =410

Correlate
Author's labelActive leisure
Page in Source 84/5
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
During 24-hour period prior to the interview, 
respondents reported each activity they engaged in 
(PARTICIPATION) and the time spend on each activity 
(DURATION) on an activity diary. Activities were coded 
into categories, one of which was "active leisure" such 
as playing games, going for a walk and doing crafts.

Work status was measured by self-labeling by 
respondents and a question about engagement in work for 
pay at present. Self-labeled housewives were excluded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.02 ns
PARTICIPATION:  working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.04 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.07 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.01 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.02 ns
                working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.12 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.12 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta= .00 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.08 ns
DURATION:       working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.12 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.07 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.07 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.11 ns
                working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.06 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.06 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.07 ns
                retired females
 controlled for self-reported health, income and 
age. Relations with 'participation' also controled 
for 'duration' and relations with 'duration' also 
for participation.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl