Correlational finding on Happiness and Misbehavior in school
Subject code: S01ac04

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelTheft and vandalism
Our classificationMisbehavior in school, code S01ac04
Operationalization
A mean of nine items which measure the number of times 
respondent has commited acts of theft or vandalism. 
Scale: 0.00 = never to 4.00 = five or more times. 
Assessed at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
          Theft and vandalism
       T1      T2      T3      T4      T5
Happiness
T1    -.19    -.14    -.13    -.03 ns -.11
T2    -.10    -.13    -.10    -.03 ns -.07 ns
T3    -.06 ns -.09    -.11    -.04 ns -.04 ns
T4    -.04 ns -.04 ns -.06 ns -.04 ns -.03 ns
All tau's significant, unless indicated otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl