Correlational finding on Happiness and Current overall judgements of life as a whole
Subject code: L04ab

StudySeidlitz & Diener (1993): study US 1988 /2
TitleMemory for Positive versus Negative Life Events: Theories for the Differences between Happy and Unhappy Persons.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, 654 - 664
PublicPsychology students, selected for earlier happiness, followed 11 month, USA, 198?-8?
Sample
Non-ResponseDrop-out: T0-T1: 28%, T1-T2: 41%
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with life
Page in Source 661
Our classificationCurrent overall judgements of life as a whole, code L04ab
Operationalization
Diener's 5-item SWLS, items scored on a
7 point scale.
1. In most ways my life is close to
   ideal.
2. The conditions of my life are
   excellent.
3. I am satisfied with my life.
4. So far I have gotten the important
   things I want in life.
5. If I could live my life over, I
   would change almost nothing.

Answer categories:
1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. slightly disagree
4. neither agree nor disagree
5. slightly agree
6. agree
7. strongly agree

Assessed at T1 and T2 
(11 month interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.65 p < .001
T1 happiness with T1 life-satisfaction 
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.52 p < .001
T1 happiness with T2 life-satisfaction 
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.62 p < .001
T2 happiness with T1 life-satisfaction 
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.62 p < .001
T2 happiness with T2 life-satisfaction 


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A: "In general how happy or unhappy do you usually feel? Check the one statement below that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic)
9 very happy (feeling really good, elated)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy (just a bit above neutral)
5 neutral (not particularly happy or unhappy)
4 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
3 mildly unhappy (just a little low)
2 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
1 very unhappy (depressed, spirits very low)
0 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)"

B: "Consider your emotions a moment further. On the average.
- What percent of the time do you feel happy?
- What percent of the time do you feel unhappy?
- What percent of the time do you feel neutral (neither happy
nor unhappy)?
Make sure the three figures add-up to equal 100%".

Scoring:
- Question A : 0.- 10
- Question B : % happy
Summation : (A * 10 + B)/2


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl