Correlational finding on Happiness and Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01g

StudySeidlitz & Diener (1993): study US 1988 /2
TitleMemory for Positive versus Negative Life Events: Theories for the Differences between Happy and Unhappy Persons.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, 654 - 664
PublicPsychology students, selected for earlier happiness, followed 11 month, USA, 198?-8?
Sample
Non-ResponseDrop-out: T0-T1: 28%, T1-T2: 41%
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelBalance of recalled life-events; last yr(checklist)
Page in Source 661
Our classificationBalance of negative- and positive life-events, code L06ab01g
Operationalization
Ss completed a checklist of 80 events on which they 
marked those that had occurred in: 
- T1: events in the last 3 years.
- T2: events in the 3 years before T1. 

Half of the events on the list were 'concrete'; f.e. 
got married or fell ill.
The other half was 'interpretative', f.e. improved 
character or received support

Half of the events were 'positive', 
the other half 'negative.

Assessed at T1 and T2 (11 month interval). 
At both assesments events in the same period were 
enumerated. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.20 ns
T1 happiness (earlier)
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.15 ns
T2 happiness (current)


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A: "In general how happy or unhappy do you usually feel? Check the one statement below that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic)
9 very happy (feeling really good, elated)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy (just a bit above neutral)
5 neutral (not particularly happy or unhappy)
4 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
3 mildly unhappy (just a little low)
2 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
1 very unhappy (depressed, spirits very low)
0 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)"

B: "Consider your emotions a moment further. On the average.
- What percent of the time do you feel happy?
- What percent of the time do you feel unhappy?
- What percent of the time do you feel neutral (neither happy
nor unhappy)?
Make sure the three figures add-up to equal 100%".

Scoring:
- Question A : 0.- 10
- Question B : % happy
Summation : (A * 10 + B)/2


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl