Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Jealous

StudySmith et al. (1999): study US 1997
TitleDispositional Envy.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1999, Vol. 25, 1007 - 1020
DOIDOI:10.1177/01461672992511008
PublicUndergraduate students, USA, 1999
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =130

Correlate
Author's labelDispositional Envy Scale (DES)
Our classificationJealous
Operationalization
Dispositional Envy Scale (DES), consisting of 8 items:
1. I feel envy every day
2. The bitter truth is that I generally feel inferior 
to others
3. Feelings of envy constantly torment me
4. It is so frustrating to see some people succeed so 
easily
5. No matter what I do, envy always plagues me 
6. I am troubled by feelings of inadequacy
7. It somehow doesn't seem fair that some people seem 
to have all the talent
8. Frankly, the success of my neighbours makes me 
resent them
Remarks
The authors stress that "envy" is different from 
"jealousy" Envy involves two people and corresponds to 
the feeling aroused when one person desires another's 
advantage. Jealousy involves three people and 
corresponds to the feelings aroused when one person 
fears losing a special relation to a rival.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-Sum-g-mq-*-111-ar=-.35 p < .001
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aar=-.32 p < .001
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-abr=-.25 p < .01


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-Sum-g-mq-*-111-aSelfreport on two questions:

A
Use the list below to answer the following question: IN GENERAL, HOW HAPPY OR UNHAPPY DO YOU USUALLY FEEL? Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic!)
9 very happy (feeling really good and elated!)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy ( just a bit above neutral)
5 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
4 mildly unhappy (just a bit low)
3 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
2 very unhappy ( depressed, spirits very low)
1 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

B)
Consider your emotions a moment further. On the average, what percentage of the time do you feel Happy? What percent of the time do you feel unhappy? What percent of the time do you feel neutral (neither happy nor unhappy)? Write down your best estimate, as well as you can, in the space below. Make sure the figures add-up to equal 100%
The percent of time I felt happy _____%
The percent of time I felt unhappy _____%
The percent of time I felt neutral _____%

Summation: A + % happy on B

Name: Fordyce's 'Happiness measure'
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaSelfreport on three questions:

'On the average, what percentage of the time do you feel….…' (percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Name: Fordyce % happy scale
Variant: % happy
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-abSelfreport on three questions:

'On the average, what percentage of the time d you feel….…' (percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Name: Fordyce % happy scale
Variant: % unhappy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl