Findings on Happiness and GENDER

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and main subject: GENDER

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Nr of Studieson subject
4 GENDER
799   Sex (male vs female)
1     Time trend of happiness in males and females
    Cross national variation in gender difference in happiness
4   Gender roles
17     Gender-role attitudes
  Intersexe
1   Gender preference, non-conforming gender identity
1     Non-binary
4     Transgender
1       Legalized gender change
1     Travestite
4   Gender discrimination
2   Gender attitudes
1     Opennes about gender transition

Appendices
Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
Appendix 2: Statistics used
Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 4: Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 5: Related Subjects

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and GENDER
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=0041
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2021, Netherlands


Correlational finding on Happiness and GENDER

StudyIasio Di (2018): study ZZ Former sovjet states 2013
TitleMigration And The Well-Being of People Left Behind: Evidence from Armenia And Georgia
SourceWorking Paper, 2018,, Universita degli Studi dell'Insubria, Project: Migration and the well-being of people left behind: evidence from Armenia and Georgia ,Varese, Italy
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/project/Migration-and-the-well-being-of-people-left-behind-evidence-from-Armenia-and-Georgia
PublicPeople left behind after migration, Former Sovjet States, Multiple nations, 2013 - 2015
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8079

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 33-35
Our classificationGENDER
Operationalization
1= male
0= female

Poverty line: 60% of the median of the distribution of 
the Multidimensional Index, with M= 2.26 and SD= 4.03, 
which includes indicators about Health, Nutrition, 
Skills, Durable Goods, Services, Wealth and Leisure.
Observed distribution1= 69.29% (Armenia =66.28%, Georgia=62.62%)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abBeta=+.09 p < .01
Dependent: people with life satisfaction score < 5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abBeta=-.06 p < .01
Dependent: people above poverty line AND life 
satisfaction score < 5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abBeta=-.06 p < .01
Dependent: people below poverty line AND life 
satisfaction score > 5

beta's adjusted for:
- migration of relatives
- remittances from abroad
- employment
- marital status
- elementary education
- tertiary education
- monthly household income>100$
- age
- square age
- urban
- rural
- household's minors
- household's members
- ethnicity
- poor_relcond


Correlational finding on Happiness and GENDER

StudyArampatzi et al. (2015): study ZZ EU28 2008
TitleFinancial Distress and Happiness of Employees Times of Economic Crisis
SourceApplied Economics Letters,2015, Vol. 22, 173-179
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/272122643_Financial_Distress_and_Happiness_of_Employees_in_Times_of_Economic_Crisis
DOIdoi:org/10.1080/13504851.2014.931916
PublicEmployed adults, EU28, multiple nations, 2008-2012
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =50268

Correlate
Author's labelFemale
Page in Source 8
Our classificationGENDER
Operationalization
0= Female
1= Male
Observed distribution0 = 48%
Remarks
coding and thus sign reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.05 p < .01
OPRC controlled for:
- gdp per capita
- inflation
- unemployment rate
- marital status
- age
- number of children
- blue collar/low skilled labour
- financial situation
- financial expectations next year
- region dummies
- year dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and GENDER

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source question 115
Our classificationGENDER
Operationalization
Respondent's gender:
1 male
2 female
Observed distributionN = 1: 41% 2: 59%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=
1: M = 2,61
2: M = 2,46


Correlational finding on Happiness and GENDER

StudyDemir et al. (2007): study US 2007
TitleLooking to HappyTomorrows with Friends: Best and Close Friendships as They Predict Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 243 - 271
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-006-9025-2
Public18+ aged, university students, USA
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =280

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 256
Our classificationGENDER
Operationalization
0 = male
1 = female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cm-mq-v-5-er=.03 ns
PA
A-BW-cm-mq-v-5-er=.09 ns
NA


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHeadey & Wooden (2005): study 2006
TitleThe Importance of Wealth for Subjective Well-Being.
SourceThe economic record, 2004, 80, S23-S33
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp1032.pdf
DOIdoi:.org/10.1111/j.1475-4932.2004.00181.x
Public60+ aged visitors of a university geriatric polyclinic, Campinas state,Brazil 2006-2007
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =125

Correlate
Author's labelmales/females
Page in Source 106
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 males
0 females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-3-dDM=+ p < .15
males     M = 2,48 SD = 0.65
females   M = 2,29 SD = 0,71
- difference +0,19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyAsendorpf (2008): study 2000
TitleLiving Apart Together: Eine eigenständige Lebensform? (LAT: A Independent Way of Life?)
SourceWorking Paper 78, SOEP, 2008, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/78210/diw_sp0078.pdf
Public18+ aged, Germany, followed 6 years, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13541

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 19, 47
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMs=-
SINGLES:
Males:       Ms=5.9
Females:     Ms=6.4
 -difference:  -0.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMs=-
LIVING APART TOGETHER:
Males:       Ms=6.4
Females:     Ms=6.6
 -difference:  -0.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMs=-
COHABITING:
Males:       Ms=6.4
Females:     Ms=6.7
 -difference:  -0.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMs=+
MARRIED:
Males:       Ms=6.9
Females:     Ms=6.8
 -difference:  +0.1

Ms controlled for:
- age
- number of children
- education
- prestige of profession
- size of city of residence


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyRohe & Stegman (1994): study 1992
TitleThe Effects of Homeownership: on the Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Life Satisfaction of Low-Income People.
SourceJournal of the American Planning Association,1994, Vol. 60, 173 - 184
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944369408975571#.U-ipnIccTDA
DOIDOI:10.1080/01944369408975571
PublicHome buyers and controls, Baltimore, USA, followed 18 months 1992-93
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 178,181
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female
Remarks
T1-T2 interval= 18 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-faBeta=-.03 ns
T2 happiness by gender
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (to capture change in happiness 
after purchase of house)
- Personal characteristics:
  - Age
  - Marital status 
  - Education
  - Income
  - Occupational status
 Housing situation:
  - Owner of the house 
  - Housing type 
  - Satisfaction with neighborhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study AF 2003
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), Afghanistan, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =607

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,111-112
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=+.16 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.55 p < .01
Marrieds only

OLRC's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
  - Satisfaction with other life domains
  - Access to public services:
    - water supply
    - electricity
    - piped gas
  - lifestyle characteristics:
    - religion
    - living internationally
    - English ability
    - homeownership
    - number of family members
    - relative standard of living
    - no right to vote
  - Socioeconomic status:
    - gender
    - marital status
    - age
    - income
    - educational attainment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLitchfield et al. (2012): study AL 2005
TitleAn Analysis of Life Satisfaction in Albania: An Heteroscedastic Ordered Probit Model Approach.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2012, Vol. 81, 731 - 741
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2010.12.020
PublicWorking aged (15-65), Albania, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2923

Correlate
Author's labelMale
Page in Source 26, 28
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Observed distributionM = 1: 0.57; 0: 0.43

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-iOPRC=-.21 p < .05
OPRC contolled for:
- employment
- education
- illness
- religion
- marital status
- household status
- age
- lnprcons (2002 leks)
- transfers
- nchildr
- nfriends
- pyramid
- livealone
- insidewc
- dwelling size
- land dispute
- thefts
- pop_increase
- comm_org
- location


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBecchetti & Conzo (2010): study AR Buenos Aires 2009
TitleMicrofinance and Happiness.
SourceUniverstiy of Rome ''tor Vergata'', Working Paper, 2010, No. 69
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/ris/aiccon/2010_069.html
Public18+ aged, low income households, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =360

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 23,24
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female
Remarks
In original: Female. Order changed by WDH team.

The sample was composed of:
150 clients of a microfinance organization
150 eligible, but non clients
60 dropouts (past clients of microfinance organization)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=-.14 ns
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.07 ns
B and OPRC controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - marital status
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - village
  - education
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size

No significant change when B and OPRC additionally 
controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present)
- microfinance loan (present or past)
- credit cycle


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyZubieta et al. (2012): study AR Buenos Aires 2007
TitleBienestar Subjetivo y psicosocial: Explorando Diferencias de Género (Subjective and Psychosocial Well-Being: Exploring Gender Differences).
SourceSalud & Sociedad, 2012, Vol. 3, 66 - 76
PublicUniversity students, Argentina, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =696

Correlate
Author's labelgender
Page in Source 72-73
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Observed distributionN= 1 : 238 0 : 458

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-V-u-sq-v-7-aDM=- ns
Males      M = 5,00  SD = 1,22
Females    M = 5,08  SD = 1,25
-difference   -0,08
O-SLC-u-sq-v-7-aDM=+ ns
Males      M = 4,87  SD = 1,21
Females    M = 4,77  SD = 1,31
-difference   +0,10
O-SLu-u-sq-v-7-aDM=+ ns
Males      M = 5,39  SD = 1,12
Females    M = 5,28  SD = 1,33
-difference   +0,11
M-FH-g-sq-v-11-aDM=+ ns
Males      M = 7,11  SD = 1,64
Females    M = 6,96  SD = 1,84
-difference   +0,15
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-acDM=+ ns
Males      M = 3,21  SD = 0,61
Females    M = 3,16  SD = 0,58
-difference   +0,05
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-aDM=- ns
Males      M = 7,69  SD = 1,56
Females    M = 7,87  SD = 1,55
-difference   -0,08


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyRodriguez DelaVega (2004): study AR Buenos Aires 2004
TitleApplication of the Well Being Index in Immigrants in Argentina.
SourcePaper ISQOLS Conference, 2004, Philadelphia, USA
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/rodriguesdelavega_l_2004.pdf
Public19+ aged, immigrants, Buenos Aires, Argentina,2004
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =151

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 11
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-101-aDM=+
males     M=63.6 sd=16.9
females   M=63.4 sd=21.5
- difference 0.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AR 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
1       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
1       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.11      Mt=6.1
1       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.09 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCummins et al. (2004a): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 10, Report 10.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Health and Body Weight.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response89%
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 128
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male
Observed distributionN = 0: 1022, 1: 951

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=- p < .019
0 Mt = 7,84; SD = 1,63
1 Mt = 7,63; SD = 1,76
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=- p < .025
0 Mt = 7,97; SD = 1,35
1 Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,48


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1997

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source B40
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0:female
1:male
Observed distributionN = 0:1003, 1:971

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
0 Mt = 8,04; SD = 1,58
1 Mt = 7,80; SD = 1,69


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source B32+35
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male
Observed distributionN = 0: 1011, 1: 978

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=- p < .035
All
0 Mt = 7,85; SD = 1,62
1 Mt = 7,69; SD = 1,73
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=- p < .070
18-25 years
0 Mt = 7,54; SD = 1,75; N = 91
1 Mt = 7,05; SD = 2,01; N = 107
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=- p < .054
26-35 years
0 Mt = 7,57; SD = 1,71; N = 131
1 Mt = 7,21; SD = 1,80; N = 131
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=- p < .097
36-45 years
0 Mt = 7,52; SD = 1,74; N = 188
1 Mt = 7,21; SD = 1,80; N = 188
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=- p < .374
 46-55 years
0 Mt = 7,43; SD = 1,68; N = 191
1 Mt = 7,27; SD = 1,89; N = 198
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=- p < .006
56-65 years
0 Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,59; N = 174
1 Mt = 7,29; SD = 1,96; N = 167
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=- p < .130
66-75 years
0 Mt = 8,14; SD = 1,41; N = 126
1 Mt = 7,81; SD = 1,78; N = 101
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=- p < .106
76+ years
0 Mt = 7,73; SD = 2,06; N = 94
1 Mt = 8,02; SD = 1,76; N = 76


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source B36
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male
Remarks
Combined surveys 10&11

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=- p < .009
18-25 years
0 Mt = 7,73; SD = 1,51; N = 180
1 Mt = 7,29; SD = 1,77; N = 207
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=- p < .000
26-35 years
0 Mt = 7,79; SD = 1,46; N = 280
1 Mt = 7,31; SD = 1,64; N = 263
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=- p < .037
36-45 years
0 Mt = 7,64; SD = 1.52; N = 374
1 Mt = 7,39; SD = 1,71; N = 371
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=- p < .152
46-55 years
0 Mt = 7,61; SD = 1,59; N = 384
1 Mt = 7,44; SD = 1,69; N = 376
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=- p < .013
56-65 years
0 Mt = 7,87; SD = 1,56; N = 371
1 Mt = 7,56; SD = 1,75; N = 339
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=- p < .023
66-75 years
0 Mt = 8,27; SD = 1,27; N = 237
1 Mt = 7,96; SD = 1,62; N = 209
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=+ p < .640
76+ years
0 Mt = 8,07; SD = 1,69; N = 178
1 Mt = 8,16; SD = 1,70; N = 149


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHeadey (2008b): study AU 2004
TitleThe Set-Point Theory of Well-Being: Negative Results and Consequent Revisions.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 85, 389 - 403
DOIDOI:10.1007/s1205-007-9134-2
Public15+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =12408

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 223, 224
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1:.males
0: females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-aDM=-
Males:   M = 7,9
Females: M = 8,0
-differenc  -0,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCummins et al. (2003d): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 7, Report 7.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. The Effect of Work.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response85%
Respondents N =1993

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 100
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: female
2: male
Observed distributionN = 1: 1006, 2: 959

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=- p < .039
1: Mt = 7,90; SD = 1,62
2: Mt = 7,74; SD = 1,73


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCummins et al. (2003a): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 5, Report 5.0. The Wellbeing of Autralians: 1. Personal Finances 2. The Impact of the Bali Bombing.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1979

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 79
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 :Female 
2 :Male
Observed distributionN = 1: 1005 ; 2 : 973

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=- p < .072
1 Mt =7,88 ; SD =1,66
2 Mt =7,75 ; SD =1,67


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCummins et al. (2003b): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey, Report 8.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Feeling Connected to Australia.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, November 2003, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response83%
Respondents N =1980

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 98
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: female
2: male
Observed distributionN = 1: 1011, 2: 969

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=- p < .006
1 Mt = 7,90; SD = 1,64
2 Mt = 7,69; SD = 1,75
M-AC-g-sq-n-11-aDMt=- p < .000
1 Mt = 7,85; SD = 1,48
2 Mt = 7,50; SD = 1,57
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=- p < .000
1 Mt = 7.99; SD = 1,45
2 Mt = 7,73; SD = 1,52
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=
                male              female

age 18-25 M= 7,85; SD= 1,31; M= 7,97; SD= 1,59
age 26-35 M= 7,56; SD= 1,57; M=80,77; SD= 1,12
age 36-45 M= 7,57; SD= 1,38; M= 7,91; SD= 1,38
age 46-55 M= 7,52; SD= 1,59; M= 7,60; SD= 1,74
age 56-65 M= 7,76; SD= 1,51; M= 7,91; SD= 1,47
age 66-75 M= 8,20; SD= 1,52; M= 8,48; SD= 1,20
age 76+   M= 8,16; SD= 1,45; M= 8,49; SD= 1,22
M-AC-g-sq-n-11-aDMt=
               male               female

age 18-25 M= 7,54; SD= 1,39; M= 7,68; SD= 1,60
age 26-35 M= 7,27; SD= 1,57; M= 7,88; SD= 1,23
age 36-45 M= 7,28; SD= 1,55; M= 7,73; SD= 1,45
age 46-55 M= 7,45; SD= 1,66; M= 7,56; SD= 1,69
age 56-65 M= 7,51; SD= 1,54; M= 7,83; SD= 1,51
age 66-75 M= 7,94; SD= 1,47; M= 8,36; SD= 1,18
age 76+   M= 8,07; SD= 1,41; M= 8,34; SD= 1,33


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCummins et al. (2004c): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Report 9.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Effects of Household Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1897

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 95+114
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: female
2: male
Observed distributionN = 1: 966, 2: 931

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cDMt= p < .097
1 Mt = 7,83; SD = 1,71
2 Mt = 7,70; SD = 1,67
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cF=56,9 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHeadey & Wooden (2004): study AU 2002
TitleThe Effects of Wealth and Income on Subjective Well-Being and Ill-Being.
SourceEconomic Record, 2004, Vol. 80, 24 - 33
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-4932.2004.00181.x/abstract
Public20-59 aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7934

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 22
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=+.93 p < .01
B controlled for:
 - equivalised income
 - net worth
 - age 
 - partnered
 - educational attainment
 - employment status
 - disability status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCummins et al. (2003a): study AU 2002
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 5, Report 5.0. The Wellbeing of Autralians: 1. Personal Finances 2. The Impact of the Bali Bombing.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response75%
Respondents N =1999

Correlate
Author's labelMale sexe
Page in Source 98+65+68
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 :Female
2 :Male
Observed distributionN = 1 : 997 , 2 : 969

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=- p < .004
All:
1  Mt =7,88; SD =1,73 
2  Mt =7,65; SD =1,71
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=- p < .009
Ss who live alone
1  Mt = 7,77  SD = 1,81
2  Mt = 7,21  SD = 1,95
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=- p < .039
Ss who worry and live alone
1  Mt = 7,33  SD  = 2,04
2  Mt = 6,51  SD  = 2,11


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHeadey & Wooden (2004a): study AU 2002
TitleThe Importance of Wealth for Subjective Well-Being.
SourceThe economic record, 2004, 80, S23-S33
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp1032.pdf
DOIdoi:.org/10.1111/j.1475-4932.2004.00181.x
Public25-59 aged general public, Australia, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7934

Correlate
Author's labelsex
Page in Source 23
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female
Remarks
Order reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=-.10
Findings on page 12
males   M  =  7,65
females M  =  7,75
difference = -0,10
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=-.93 p < .00
b controled for:
- equivalized income
- log net worth
- Age (+ squared)
- Partnered
- Educational attainment
- Employment status
- Disability status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study AU 2002
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Australia 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11755

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 16
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=-.70 p < .01
B controlled for
- equivalised income
- net worth
- age
- partnered
- education
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCummins et al. (2001): study AU 2001 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 2, Report 1.
SourceAustralian Centre on Quality of Life, 2001, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response90%
Respondents N =2004

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 32
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male
Observed distributionN = 0: 1269, 1: 735

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=-
0 Mt = 8,09; SD = 1,83
1 Mt = 7,84; SD = 1,96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCummins et al. (2001): study AU 2001
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 2, Report 1.
SourceAustralian Centre on Quality of Life, 2001, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 13
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male
Observed distributionN = 0: 1158, 1: 841

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
0 Mt = 7,68; SD = 1,91
1 Mt = 7,36; SD = 2,03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCummins et al. (2001b): study AU 2001
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 2, Report 2. Special Report on Income and Geographic Location.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2001, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response90%
Respondents N =2004

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 36
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
Victoria
0 Mt = 7,86, SD = 1,91, N = 104
1 Mt = 7,79, SD = 1,89, N =  58
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
New South Wales
0 Mt = 7,80, SD = 1,99, N = 130
1 Mt = 7,53, SD = 1,99, N = 100
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
Queensland
0 Mt = 7,76, SD = 2,13, N = 123
1 Mt = 7,69, SD = 2,20, N = 61
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
South Australia
0 Mt = 7,86, SD = 1,90, N = 109
1 Mt = 7,57, SD = 1,84, N = 58
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
West Australia
0 Mt = 7,86, SD = 1,74, N = 112
1 Mt = 7,24, SD = 3,37, N =  71


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyO'Brien & Webbie (2004): study AU 2001
TitleHealth, Well-Being and Body Weight. Characteristics of Overweight and Obesity in Australia.
SourceAustralian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2004, Bulletin No. 13, Canberra, Australia
URLhttp://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=6442467582
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =26900

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 females
1 males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-cy-sq-v-7-aD%=-
Healthy weight females are happier than healthy 
weight males, but overweight females are less 
happy than overweight males.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySchurer & Yong (2012): study AU 2001
TitlePersonality, well-being and the marginal utility of income: What can we learn from random Coefficient models?
SourceHEDG WP 12/01, 2012, York, UK
URLhttp://www.york.ac.uk/media/economics/documents/herc/wp/12_01.pdf
Public20-60 aged general public, followed 9 years, Australia, 2001-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7158

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness
Page in Source 10-11
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: males
0: females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Men:     Mean: 7.8; SD: 1.4
Women:   Mean: 7.9; SD: 1.4
- difference  -0,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyPaul & Guilbert (2013): study AU 2001
TitleIncome-Happiness Paradox in Australia: Testing the Theories of Adaptation and Social Comparison.
SourceEconomic Modeling, 2013, Vol. 30, 900 - 910
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2012.08.034
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8530

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 905
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1) male
0) female
Remarks
Coding reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.11 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- Household income
- Past household income
- Reference group income
- Age
- Education level
- Employment status
- Health
- Living in/outside city
- Indiginous
- Marital status
- Parents together
- Volunteering
- Care performed
- Working hours
- Commuting


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in Australia
Page in Source 427, 436, 438, 441
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
States and territories in Australia:
a) New South Wales
b) Victoria
c) Queensland
d) South Australia
e) Western Australia
f) Tasmania
g) Northern territory
h) ACT (Canberra)
Observed distributiona) 31%, b) 26%, c) 19%, d) 10%, e) 9%, f) 3%, g) 2%, h) 1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=
                  Males   Females   Total
New South Wales   7.89    8.03      7.96
Victoria          7.96    8.00      7.98
Queensland        7.84    7.96      7.90
South Australia   7.98    8.15      8.07
Western Australia 7.82    7.99      7.91
Tasmania          8.03    8.22      8.13
Northern Territory7.90    7.84      7.87
ACT (Canberra)    7.84    7.64      7.74
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=
                  Males       Females  
New South Wales   -------------(reference)     
Victoria          +.04(ns)    +.02(ns)      
Queensland        -.07(.1)    -.08(.05)      
South Australia   +.02(ns)    +.06(ns)      
Western Australia -.06(ns)    -.10(.05)     
Tasmania          +.07(ns)    +.13(ns)      
Northern Territory-.08(ns)    -.32(.05)      
ACT (Canberra)    -.04(ns)    -.20(.05)

OPRC's controlled for:
- remoteness of place of residence
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) unemployment rate
  b) rate of single parents
  c) rate of immigrants from non-English 
     speaking countries
  d) rate of home owners
  e) rate of employees working in a 
     professional occupation
  f) aged 65 years and over
- age and age squared
- marital status
- number of children
- number of adults in household
- being an Aborginal/Torres Strait Islander
- being an immigrant
- English speaking ability
- health
- education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=
                  Males       Females  
New South Wales   -------------(reference)     
Victoria          +.06(ns)    +.02(ns)      
Queensland        -.06(ns)    -.08(.1)      
South Australia   +.06(ns)    +.07(ns)      
Western Australia -.04(ns)    -.10(.05)     
Tasmania          +.10(ns)    +.14(.1)      
Northern Territory-.00(ns)    -.29(.1)     
ACT (Canberra)    +.02(ns)    -.19(.05)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- 3 additional neighbourhood characteristics
  g) social interaction and social support
  h) local disamenity
  i) insecurity in the neighbourhood
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=
                  Males       Females  
New South Wales   -------------(reference)     
Victoria          +.05(ns)    +.02(ns)      
Queensland        -.05(ns)    -.07(.1)      
South Australia   +.06(ns)    +.07(ns)      
Western Australia -.04(ns)    -.10(.05)     
Tasmania          +.08(ns)    +.14(.1)      
Northern Territory-.00(ns)    -.29(.1)     
ACT (Canberra)    +.01(ns)    -.19(.05)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- duration of living in residence
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=
                  Males       Females   
New South Wales   -------------(reference)     
Victoria          +.05(ns)    +.04(ns)      
Queensland        -.04(ns)    -.08(.1)      
South Australia   +.01(ns)    +.02(ns)      
Western Australia -.09(ns)    -.09(.1)     
Tasmania          +.10(ns)    +.12(ns)      
Northern Territory-.22(ns)    -.40(.01)     
ACT (Canberra)    -.08(ns)    -.21(.05)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- relative income
instead of:
- duration of living in residence


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyNikolaev (2018): study AU 2001
TitleDoes Higher Education Increase Hedonic and Eudaimonic Happiness?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2018, Vol. 19, 483 - 504
URLhttps://doi .org/10.1007 /s10902-016-9833-y
PublicWorking aged (22-65), Australia, followed 12 years, 2001-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =126265

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 494
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Error Estimatess.e.= 0.0171
Remarks
Order of operationalization and hence association 
reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-v-6-gBeta=- p < .01
Positive affect: Beta = -.07 (01)
Negative affect: Beta = +.15 (01)
Correlation with Affect Balance hence negative
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.14 p < .01
Betas controlled for:
- age + age squared
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- individual labor income (log)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCummins et al. (2005): study AU 2001
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Report 12.1. Special report on City and Country Living.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2005, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =24000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 48
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0:female
1:male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
In highly accessible cities
0 Mt = 7,84; SD = 1,72; N = 9982
1 Mt = 7,64; SD = 1,73; N = 8676
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
0>1
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
In accessible cities
0 Mt = 7,90; SD = 1,73; N = 1374
1 Mt = 7,76; SD = 1,75; N = 1644
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
In moderately accessible cities
0 Mt = 7,98; SD = 1,68; N = 526
1 Mt = 7,89; SD = 1,83; N = 460
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT= ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
In remote cities
0 Mt = 7,75; SD = 1,84; N = 128
1 Mt = 7,36; SD = 2,12; N =  98
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT= ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT= ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
In very remote cities
0 Mt = 7,87; SD = 1,82; N = 188
1 Mt = 7,54; SD = 1,90; N = 162


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public45+ aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 17.20
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female
Observed distributionmale 47.0%; female 53%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.21 p < .01
OPRC controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Aboriginal identity
 - Immigrant
 - English ability
 - Marital status
 - Parent status
 - Number of children
 - Health condition
 - Education levels
 - Employment status
 - Household income (ln)
 - Importance of religion
 - Living years
 - Others present
 - Personality
 - Major city
 - Local status
-Environment
 - Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (°C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyVuletic (2003): study AU 1998
TitleSubjective Quality of Life and Self Assessed Social Support among Croation Immigrants in Australia: A Comparison with Non-Immigrant Croations and Australians.
SourcePaper presented at ISQOLS Conference Frankfurt, 2003, Germany
PublicCroatian immigrants, Urban areas of Australia, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =179

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Female
2 Male
Observed distribution%N: 2=38.8, 1=61.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=-
     M     Mt     CI95
1:  3.84  5.69  [5.13;6.25]
2:  3.79  5.57  [4.97;6.16]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aChi²=.07 p < .078


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study AU 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2925

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Error Estimatess.e.=.057
Remarks
Recoded by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.05 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelMale
Page in Source 36,44,47,50,52,54,55,57
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 : Male
0 : Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bDMt=-0.2 p < .05
Happiness recoded to a 0-10 scale (Mt).
- Males   Mt=7.3
- Females Mt=7.1
Difference -0.2
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=-1.2 p < .05
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=-.03 p < .05
B and Beta controlled for:
- Migration history
- Family of origin:
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=-1.4 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=-.04 p < .05
B and beta additionally controlled for:
- Current family situation:
  - Marital status
  - Family size
- Age
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=-2.2 p < .05
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=-.06 p < .05
Instead of marital status and family size B and 
beta additionally controlled for:
- Current family situation:
  - Number of offspring
  - Quality of marriage
- Age

B and beta not significant when additionally 
controlled for:
- Current family situation:
  - Marital status
  - Family size
- Religious involvement:
  - Church attendance (ln)
  - Religious denomination
  - Charity work
- Work status:
  - Volunteer work (hours)
  - Education
  - Family income (ln)
  - Labour force participation
  - Spouse in labour force
  - Occupational status
  - Job security
  - Unemployed
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-b
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-b
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-b
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-b
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-b
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-b
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-b


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHeadey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDimensions of Mental Health: Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, Anxiety and Depression.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 29, 63 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01136197
Public18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =419

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 76
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: Female
1: Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=-.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyFeather & O'Brien (1986): study AU 1980
TitleA Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Employment and Unemployment on School-Leavers.
SourceJournal of Occupational Psychology, 1986, Vol. 59, 121 -144
PublicSchool-leavers, Australia, followed 2 years,1980-1982
Sample
Non-ResponseT2: 25%, T3: 34%
Respondents N =5446

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 136
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0  Females 
1  Males
Remarks
Level of happiness at T1(1980), T2(1981) and T3(1982).


                                                
T1 happiness by male sex (sample A):
                 female     male       difference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-mq-n-24-aF=+
happiness at T1  Mt'= 6.58  Mt'= 6.67     +.09

T3 happiness by male sex (sample D):
                 female     male       difference
A-AOL-g-mq-n-24-aF=-
happiness at T3  Mt'= 6.54  Mt'= 6.50     -.04

T2 and T3 happiness by male sex (sample A+B):
                 female     male       difference
A-AOL-g-mq-n-24-aF=+ ns
happiness at T2  Mt'= 6.18  Mt'= 6.21     +.03
happiness at T3  Mt'= 6.25  Mt'= 6.26     +.01
Interaction sex x time (non-significant):
T2 to T3              +.07       +.05     -.02

Significance assessed by variance-analysis, also 
involving employment.

The original depression score is ranging from 
4 to 28. Mt' is standardized into a happpiness 
score (0-10 and reversed)

Possible testing effects checked by comparing 
three sub-samples:
- sample A: selected at T1, tested at T1, T2, T3
- sample B: selected at T1, tested at T2 and T3
- sample C: selected at T1, tested at T3 only
At T3 happiness appeared lower in sample A than in 
sample B, but there is little evidence for 
systematic testing effects.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLeisure Development Cen (1980): study AU 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1104

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 41/5
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 female 
1 male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.04 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=-.09 p < .01
%very happy:
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=-.05 p < .01
males  : 44
females: 48
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.03 ns
males  : 37
females: 33 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study AU 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Australia, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =945

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 130
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Females
1 Males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.05 ns
0                             M'=1.98  Mt'=4.9
1                                2.04      5.2
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.08 ns
                       
                           


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study AT 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Austria, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7007

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 7,95
girls:            M = 7,09
-difference:        + 0,86 (.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4     11,1   7,1  15,1   - 7,9(.05)
5-6     13,4   9,6  17,2   - 7,6(.05)
7-8     35,8  36,1  35,5   + 0,5(ns)
9-10    39,7  47,2  32,2   +15,0(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGehmacher (1992b): study AT 1992
TitleCoping, Happiness and Ideology. Some Suggestions for the Application of Happiness Research in Politicological Research.
SourcePaper Presented at the International Conference "Towards the Good Society: Applying the Social Sciences", 1992, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1992
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1553

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 13
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.00
ß controled for age, education, work status and 
home ownership.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySchulz et al. (1997): study AT 1992
TitleThema Kunst: Zur sozialen und ökonomischen Lage der bildenden Künstler und Künstlerinnen in Österreich. (Socio-Economic Situation of Artists in Austria).
SourceFalter Verlag, 1997, Vienna, Austria
PublicArtists, Austria, 199?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response388
Respondents N =1812

Correlate
Author's labelSexe
Page in Source 201
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1460

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
1       M=3.22     Mt=7.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.41      Mt=6.0
1       M=6.68      Mt=6.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.64      Mt=6.6
1       M=1.97      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.08 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.08 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.08 p < .01
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGehmacher (1990): study AT 1988
TitleStressbewältigung und Selbstbestimtheit. (Coping with Stress and Locus of Control).
SourceStart und Aufstieg, 1990, Vol. 3, 13 - 14
PublicRailway employees, Austria, 1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =68

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source (17)
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1. female
2. male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=+.20
1. M'=1.80
2. M'=2.51


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGehmacher (1987a): study AT 1987
TitleGebaute Gemeinschaft. (Builded Community).
SourceSWS Rundschau, 1987, Vol. 27, 147 - 156
URLhttp://www.sws-rundschau.at/
PublicResidents housing estates, Vienna, Austria, 1987
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =218

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 151
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
Remarks
ß controled for age, posymaterialism, physical health, 
mental health, education, occupational status and 
satisfactions (with housing, leisure, social contacts 
and actitities).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.01
O-HL-cm-sq-v-5-ar=+.00
O-HL-cm-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.04 ns
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGehmacher (1986): study AT 1986
TitleGlück als Mathematische Gleichung. (Happiness as a Mathematical Equation).
SourceStart und Aufstieg: die Zeitschrift des Berufsförderungsinstituts, Austria, 1986, 8 - 9
PublicAdults, age range not reported, general public, Austria, 1985
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1814

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 9
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-6-ar=-.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyDantine (1985): study AT 1985
TitleSoziologische und Psychologische Ursachen des Wertwandel Phänomens. (Sociological and Psychological Determinants of Value Change).
SourceResearch Report, Institut für Empirische Sozialforschung, IFES, 1985, Vienna, Austria
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/fessel_wd_1985.pdf
Public14+ aged, general public, Austria, 1985
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1027

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 111
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-dG=+.01 ns
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-dtc=+.01 ns
% often happy
females: 48
males:   47


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 30,48,T21
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Females
1 Males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.07
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aG=-.19 p < .05
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-atc=-.13 p < .05
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aG=+.09 p < .01
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-atc=+.06 p < .01
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aBeta= ns
ß controlled for: age, marital status, education, 
professional status, income, and community size
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta= ns
ß controlled for: age, marital status, education, 
professional status, income,  and community size


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study AT 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1186

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Error Estimatess.e.=.092
Remarks
Recoded by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.03 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCamfield et al. (2009): study BD 2004
TitleWell-Being, Happiness and why Relationships Matter: Evidence from Bangladesh.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 71 - 91
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9062-5
Public18+ aged, general public,rural and urban areas, Bangladesh, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelAge and gender
Page in Source 79
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
a older males
b older females (reference)
c younger males
d younger females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-oq-v-3-aDM=
                 M    Difference with     N
                      older females

Older males      2,33    +,33             21   
Older females    2,00                     14
Younger males    2,05    +,05             18
Younger females  2,20    +,20             15

Happiness means and DM computed by WDH-team


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study BD 2003
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), Bangladesh, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =374

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,111-112
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=+1.8 p < .05
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.68 p < .05
Marrieds only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BY 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1015

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.41     Mt=4.7
1       M=2.51     Mt=5.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.48      Mt=5.0
1       M=5.58      Mt=5.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .46      Mt=5.5
1       M=1.14      Mt=6.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.18 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.07 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.07 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.21 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.17 p < .001
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study BE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Belgium, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =9651

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/- p < .05
boys:             M = 7,77
girls:            M = 7,20
-difference:        + 0,57 

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G diff.
0-4      8,3   6,1  10,5   - 4,4
5-6     15,7  12,9  18,5   - 5,6
7-8     43,2  43,3  43,1   + 0,3
9-10    32,8  37,7  27,9   + 9,8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyVanOotegem & Verhofstadt (2015): study BE Flanders 2011
TitlePerceived Capabilities as an Aggregated Indicatorfor Well-Being.
SourceApplied Research in Quality of Life, 2015, Vol.10, 615 - 629.
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11482-014-9343-1/fulltext.html
DOIdoi: 10.1007/s11482-014-9343-1
PublicGeneral public, Flanders, Belgium, 2011+ 2012
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2990

Correlate
Author's labelSexe
Page in Source 6
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-hb=-.00 ns
b controled for
- age
- marital status
- religion
- education
- personality
  - positive attitude
  - emotionally concerned
  - altruistic and concientious
  - expectant
- satisfaction with life-domains
  - education
  - income
  - social life
  - pleasant environment
  - act according to vision
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-hBeta=


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySenik (2011): study BE 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4831

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 42
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.18 p < .001
B's controlled for:
- Region in Belgium
- Language spoken at home
- Age and age squared
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Household income
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2792

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.59      Mt=7.3
1       M=7.60      Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.40      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.57      Mt=6.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.59      Mt=7.3
1       M=7.60      Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.40      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.57      Mt=6.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.05 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.05 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.00 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 p < .01
ß controlled for age and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.00 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 p < .01
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study BE 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1385

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Error Estimatess.e.=.093
Remarks
Recoded by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.02 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study BE 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1145

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 370
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 males
0 females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.07 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyEurobarometer (1975a): study BE 1975
TitleEurobarometer, European Men and Women. A Comparison of their Attitudes to Some of the Problems Facing Society.
SourceEuropean Commission,1975, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://aei.pitt.edu/10640/
Public15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1975
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1555

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 143/155
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female 
1 Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bG=-.04 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyYe & Attride-Stirling (2013): study BMU 2011
TitleHealth Disparities Report 2013.
SourceBermuda Health Council, 2013, Hamilton, Bermuda
Public18+ aged, general public, Bermuda, 2011
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response11 %
Respondents N =801

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 12
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Observed distribution1 = 47%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-gDM=- p < .01
Male        M = 3.03, CI95 [2.96 - 3.10]
Female      M = 3.19, CI95 [3.13 - 3.25]
-difference    -0.16


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study BT 2003
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), Buthan, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =397

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,111-112
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=+.51 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.01 ns
Marrieds only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study BR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Brazil, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =23141

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 7,74
girls:            M = 7,45
-difference:         +0,29(.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4     11,8  10,5  13,0   - 2,5(ns)
5-6     15,5  14,1  16,7   - 2,5(.05)
7-8     28,1  28,8  27,6   + 1,1(ns)
9-10    44,6  46,7  42,6   + 4,0(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySchütz et al. (2015): study BR Porto Alegre 2013
TitleSubjective Well-Being of Children in Residential Care Centers: Comparison between Children in Institutional Care and Children Living with their Families.
SourcePscioperspectivas, 2015, Vol. 15, 19 - 30
URLhttp://www.psicoperspectivas.cl/index.php/psicoperspectivas/article/view/517/404
PublicChildren, aged 8-12, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 2013
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =218

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 24
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female (reference0
Remarks
Children in residential care

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ebDM=+.28
               Mean   SD    
Male           8.07  3.29  
Female         7.79  3.40  
- difference   +.28


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Brazil 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1782

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.01      Mt=6.0
1       M=1.36      Mt=6.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
1       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
1       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.18      Mt=6.9
1       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
1       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.16      Mt=6.2
1       M=1.75      Mt=6.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.07 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.07 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.06 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.08 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.16 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.00 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
ß controlled for age and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.07 p < .01
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLeisure Development Cen (1980): study BR 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
PublicAdult, general public, metropolitan areas Brazil, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 99/103
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 female 
1 male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.01 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.04 p < .05
males  :   41 % very happy
females:   38 % very happy
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.01 ns
males  : 35% very satisfied
females: 36% very satisfied


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCantril (1965): study BR 1960
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 1960-1961
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2168

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 378
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Females
1 Males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=-.26 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study BN 2003
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), Brunei, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =620

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,111-112
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.05 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.47 ns
Marrieds only

OLRC's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
  - Satisfaction with life domains
  - Access to public services:
    - internet
    - email
    - mobile phone
  - Lifestyle characteristics:
    - frequency of praying
    - religion
    - living internationally
    - English ability
    - homeownership
    - number of family members
    - relative standard of living
    - no right to vote
  - Socioeconomic status:
    - gender
    - marital status
    - age
    - income
    - educational attainment
- GEOGRAPHY characteristics:
  - region
  - city size
  - county


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study BG 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Bulgaria, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5928

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 7,62
girls:            M = 7,20
-difference:        + 0,42 (.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4     13,9  12,0  15,9   -3,9(.05)
5-6     16,7  15,6  18,0   -2,4(.05)
7-8     26,6  26,0  27,1   -1,1(ns)
9-10    42,8  46,4  38,9   +7,4(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BG 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1034

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.35     Mt=4.5
1       M=2.31     Mt=4.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.00      Mt=4.5
1       M=5.07      Mt=4.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.05 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study KH 2003
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), Cambodia, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =983

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,111-112
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=+.08 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=+.01 ns
Marrieds only
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=+.40 ns
All
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=+.01 ns
Marrieds only

OLRC's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
  - Satisfaction with life domains
  - Access to public services:
    - number of utilities
    - internet
    - email
    - mobile phone
  - Lifestyle characteristics:
    - frequency of praying
    - religion
    - living internationally
    - English ability
    - homeownership
    - number of family members
    - relative standard of living
    - no right to vote
  - Socioeconomic status:
    - marital status
    - age
    - income
    - educational attainment
- GEOGRAPHIC characteristics:
  - region
  - city size
  - county


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBonikowska et al. (2013): study CA 2009 /2
TitleAn Assessment of Life Satisfaction Responses on Recent Statistics Canada Surveys.
SourceAnalytical Studies Research Papers Series, 2013, No. 351, Ontario, Canada
URLhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/2013351/part-partie1-eng.htm
Public15+aged, general public, Canada, 2009-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =63000

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 24-26
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Order reversed by WDH-team and hence sign of correlates

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebb=-
        b     p<
2009  -.11   .001
2010  -.09   .001
2011  -.09   .001

b's controlled for:
- age
- marital status
- number of children
- education
- immigrant
- employment status
- household income
- household size
- homeownership
- selfreported health
- urban area/rural
- geographical region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBoniel-Nissim et al. (2015): study CA 2009
TitleSupportive Communication with Parents Moderates the Negative Effects of Electronic Media Use on Life Satisfaction during Adolescence
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2015, Vol. 60, 189-198
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00038-014-0636-9
DOIdoi:10.1007/s00038-014-0636-9
PublicStudents, aged 11-15, Canada, 2009-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15919

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 194,T3
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-aF=54,0 p < .000
F= 53,97


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyChow (2012): study CA Calgary, Alberta 2007
TitleHealth Care Service Needs and Correlates of Quality of Life: A Case Study of Elderly Chinese Immigrants in Canada
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 106, 347 - 358
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9810-0
Public65+aged Chinese migrants, Calgary, Canada, 2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =127

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 352-353
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.07 ns
Beta controled for:
- Socio-economic status
  - age
  - marital status
  - financial need
- migration history
  - country of origin
  - length of residence in Canada
- Health
  - physical mobility
  - medication use
  - perceived needs for services
- Social network
- quality of neighbouhood
- Psychological well-being


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMichalos et al. (2007): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleHealth and Quality of Life of Older People: A Replication after Six Years.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 84, 127 - 158
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9080-4
PublicElderly, British Columbia, Canada, 2005
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =656

Correlate
Author's labelChange average happiness
Page in Source 133
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at
T1: 1999
T2: 2005
Remarks
Average scores only.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gDM=- ns
             T1     T2     T1-T2 difference
All      M   5,7    5,6    -0,1
males    M   5,7    5,6    -0,1
females  M   5,6    5,6     0,0
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bDM=+ ns
All      M   5,5    5,6    +0,1
males    M   5,4    5,6    +0,2
females  M   5,5    5,6    +0,1
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fDM=0 ns
All      M   5,6    5,6     0,0
males    M   5,7    5,6    -0,1
females  M   5,6    5,6     0,0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyUskul & Greenglass (2005): study CA 2005
TitlePsychological Wellbeing in a Turkish-Canadian Sample.
SourceAnxiety, Stress, and Coping, 2005, Vol. 18, 269 - 278
DOIDOI: 10.1080/10615800500205983
PublicTurkish immigrants, Canada, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =181

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 274.275
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-g-mq-n-7-ar=-.11 ns
M-AO-g-mq-n-7-aBeta=-.13 ns
Beta controled for:
- education
- married 
- years in Canada
- optimism
- proactive coping


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHolder et al. (2010): study CA 2005
TitleSpiritualilty, Religiousness, and Happiness in Children aged 8-12 Years.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2010, Vol.11, 131 - 150
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9126-1
Public8-12 aged children, 2 schools, Canada, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response11
Respondents N =320

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 139
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Girls
1 Boys
Observed distribution0 = 51 % (N = 163), 1 = 49 % (N =157)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-aDM=-
Child's self rating of own happiness

          Public school  Private school
-Girls    M = 5,94       M = 5,89
-Boys     M = 5,77       M = 5,44
difference   -0,17          -0,38
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-aBeta=-.12 ns
A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-aDM=+
Parents rating of child's happiness
          Public school  Private school
-Girls    M = 5,71       M = 5,82
-Boys     M = 5,81       M = 5,44
difference   +0,10           +,38
A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-aBeta=+.03 ns

Beta's controlled for childs:
- school
- temperament
  - shyness
  - emotionality
  - sociability
  - activity
- spirituality
  - personal
  - communal  
  - environmental  
  - transcendental 
  - spiritual practice/belief


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMichalos et al. (2007): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleHealth and Quality of Life of Older People: A Replication after Six Years.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 84, 127 - 158
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9080-4
PublicElderly, British Columbia, Canada, 2005
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =656

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 133
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gDM=0 ns
females      M = 5,6
males        M = 5,6
- difference     0,0
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bDM=- ns
females      M = 5,5
males        M = 5,4
- difference    -0,1
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fDM=+
females      M = 5,6
males        M = 5,7
- difference    +0,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBonikowska et al. (2013): study CA 2003
TitleAn Assessment of Life Satisfaction Responses on Recent Statistics Canada Surveys.
SourceAnalytical Studies Research Papers Series, 2013, No. 351, Ontario, Canada
URLhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/2013351/part-partie1-eng.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =24951

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 24-25
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Order reversed by WDH-team and hence sign of 
correlation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=-.16 p < .01
b controlled for:
- age
- marital status
- number of children
- education
- immigrant
- employment status
- household income
- household size
- homeownership
- selfreported health
- urban area/rural
- geographic region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2003
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
PublicWorkers, Canada, ,2003
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =9949

Correlate
Author's labelGender: male
Page in Source 216
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jOPRC=-.06 p < .01
OPRC controled for:
- mastery scale with income effect subtracted
- job satisfaction with income effect subtracted
- log of total household income
- log average household income in census tract
- self-percieved health status
- age
- marital status
- education
- contacts with
  - family members outside household
  - friends
  - neighbors
- number of memberships
- trust in
  - general
  - neighbors
  - police
- religion
  - importance
  - frequency of attending religious services
- immigrant
- ethnic status
- living in non-tracted area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBonikowska et al. (2013): study CA 2003 /1
TitleAn Assessment of Life Satisfaction Responses on Recent Statistics Canada Surveys.
SourceAnalytical Studies Research Papers Series, 2013, No. 351, Ontario, Canada
URLhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/2013351/part-partie1-eng.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, Canada, 2003-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =20000

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 24-25
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Order reversed by WDH-team and hence sign of correlates

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=-
       b      p<
2003  -.16   .01
2005  -.10   .001
2006  -.10   .001
2008  -.08   .01
2009  -.07   .05
2010   .00    ns
2011  -.15   .001

b's controlled for:
- age
- marital status
- number of children
- education
- immigrant
- employment status
- household income
- household size
- homeownership
- selfreported health
- urban area/rural
- geographical region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1862

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 212-213
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Error Estimatess.e.= 0.05

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=-.14 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- Job satisfaction
- Log of personal income
- Log other family members' income
- Log of avg. household income in census tract
- Self-perceived health
- Age
- Marital status
- Education
- Contact w. family members
- Contact w. friends
- Contact w. neighbors
- Number of memberships or extent of activity
- Trust in general
- Trust in neighbors
- Trust in police
- Importance of religion
- Frequency attending religious services
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=-.12 p < .05
OPRC not controlled for job satisfaction, but 
additionally controlled for job characterisitics:
- Makes own decisions
- Requires skill
- Has enough time
- Free of conflicting demands
- Has variety of tasks
- Trust in management


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
PublicWorkers, Canada, 2002-2003.
SampleSampling not reported
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =1862

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 212
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=-.14 p < .05
OPRC controled for:
- log of personal income
- log average income in census tract
- percieved job characteristics
  - requires skill
  - has enough time
  - free of conflicting demands
  - variety of tasks
  - trust in management
- personal characteristic
  - self percieved health
  - age
  - marital status
  - education
- contacts with
  - family members outside household
  - friends
  - neighbors
- number of meberships
- trust in
  - general
  - neighbors
  - police
- religion
  - importance
  - frequency of attending religious services


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySenik (2011): study CA 2000
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, Canada, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3439

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 44
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female
Observed distribution1: 42%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.06 p < .001
B's controlled for:
- Age and age squared
- Gender
- Language of interview
- Income scale
- Survey year
- Ethnic group
- Employment status
- Education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyJones (2002): study CA 2000
TitleSatisfaction with Life in Canada.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02 - 09, Christian Commitment Research Institute, 2002, Canada
Public15+ aged, general public, Canada, 1997, 2000
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =14000

Correlate
Author's labelmen, women
Page in Source 5, 14
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 women
2 men

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=
      very happy  somewhat happy
women      46%        46%
men        43%        50%
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyJones (2002a): study CA 1998
TitleHappiness and Optimism among Canada's 12 to 15 Years Old.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02-12, 2002, Christian Commitment Research Institute, Canada
Public12-15 aged, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =31194

Correlate
Author's labelGirls and boys
Page in Source 5, 10
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
Sexe
1 girls
2 boys

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nD%=+
% very happy:
1 girls 27%
2 boys  30%
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-ngH=.083
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nDMt= p < .000
1    girls Mt= 4,25 [4,25; 4,24]
2    boys  Mt= 4,00 [4,00; 3,99]
difference Mt= 0,25 [0,25; 0,25]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMichalos & Orlando (2006a): study CA Prince George 1997
TitleQuality of Life of Some Under-Represented Survey Respondents: Youth, Aboriginals and Unemployed.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 79, 191 - 213
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-4717-2
Public18+ aged, general public, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1997-2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8664

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 5
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 female
1 male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fDM=-
females M = 5,66
males   M = 5,68
- difference -0,02
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bDM=-
females M = 5,48
males   M = 5,49
- difference -0,01
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fDM=-
females M = 5,64
males   M = 5,67
- difference -0,03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2000): study CA Prince George 1997
TitleCriminal Victimization and the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 50, 245 - 295
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006930019814
PublicAdult general population, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response63%
Respondents N =737

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 273
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 female
1 male
Observed distribution1:50% 0: 50%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-er= ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyJones (2002): study CA 1997
TitleSatisfaction with Life in Canada.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02 - 09, Christian Commitment Research Institute, 2002, Canada
Public15+ aged, general public, Canada, 1997
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response2%
Respondents N =18000

Correlate
Author's labelmen, women
Page in Source 5
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 women
2 men

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=
        very happy   somewhat happy
women       43%       49%              
men         44%       48%
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-d


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study CA 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3358

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Error Estimatess.e.=.074
Remarks
Recoded by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.06 ns
Beta controlled by:
- life situation
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyPacker et al. (1997): study CA 1992
TitlePsychopathology and Quality of Life in Schizophrenia.
SourceJournal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 1997, Vol. 22, 231 - 234
Public18-40 aged, schizophrenics, Canada,199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 232
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 females
2 males
Observed distributionnot reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyUppal (2006): study CA 1991
TitleImpact of the Timing, Type and Severity of Disability on the Subjective Well-Being of Individuals with Disabilities.
SourceSocial Science and Medicine, 2006, Vol. 63, 525 - 539
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.01.016
PublicDisabled, Canada, 1991
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response7.1%
Respondents N =24036

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 520-530
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=+
                % Not too happy %Very happy
Female                14,0           20,2
Male                  14,0           21,0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyFrench et al. (1995): study CA Ontario 1990
TitleGender Differences in Relating Life Events and Well-Being in Elderly Individuals.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 35, 1 - 25
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF01079235
PublicElderly people, Ontario, Canada, 1990
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response93%
Respondents N =268

Correlate
Author's labelmale/female
Page in Source 8
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 males
0 females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=-
Males       M = 6.4 SD = 1.9
Females     M = 6.6 SD = 1.8
- difference   -0.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CA 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1730

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
1       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.93      Mt=7.7
1       M=7.84      Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.38      Mt=7.4
1       M=2.24      Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.06 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.06 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.05 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.04 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.04 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKeith & Landry (1992): study CA 1990
TitleWell-Being of Older Canadians.
SourceCanadian Social Trends, 1992, Vol. 25, 16 - 17
Public55+ aged, Canada, 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelmen/women
Page in Source 17
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 female
2 male
Remarks
Happiness was slightly lower in 1985, more among men 
then among women. See KEITH 1992/1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-bD%=
                     men       women
very happy            56%        49% 
somewhat happy        39%        43%
somewhat unhappy       2%         5%
very unhappy           2%         1%
DK/NA                  3%         2%
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-bDM=
females M = 3,43  SD = 0,64
male    M = 3,53  SD = 0,59


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBlandford & Chappell (1990): study CA 1985
TitleSubjective Well-being among Native and Non-Native Elderly Persons: Do Differences Exist?
SourceCanadian Journal on Aging, 1990, Vol. 9, 386 - 399
Public50+ aged, Winnipeg,Canada, 1985
Sample
Non-Response15% Natives
Respondents N =390

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 395
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: Female
1: Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tb=-.28 ns
b  controlled by: 
1. Married
2. Widowed
3. Age
4. Monthly income
5. Perceived health
6. Days in bed
7. Family size
8. Functional ability
9. Satisfaction with family
   relationships
10.Social contacts 
11.Number of children
12.Number of siblings
13.Number of caregivers
14.Interaction of ethnicity with
   ability & marital status & days ill


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKeith & Landry (1992): study CA 1985
TitleWell-Being of Older Canadians.
SourceCanadian Social Trends, 1992, Vol. 25, 16 - 17
Public55+ aged, Canada, 1985
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelmen/women
Page in Source 17
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 female
2 male
Remarks
Happiness was slightly hihger in 1990, more among men 
then among women. See KEITH 1992/2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-bD%=+
                    men     women
very happy           46%      45%
somewhat happy       48%      49%
somewhat unhappy      4%       5%
very unhappy          1%       1%
DK/NA                 1%       1%
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-bDM=+
females M = 3,38  SD = 0,63
males   M = 3,40  SD = 0,62


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMichalos (1986): study CA 1984
TitleAn Application of Multiple Discrepancies Theory (MDT) to Seniors.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 349 - 378
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300488
Public60+ aged, rural districts, Canada, 1984
Sample
Non-Response47%
Respondents N =457

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 363
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female                  
1 Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.0 ns
ß path-coefficient controlled for  age, income, 
education, and the perceived discrepancies: own 
life with that of others, life with that deserved, 
life with needs, life with progress in life, life 
now with best previous experience, life with 
wants.
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.0 ns
ß path-coefficient controlled for age, income, 
education, and the perceived discrepancies: own 
life with that of others, life with that deserved, 
life with needs, life with progress in life, life 
now with best previous experience, life with 
wants.
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.04
Total of direct path and indirect paths via life 
compared with wants.
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.04
Total of direct path and indirect paths via 
life compared with wants.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMichalos (1983): study CA Ontario 1982
TitleSatisfaction and Happiness in a Rural Northern Resource Community.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1983, Vol. 13, 225 - 252
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00318099
Public18+ aged, general public, rural community, North Ontario, Canada, 1982
Sample
Non-Response8%
Respondents N =598

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 233
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=-.03
All ß's controlled for satisfaction with health, 
financial security, family relations, paid 
employment, friendships, housing, area you live 
in, recreation activity, religion, self esteem, 
transportation, government services,   
and for the other demographic factors: age, formal 
education, language, work status, marital status, 
time in area.
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.06
All ß's controlled for satisfaction with health, 
financial security, family relations, paid 
employment, friendships, housing, area you live 
in, recreation activity, religion, self esteem, 
transportation, government services,   
and for the other demographic factors: age, formal 
education, language, work status, marital status, 
time in area.

C-RG-u-sq-v-7-bDM=-
Males M=  5.17  Females M  =5.30
      Mt'=6.95          Mt'=7.16
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaDM=-
Males M=  5.04  Females M  =5.12
      Mt'=6.73          Mt'=6.87
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aDM=-
Males M=  5.22  Females M  =5.32 
      Mt'=7.03          Mt'=7.20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyAustrom (1984): study CA Ontario 1982
TitleThe Consequences of Being Single.
SourcePeter Lang Publisher, 1984, New York, USA
Public23-59 aged English speaking, Toronto and Ontario, Canada, 198?
Sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =1038

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 80/1/91
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=+.06
Tau c = +.00
- married:     G' = -.03  Tau c = -.00
- non-married: G' = -.02  Tau c = -.00
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ar=-.06 ns
ALL Ss (including not formally married 
cohabitating (considered as married):

- non-married:                   DMt = +0.1
- married (not formally married
  cohabitating included):        DMt = +0.1
- cohabitating:                  DMt = +0.1        
   
ß = +.04 after control for: age, household income, 
marital status, being in love, desire to change 
dating patern or marital status, locus of control, 
social support (1. instrumental: problems managing 
money, deciding how to spend money, not enogh 
money to do things, unsatisfying job, not enough 
money to get by on; 2. expressive: no close 
companions, no one to depend on, unsatisfactory 
sex life, problems communicating, dissatisfied 
with marital status, not enough close friends, no 
one to show love/affection, too dependent on 
others, not having children, no one to understand 
problems, 3. interpersonal demands: too many 
responsibilities, no one to depend on, too many 
demands on time, problems communicating, problems 
with children, problems with spouse/ ex-spouse, 
conflicts with those who are close), and 
satisfaction with: job and financial situation, 
friendships, love relationships and living   
situation.                                       

NOT FORMALLY MARRIED COHABITATING Ss EXCLUDED:

- married:   DMt = +0.1
- unmarried: DMt = +0.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyAustrom (1984): study CA Ontario 1979
TitleThe Consequences of Being Single.
SourcePeter Lang Publisher, 1984, New York, USA
Public23-59 aged, general public, Ontario, Canada, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =895

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 80/81/83
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
Female vs male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-aG=+.03
                  G' = +.03  
- married:        G' = -.02  
- non-married:    G' = -.02      
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDMt=
- married:          DMt = -.0.1
- non-married:      DMt = +.0.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLeisure Development Cen (1980): study CA 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1012

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 157/161
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 female 
1 male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=-.10 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=-.04 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=-.02 ns
males  :   38 % very happy
females:   40 % very happy
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=-.06 p < .01
males  : 31 % very satisfied
females: 37 % very satisfied


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKennedy et al. (1978): study CA Edmonton CMA 1977
TitleSubjective Evaluation of Well-Being: Problems and Prospects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 457 - 474
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352943
Public18+ aged, general public, City of Edmonton, Canada, 1977
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =335

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 467
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bG= ns
dwelling: single house
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bG= ns
dwelling: semi-detached
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bG=-.32 p < .05
dwelling: apartment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1977
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1977
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =3289

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-br=+.05 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-brpc=+.07 p < .05
rpc controlled for: Income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKennedy & Mehra (1985): study CA Edmonton CMA 1977
TitleEffects of Social Change on Well-Being: Boom and Bust in a Western Canadian City.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 17, 101 - 113
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00302416
Public18+ aged, general public, City of Edmonton, Canada, 1977-1984
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3440

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 108
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1. Male
2. Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.06
Stepwise regression by age-group.
age-group 26-45
 
Beta controlled for:
- standard of living satisfaction
-friendship satisfaction
- family satisfaction
- job satisfaction
- health satisfaction
- non work activities satisfaction
- neighbourhood satisfaction
- finanacial better/worse than year ago
- year of significant social change
- things wanted to do satisfaction
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.07
age-group 45+ 
 
Beta controlled for:
- standard of living satisfaction
- health satisfaction
- non work activities satisfaction
- financial better/worse than year ago
- job satisfacion
- frienship satisfaction
- family satisfaction
- things wanted to do satisfaction
- year of significant social change


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySnider (1980): study CA 1976
TitleExplaining Life Satisfaction: It's the Elderly's Attitudes that Count.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1980, Vol. 61, 253 - 263
Public65+ aged, retired whites, Edmonton, Canada, 1976
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response10%
Respondents N =428

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 257-258
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-ar=+.04 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-atc=+.04 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-aDyx=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1974
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1974
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1234

Correlate
Author's labelMale Sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dr=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-drpc=+.04 ns
rpc controlled for: Income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1968
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1968
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2734

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-arpc=+.07 p < .05
rpc controlled for: Income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study CL 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Chile, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7053

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 7,60
girls:            M = 7,13
-difference:        + 0,47 (.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G diff.
0-4     12,0   9,2  14,8   - 5,6(.05)
5-6     17,9  16,0  19,9   - 3,9(.05)
7-8     32,0  34,4  29,5   + 4,8(.05)
9-10    38,1  40,4  35,7   + 4,7(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Chile, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
1       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
1       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .91      Mt=5.9
1       M=1.16      Mt=6.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.06 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.07 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.02 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05 p < .05
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study CN 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, China, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =9841

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/- ns
boys:             M = 6,88
girls:            M = 6,78
-difference:        + 0,10

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4     15,6  15,0  16,2    -1,2
5-6     25,1  24,7  25,7    -1,0
7-8     32,4  33,2  31,5    +1,7
9-10    26,9  27,2  26,6    +0,5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyFeng et al. (2018): study CN 2013
TitleDoes the Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies Improve the Subjective Well-Being of Citizens? A Micro-Level and City-Level Empirical Investigation.
SourceConference Paper, 2018, The 22nd Biennial Conference of the International elecommunications Society: "Beyond the Boundaries: Challenges for Business, Policy and Society", June 24th - 27th, 2018, Seoul, Korea
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/190381
Public18+ aged, adults, China, 2013
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5463

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 7,10
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Observed distributionMales: 50.3%; females: 49.7%
Error EstimatesSE= .023

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ab=-.04 ns
b controlled for:
- personal characteristics:
  - ICT usage
  - income
  - worktime
  - social activities
  - education
  - religion
  - member of communist party
  - immigrant
- local characteristics:
  - capital city vs. not
  - gross regional product
  - local government expenditures
  - proportion of telephone subscriptions in
-  city
  - proportion of students in city
  - proportion of social workers in city


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCheng et al. (2013): study CN 2011
TitleHousing and Subjective Wellbeing in Urban China.
SourceMonash University, Department of Economics, Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 39, Melbourne, Australia.
PublicAdult, general public, China, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5229

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1. males
0. females (reference)
Observed distributionmales: 49.18%; females: 50.82%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.09 p < .01
B controlled for:
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -age
 -schooling
 -marital status
 -household size
 -rural hukou
 -Party member
 -social insurance
 -income
-Homeownership
 -homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.09 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
 -homeownership property status
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.09 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
 -property tenure
 -property size
 -number of homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.09 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
 -source of homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.09 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
-Loan
 -home loan
 -type of home loan
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.10 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
-Perceive better local public safety
-Express lower risk aversion
-Expect
 -better economy
 -higher house price
 -higher commodity price
 -higher interest rate


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyScheffel & Zhang (2016): study CN 2011
TitleHow Does Internal Migration Affect the Emotional Health of Elderly Parents Left-Behind?
SourceConference paper, 2016, Jahrestagung des Vereins für Socialpolitik: Demographischer Wandel - Session: Mental and Physical Health, No. E09-V2
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/145663
PublicElderly left behind after migration, China, 2011-2013
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6041

Correlate
Author's labelParent: male
Page in Source 28
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1= if parent is male
0= Otherwise
Observed distribution1 = 57 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 p < .05
Controlled for:
- Migrant Child
- Parent: Aged [70; 80]
- Parent: Aged above 80
- Parent: Widowed
- Parent: ADL limitation
- Parent: IADL limitation
- Parent: Health status
- Parent: Number of children
- Child: Age
- Child: Iliterate
- Child: Above high school
- Child: Male
- Child: Married
- Age squared, being the oldest son, province and 
time fixed effects.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyScheffel & Zhang (2016): study CN 2011
TitleHow Does Internal Migration Affect the Emotional Health of Elderly Parents Left-Behind?
SourceConference paper, 2016, Jahrestagung des Vereins für Socialpolitik: Demographischer Wandel - Session: Mental and Physical Health, No. E09-V2
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/145663
PublicElderly left behind after migration, China, 2011-2013
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6041

Correlate
Author's labelChild: Male
Page in Source 28
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1= if child is male
0= Otherwise
Observed distribution1 = 64%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.00 ns
Controlled for:
- Migrant Child
- Parent: Aged [70; 80]
- Parent: Aged above 80
- Parent: Male
- Parent: Widowed
- Parent: ADL limitation
- Parent: IADL limitation
- Parent: Health status
- Parent: Number of children
- Child: Age
- Child: Iliterate
- Child: Above high school
- Child: Married
- Age squared, being the oldest son, province and 
time fixed effects.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyQuinta (2011): study CN 2010
TitleLocals' Happiness 'Above Average'.
SourceMacau Daily Times, 20 january 2011
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/quinta_v_2011.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Macau, China, 2010
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response14
Respondents N =996

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=-
male       M=6.76
female     M=7.19
- difference 0.44


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyWang et al. (2015): study CN 2010
TitleDoes Consuming More Make You Happier? Evidence from Chinese Panel Data.
SourceMonash DOE Working Paper, 2015, No. 29, 1 - 26
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/277004500_Does_Consuming_More_Make_You_Happier_Evidence_from_Chinese_Panel_Data
Public18+ aged, general public, China, 2010-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =61009

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 18
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jDM=-
2012
                 M       SD
Males          3.28     1.05
Females        3.34     1.06

Difference= -.06
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jDM=-
2010
                 M       SD
Males          3.44     1.05
Females        3.51     1.03

Difference= -.07


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyChen (2013): study CN 2009
TitlePerceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-Being among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceJournal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 2013, Vol. 40, 131- 156
Public18+ aged general public, China, 2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response1413
Respondents N =2733

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 142, 149
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female
Observed distribution1: 51.3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.05 p < .NS
URBAN RESIDENTS         (N=983)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.64 ns
RURAL-TO-URBAN MIGRANTS (N=555)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.11 ns
RURAL RESIDENTS         (N=1195)

B's controlled for:
- ethnic discimination
- age
- marital status
- ethnic minority
- education 
- employment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyWang et al. (2013): study CN 2008
TitleHappiness and Job Satisfaction in Urban China: A Comparative Study of Two Generations of Migrants and Urban Locals.
SourceDiscussion Paper No. 08-13, 2013, Monash University, Department of Economics, USA
Public19+ aged, general public, China, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5395

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 6, 7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=-.05 p < .01
FULL SAMPLE               (N=5395)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=-.03 p < .01
FIRST-GENERATION MIGRANTS (N=2213)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=-.03 ns
NEW-GENERATION MIGRANTS   (N=444)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=-.07 p < .01
URBAN LOCALS              (N=2738)

B's controlled for:
- age and age squared
- years of education
- marital status
- health status
- having children
- hourly income
- region of residence
- surface area of house
- number of friends
- perceived recent change in social class
- job satisfaction

Full sample is additionally controlled for migrant 
status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyRen (2009): study CN Shangdong 2007
TitleA Research on the Subject Well-being of Regional College Students.
SourceInternational Journal of Psychological Studies, 2009, Vol. 1, 51 -
URLhttp://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ijps/article/view/2254/0
PublicStudents, Shangdong Region of China, 2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response23 %
Respondents N =926

Correlate
Author's labelMale/Female
Page in Source 54
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1= Male
0 = Female
Observed distribution1 = 54 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-7-eDM=- ns
Male                5.36
Female              5.66
-Difference        -0.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGuo & Shu (2009): study CN 2006 /1
TitleThe Perception of Well-Being and Social Harmony in China.
SourceInoguchi, T.; Ed.: "Human Beliefs and Values in East and Southeast Asia in Transition", Akashi Shoten, 2009, Japan, 35 - 54
Public20-69 aged general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 42
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Observed distributionN = Males: 1015, Females: 985

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mDM=-
Males:      M = 3.66, SD = 0.89
Females:    M = 3.72, SD = 0.89
- difference   -0,06
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mgH=-.06
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 215,210
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 female
1 male
Remarks
Coded reversely in report. Values changed by WDH team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=0.81 p < .05
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=0.99 ns
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=1.04 ns
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=-.05 ns
M-ACO---mq-v-7-a
OR and B controled for
- age cohort
- education
- marital status
- household income
- unemployement
- urban residency
- domain satisfaction
- value priorities
- lifestyle

For a subgroup of 87% of respondents with at least 
one positive experience of happiness, enjoyment 
and accomplishment, OR and B values are lower.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyXiao & Li (2011): study CN 2005
TitleSustainable Consumption and Life Satisfaction.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 104, 323 -329
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/226764459_Sustainable_Consumption_and_Life_Satisfaction
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9746-9
PublicGeneral public, 14 cities, China, 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response151
Respondents N =3372

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 326-327
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: males
0: females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-eb=-.01 ns
B controlled for:
-Green lifestyle intention
-Green purchase intention
-Green purchase behavior
-Age
-Education
-Family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study CN 2003
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), China, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1798

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,111-112
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.40 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.27 p < .05
Marrieds only
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=-.09 ns
All
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=-.08 ns
Marrieds only

OLRC's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
  - Satisfaction with life domains
  - Access to public services:
    - number of utilities
    - internet
    - email
    - mobile phone
  - Lifestyle characteristics:
    - frequency of praying
    - religion
    - living internationally
    - English ability
    - homeownership
    - number of family members
    - relative standard of living
    - no right to vote
  - Socioeconomic status:
    - marital status
    - age
    - income
    - educational attainment
- GEOGRAPHIC characteristics:
  - region
  - city size
  - county


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMonk-Turner & Turner (2010): study CN Yunnan 2003
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Those who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 13 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9568-9
Public18+ aged, Yunnan region, China, 2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response3%
Respondents N =3641

Correlate
Author's labelMale
Page in Source 18
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
Sex:
0: female
1: male
Observed distributionM = 0.63, SD = 0.48

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=0.96 ns
OLRC controlled for:
- years of education
- income rank
- HIV positive
- marital status
- age
- current drug use
- feeling part of the community
- job condition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySmyth et al. (2008): study CN 2003
TitleThe Environment and Well-being in Urban China.
SourceEcological Economics, 2008, Vol.68, 547 - 555
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.eclecon.2008.05.017
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, China, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =8890

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 550.552
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1= male
0= female
Observed distribution51.2% female; 48.8% male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eOPRC=-.00 ns
OPRC(-0.00378) controled for:
- Environmental surroundings
  - pollution
  - disaster
  - congestion
  - parks
- Personal characteristics
  - age
  - marital status
  - education
  - occupation
  - unemployed
  - income
- Environment attitudes
  - environment awareness
- Attitudes on other socio-economic and political 
issues
  - pro-market
  - income inequality
  - social protection
  - national reunification
  - SARS


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged rural-urban migrants, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1930

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 116
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female
Observed distribution61% male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.27 p < .05
B controlled for:
- Household income
- Income expectations
- Marital Status
- Education
- Financial assets
- Unemployment
- Working hours
- Health
- Duration of urban residence
- Regional income
- Living with family members
- Remittances
- Area of house
- Living in own house
- Heating
- Child left behind
- Number of friends/relatives in city

Effect is stronger for those who migrated less 
long ago

Interaction male*married: B=+.35(p<.01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyJiang et al. (2012): study CN 2002
TitleIdentity, Inequality, and Happiness: Evidence from Urban China.
SourceWorld Development, 2012, Vol. 40, 1190 - 1200
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.11.002
Public16+ aged general public, 26 cities, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5630

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 1194, 1195
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female
Observed distribution1: 47.9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.06 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) Rural/urban (Hukou) status
  b) Interaction Rural/urban (Hukou) status* 
  c) Age
  d) Marital status
  e) Education
  f) Health
  g) Communist Party Member
  h) Unemployed
  i) Household income
  j) Future income expectations
  k) Surface of house
- City characteristics
  l) GDP per capita  
  m) Population growth
  n) City size
  o) Region in country
  p) Gini-coefficient
- Rural migrants vs urbans differences
  q) Education difference between urbans and 
     migrants
  r) Between-group inequality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2014): study CN 2002
TitleSubjective Well-being and Social Evaluation in a Poor Country.
SourceCSAE Working Paper, 2014, No.9, Oxford, UK
URLhttp://econpapers.repec.org/paper/csawpaper/2014-09.htm
Public18+ aged, general public, China, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11228

Correlate
Author's labelgender
Page in Source 54,55
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
Woman: 0
Man: 1
Observed distributionRural: 0,78; urban: 0,45 (respondents)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-abb=-.04 ns
Rural

b controlled for:

-log of per capita household
-log of net wealth
-being in good health
-education in years
-house of permanent materials (rural only)
-log of village collective expenditure per capita 
(rural only)
-satisfied with primary school (rural only)
-satisfied with clinic (rural only)

-age and age squared
-married
-divorced
-widowed
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-abb=-.06 p < .01
Urban

b additionally controlled for:

-House area per capita
-Currently laid of


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLi et al. (2008): study CN 2002
TitleAn Exploration of the Subjective Well-Being of the Chinese Oldest-Old.
SourceHealthy Longevity in China, Demographic Methods and Population Analysis, 2008, Vol. 20, 347 - 356
URLhttp://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4020-6752-5_21
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-6752-5_21
Public80+ aged, China, 2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response1285
Respondents N =11175

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 352
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female
Observed distributionN: 0 = 6783, 1 = 4392

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Male:   M = 3,68
Female: M = 3,66
O-QOL-u-sq-v-5-aF= ns
F-ratio = 1,91


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyAppleton & Song (2008): study CN 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction in Urban China: Components and Determinants.
SourceWorld Development, 2008, Vol. 36, 2325 - 2340
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.04.009
PublicAdults, general public, urban areas, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6977

Correlate
Author's labelMale
Page in Source 2335
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Observed distribution49% male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nOPRC=-.16 p < .01
OPRC controlled for:
- Fall in household income
- Household income
- Age (squared)
- Unemployed
- Marital status
- Sociability
- Dependent relatives
- Belief in religious tolerance
- Health
- Medical insurance
- Political factors
- Occupation type
- Hukou location
- Province


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyZhang & Liu (2007): study CN 2002
TitleChildlessness, Psychlogical Well-being and Life Satisfaction among the Elderly in China
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 2007, 22:185-203
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10823-007-9037-3
Public65+ aged, China, 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13447

Correlate
Author's labelMale vs female (reference)
Page in Source 193
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bb=-.02 ns
B controlled for 
- age 
- education
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bb=-.06 p < .05
B additionally controlled for 
- residence
- living arrangements
- access to pension 
- access to medical services


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2014a): study CN 2002
TitleMemory and Anticipation: New Empirical Support for an Old Theory of the Utility Function.
SourceOxford Department of Economics Discussion Paper Series, 2014, Nr. 721, UK
URLhttp://www.econbiz.de/Record/memory-and-anticipation-new-empirical-support-for-an-old-theory-of-the-utility-function-knight-john/10010402988
PublicAdult general public, rural areas, China, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9500

Correlate
Author's labelGender (male)
Page in Source 25-29
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Observed distributionM=0.75
Error EstimatesSE= .0240

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ib=-.07 p < .01
b's controlled for:
- Economic variables
  - income
  - financial assets
  - debts
  - working hours
- Conditioning variables
  - age and age squared
  - marital status
  - education
  - mood
  - health

b's not significantly affected by additionally 
controlling for:
- relative income to village
- expected income next 5 years
- perception of income 5 years ago
- province (dummies)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2011): study CN 2002
TitleDoes Economic Growth Raise Happiness in China?
SourceOxford Development Studies, 2011, Vol. 39, 1 - 24
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13600818.2010.551006
DOIDOI:10.1080/13600818.2010.551006
PublicAdults, China, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8872

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 6-7,9-10,13-14
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Observed distributionRural: 74% males; urban: 45% males; rural-urban migrants: 61% males
Remarks
See also Table  8, p.19-20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=-.07 p < .01
RURAL
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=-.08 p < .01
URBAN

b's controlled for:
- basic variables:
  - age and age squared
  - marital status
  - health
- conventional economic variables
  - household income p.c. (log)
  - net wealth (1.000's yuan)
  - working hours (100's per year)
- insecurity variables (urban only)
  - unemployed
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=-.05 p < .05
RURAL

b additonally controlled for:
- comparison variables
  - household income compared to village average
  - living standards compared to 5 years ago
  - expected income over next 5 years
  - gini of household income p.c. at county level
- attitudinal variables
  - degree of harmony among lineages
  - degree of harmony in village
  - agree that money is important
  - importance of family
  - importance of friends

b not significantly affected by additional 
controlling for:
- harshness of city life variables
  - satisfaction with job
  - discrimination
  - easyness of finding jobs
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=-.08 p < .05
URBAN

b's additonally controlled for:
- comparison variables 
  - fairness income distribution (in China, resp. 
city)
  - living standard (quartiles in city)
  - expected change income next 5 years
  - mean provincial income p.c. (log)
- insecurity variables 
  - self-experienced important social problems
  - enterprise profit/loss
  - laid off work sometime 2002
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=-.27 p < .01
RURAL-URBAN MIGRANTS

married males: b=+.34(01)

b controlled for:
- basic variables:
  - marital status
  - selfreported health
  - duration of urban residence (+ squared)
- conventional economic variables:
  - household income p.c. (log)
  - net financial assets (1.000's yuan)
  - working hours (100's per year)
- comparison variables:
  - expected increase/decrease income 
  - mean p.c. income in city 
- harshness of city life variables:
  - living with family members
  - number of relatives and friends in city
  - child still in village
  - no0 heating
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=-.20 p < .05
b additionally controlled for:
- harshness of city life variables:
  - job satisfaction
  - discrimination index
  - easyness of finding jobs

married males: b=+.24(05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyChan & Lee (2006): study CN 2000
TitleNetwork Size, Social Support and Happiness in Later Life: A Comparative Study of Beijing and Hong Kong.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2006, Vol. 7, 87 - 112
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-1915-1
Public60+aged, China, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2125

Correlate
Author's labelGender (male)
Page in Source 98, 100
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbr=+.02 ns
Hong Kong
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbBeta=-.05 ns
Beta controlled for:
- education 
- income

Beta unaffected (-.04) by additional control for
- network size
- social support
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbr=+.05 ns
Beijing
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbBeta=+.07 ns
Beta controled for:
- education 
- income

Beta unaffected by additional control for
- network size
- social support


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGao & Meng (2015): study CN 1998
TitleThe Impact of Government Size on Chinese Elders' Life Satisfaction: 1998-2008
SourceFilomena Maggino, Ed.: "Social Indicators Research Series 57, A New Research Agenda for Impovements in Quality of Life", Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, Swiss, 2015, 135 - 161
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15904-1_7
Public65+ aged, China, followed 10 years, 1998-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =50674

Correlate
Author's labelMale
Page in Source 138, 146.
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=-.05 p < .05
Individual happiness by gender.

OPRC (-0,0544) controlled for:

-provincial characteristics:
 -Real GDP per capita
 -Government medical expenses
 -Government Size
 -Capital Formation Rate

-individual characteristics:
 -Living arrangement
 -Age (groups)
 -Urban (residence)
 -Etnicity (Han = 1)
 -Education
 -White Collar (= 1)
 -Frequency visits by child or sibling
 -Chronic conditions score
 -ADL-score (Physical limitations)

Similar results if addionally controlled for:
-Household income (quartiles)
-Feeling rich or fair


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+aged, general public, China, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.91     Mt=6.4
1       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
1       M=1.47      Mt=6.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.00 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyXu & Wu (1988): study CN 1986
TitleA preliminary survey of the psychological and social situation of the elderly in Beijing.
SourceInternational Journal of Mental Health, 1988, Vol. 16, 51 - 66
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/41344468
Public55+ aged, Being China, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =175

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0  females
1  males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-aD%=-
% very satisfied:
females  36
males     23


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study CO 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Colombia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11795

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 8,08
girls:            M = 7,71
-difference:         +0,37(.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4     10,1   8,5  11,1   -3,1(ns)
5-6     13,0  11,3  14,5   -3,2(.05)
7-8     26,0  25,9  26,2   -0,3(ns)
9-10    50,8  54,3  47,7   +6,6(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study CR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Costa Rica, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6866

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 8,39
girls:            M = 8,04
-difference:        + 0,35(ns)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4      7,1   6,0   8,2   -2,2(.05)
5-6     11,0   9,8  12,2   -2,5(.05)
7-8     23,5  22,7  24,4   -1,7(ns)
9-10    58,4  61,6  55,3   +6,4(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study HR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Croatia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5809

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 8,21
girls:            M = 7,62
-difference:        + 0,60 (.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G diff.
0-4      7,3   5,1   9,4   - 4,3(.05)
5-6     12,2   9,3  14,8   - 5,5(ns)
7-8     32,7  32,1  33,3   - 1,3(ns)
9-10    47,8  53,6  42,5   +11,1(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKaliterna Lipovcan & Prizmic-Larsen (2016): study HR 2008
TitleWhat Differs between Happy and Unhappy People?
SourceSpringerplus, 2016, Vol. 5, 225 - 240
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4771683/
DOIdoi: 10.1186/s40064-016-1929-7
Public18+ aged happy and unhappy people, Croatia, 2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =800

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 6
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: males
0: females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-aD%=- ns
              happy    unhappy
males          45%       50%
females        55%       50%
difference    -10%        0%
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-aChi²=1.81 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyVuletic (2004): study HR 2001
TitleGenerational and Transgenerational Factors of Health Related Quality of Life in Croatia.
SourcePhD Thesis, Faculty of Medicine, University of Logves, 2004, Croatia
PublicAdults, general public, Croatia, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =182

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 11
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Female
2 Male
Observed distribution%N: 1=39.1, 2=60.9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=-
     M (SD)      Mt        CI95  
1: 3.45(1.01)   4.90    [3.41;3.48]
2: 4.09(1.00)   6.18    [4.04;4.13]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aChi²=0.07 p < .79


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyVuletic et al. (2002): study HR 1997
TitleHealth Related Quality of Life (HRQL) Assessment in Croatian Population Using the SF-36.
SourceQuality of Life Newsletter, 2002, Vol. 29, 7
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vuletic_g_2002.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Croatia, 1997-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5048

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
Gender
1 Female
2 Male
Observed distribution%N: 2=39.3, 1=60.7
Remarks
mean age: 2=48.49,      1=49.47

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDMt=+
    M     Mt    CI95
2  3.67  5.33  [5.22;5.45]
1  3.57  5.14  [5.05;5.23]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aF=6.96 p < .00
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aE²=0.00
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aBMCT= p < .01
1>2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCantril (1965): study CU 1960
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged, general public, urban areas, Cuba, 1960
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =992

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 378
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study CY 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Cyprus, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5571

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 7,27
girls:            M = 6,86
-difference:         +0,41(.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4     13,7  12,2  15,0   -2,8(.05)
5-6     19,7  18,0  21,4   -3,4(.05)
7-8     36,5  34,6  38,4   -3,7(ns)
9-10    30,1  35,1  25,2   +9,9(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study CZ 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Czech Replublic, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5587

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 7,37
girls:            M = 6,72
-difference:        + 0,65 

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4     13,8  11,1  16,6   - 5,5(ns)
5-6     20,3  17,2  23,6   - 6,4(.05)
7-8     35,3  36,3  34,2   + 2,1(ns)
9-10    30,6  35,4  25,6   + 9,8(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHnilicova (2003): study CZ 2000
TitleImpact of Social Changes after Year 1989 on the Quality of Life of the Czech People.
SourcePaper presented at the 10th Conference of the ISQLR, 2003, Praque, Czech Republic
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/hnilicova_h_2003.pdf
PublicHealthy men and women, Prague, Czech Republic, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response10%
Respondents N =1200

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 3
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: females
1: males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-cy-sq-n-7-aDM=+
females  M = 4,97
males    M = 5,16
difference  +0,19

No difference in age category 18-45 years


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CZ 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Czechoslovakia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1396

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.63     Mt=5.4
1       M=2.72     Mt=5.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.21      Mt=5.8
1       M=6.39      Mt=6.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .58      Mt=5.6
1       M= .94      Mt=5.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.07 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.07 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.13 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.06 p < .05
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.10 p < .001
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study CZ 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1603

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Error Estimatess.e.=.089
Remarks
Recoded by WDH

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.19 p < .05
Beta controlled by:
- life situation
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKohler et al. (2005): study DK 2002
TitlePartner + Children = Happiness? The Effects of Partnerships and Fertility on Well-Being.
SourcePopulation and Development Review, 2005, Vol. 31, 407 - 445
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00078.x
Public20-70 aged identical twins, Denmark, 2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 414
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 females
1 males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gDM=+
ALL
- males     M = 1.48     SD = 0.57
- females   M = 1.45     SD = 0.58
difference    + 0.03
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gDM=+
AGE 25-45
- males     M = 1.46     SD = 0.59
- females   M = 1.45     SD = 0.59
difference    + 0,01
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gDM=+
AGE 50-70
- males     M = 1.51     SD = 0.55
- females   M = 1.46     SD = 0.57
difference    + 0.05

4-step lifesatisfaction reduced to 3-step by 
combining 1+2

means and differences are calculated by WDH team


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyNybo et al. (2001): study DK 1998
TitleFunctional Status and Self-Rated Health in 2,262 Nonagenarians: the Danish 1905 Cohort Study.
SourceJournal of the American Geriatics Society, 2001, Vol. 49, 601 - 609
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2001.49121.x/abstract
Public92-93 aged, Denmark, 1998
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response37
Respondents N =2262

Correlate
Author's labelSexe
Page in Source 607
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Men 
0: Women
Remarks
N = 1:491, 2:1307

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-v-3-aDM=- p < .662
Males:    M = 2.62  CI95 = [2.68 - 2.56]
Women:    M = 2.65  CI95 = [2.69 - 2.62]
- difference -0,03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 288
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: female
2: male
Observed distributionN all:4344, 1:53,5%, 2:46,5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1: Mt=7.70
2: Mt=7.76
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.01 p < .357
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1: Mt=7.44
2: Mt=7.36
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.02 p < .322
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
1: Mt=7.06
2: Mt=6.95
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.03 p < .058


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelmale sex
Page in Source 46
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male
Observed distributionN: 0: 746, 1: 736

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.03 ns
  0:Mt=7.70
  1:Mt=7.81
All Mt=7.76
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.00 ns
 0: Mt=7.43
 1: Mt=7.44
All Mt=7,44
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.02 ns
 0: Mt=6.98
 1: Mt=6.90
All Mt=6.94


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelgender
Page in Source 52
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male
Observed distributionN: 0:2489, 1:2131

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.01 ns
0: Mt=7.71
1: Mt=7.78
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.01 ns
0: Mt=7.45
1: Mt=7.39
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.03 p < .04
0: Mt=7.08
1: Mt=6.95


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLewinter et al. (1996): study DK Hovenstaden (Capital region, København) 1991
TitleThe Social Situation of Elderly Turkish Immigrants in Copenhagen, Denmark.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 1996, Vol. 11, 115 - 129
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF00114856
Public55+aged Turkish migrants, Copenhagen, Denmark, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44%
Respondents N =116

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 124
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-gD%= p < .05
% happy very or somewhat)
              Turkish   Danish
Males          77        89
Females        65        88
- difference + 12       +01

No significant gender difference in happiness was 
found among native elderly Danes (Holstein, 
Almond, Due & Holst 1989)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DK 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.36     Mt=7.9
1       M=3.36     Mt=7.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=8.07      Mt=7.9
1       M=8.25      Mt=8.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.93      Mt=6.9
1       M=1.92      Mt=6.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.05 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.01 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.03 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study DK 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1182

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 370
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1. males
0. females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study DK 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =767

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Error Estimatess.e.=.131
Remarks
Recoded by WDH

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.02 ns
Beta controlled by:
- life situation
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyEurobarometer (1975a): study DK 1975
TitleEurobarometer, European Men and Women. A Comparison of their Attitudes to Some of the Problems Facing Society.
SourceEuropean Commission,1975, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://aei.pitt.edu/10640/
Public15+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1975
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1039

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 143/155
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bG=-.08 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.13 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyAllardt (1973): study DK 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Denmark, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 female
1 male 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=-.07
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness,anxiety, frequency 
of meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, number of memberships in 
clubs and associations, interesting life, easyness 
of life, lonelyness, feelings of being liked, 
feeling of being able to use knowledge and skills, 
feeling of chance to succeed, gets sufficient 
attention, satisfaction with income, age, no. of 
communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyIisager (1948): study DK 1946
TitleFactors Contributing to Happiness among Danish College Students.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 1948, Vol. 28, 237 - 246
PublicAdult college students, Denmark, 1946-47
Sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =113

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 241
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Females
1 males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-g-sq-v-5-aD%=- ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study DO 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Dominican Republic, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4740

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/- ns
boys:             M = 8,55
girls:            M = 8,45
-difference:         +0,10

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G diff.
0-4      8,3   8,0   8,6    -0,6
5-6      8,3   8,1   8,4    -0,3
7-8     15,7  14,7  16,5    -1,8
9-10    67,8  69,2  66,4    +2,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCantril (1965): study DO 1962
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Dominican Republic, 1962
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response-
Respondents N =814

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 378
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=-.12 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyPontarollo et al. (2018): study EC 2015
TitleThe Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in A Developing Country: The Ecuadorian Case.
SourceJCR Report, 2018, Nr. 109319, European Commission, Luxembourg
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ipt/iptwpa/jrc109319.html
DOIdoi: 10.2760/858865
PublicAdults, Ecuador, 2015
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21265

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 8,12
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Observed distributionMale=73%; SD=.44
Error Estimatesb: SE=.03; OLRC: SE=.04

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-nb=+.10 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-nOLRC=+.13 p < .01
b and OLRC controlled for:
Aggregate variables:
- regional economy dependent on oil production
- VGA pc (log regional income)
- income inequality
- natural hazard risk
- urban/rural area
Individual variables:
- urban/rural
- age and age squared
- marital status
- importance of religion
- institutional trust
- leisure time
- education
- employed
- socio-economic status
- health insurance
- walls in good condition
- internet access
- home-owner
- household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCantril (1965): study EG 1960
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public15+ aged, general public, Egypt, 1960
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =499

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 378
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study EE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Estonia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5587

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 7,73
girls:            M = 7,27
-difference:        + 0,46 (.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4      9,3   7,0  11,6   - 4,6(.05)
5-6     16,2  14,6  17,8   - 3,2(.05)
7-8     37,6  38,1  37,1   + 1,0(ns)
9-10    36,9  40,3  33,5   + 6,8(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySchoon et al. (2005): study EE 2000 /2
TitleCombining Work and Family. Life Satisfaction Among Married and Divorced Men and Women in Estonia, Finland, and the UK.
SourceEuropean Psychologist, 2005, Vol. 10, 309 - 319
DOIdoi: 10.1027/1016-9040.10.4.309
PublicMarrieds and divorced, Estonia, 2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1556

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 312, 314, 315
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male
Observed distributionfemales = 657, males = 507

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dF=4,46
Interaction effect gender and marital status
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dF=3,51 p < .03
Interaction effect gender and employment status
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dF=6,17 p < .002
Interaction effect gender and marital status and 
employment status
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dF=6,83
employed only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study EE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1008

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.58     Mt=5.3
1       M=2.59     Mt=5.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.90      Mt=5.4 
1       M=6.12      Mt=5.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .55      Mt=5.5
1       M=1.03      Mt=6.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.13 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.05 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.06 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.15 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.01 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.13 p < .001
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study EE 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =816

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Error Estimatess.e.=.137
Remarks
Recoded by WDH

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.29 p < .05
Beta controlled by:
- life situation
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study FI 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Finland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5882

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/- p < .05
boys:             M = 8,25
girls:            M = 7,51
-difference:        + 0,74 

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4      6,6   4,0   9,4   - 5,4
5-6     10,2   7,4  13,2   - 5,8
7-8     38,7  36,4  41,3   - 4,9
9-10    44,4  52,2  36,1   +16,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLönnqvist & Itkonen (2014): study FI 2012
TitleIt’s all about Extraversion: Why Facebook Friend Count doesn’t Count towards Well-being.
SourceJournal of Research in Personality, 2014, Vol. 53, 64 - 67
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092656614000968
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jrp.2014.08.009
Public18+ aged, students, Finland
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4701

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 65-66
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign reversed by WDH-team and hence association

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.09 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.07 p < .01
Beta's controlled for:
- age

Beta's not significantly affected by additional 
control for:
- number of Facebook friends
- extraversion
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.13 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.11 p < .001
Beta's additionally controlled for:
- number of Facebook friends
- extraversion
- emotional stability
- openness to experience
- agreeableness
- conscientiousness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySchoon et al. (2005): study FI 2000 /1
TitleCombining Work and Family. Life Satisfaction Among Married and Divorced Men and Women in Estonia, Finland, and the UK.
SourceEuropean Psychologist, 2005, Vol. 10, 309 - 319
DOIdoi: 10.1027/1016-9040.10.4.309
PublicEmployed people, Finland, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1750

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 312, 314, 315
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male
Observed distributionFemales = 943, males = 447

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=-.15
Women      M = 6,86
Men        M = 6,71
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=-.07
Married
Men      M = 7,25
Women    M = 7,32
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=-,26
Divorced
Men      M = 6,17
Women    M = 6,43
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dF=5,43 p < .05
Interaction effect gender and part-time vs 
full-time work
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dF=5,34 p < .05
interaction effect gender, marital status and 
part-time vs full-time work


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study FI 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Finland, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =610

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 10,28
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0:females
1:males
Observed distributionUrban: 0=60,5%;1= 39,5% Rural:0=55,5%; 1=44,6%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.13 p < .05
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.11 p < .05
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
  - satisfaction with leisure
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - Income per person
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHeinonen et al. (2004): study FI 1997
TitleIs the Evaluation of the Global Quality of Life Determined by Emotional Status?
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2004, Vol.13, 1347 - 1356
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:QURE.0000040788.12947.b9
Public25-65 aged, 5 regions, Finland, 1997
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =3838

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 1350
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-cm-sq-ol-101-aDM=-
females M=69,6
males   M=68,6
O-QLS-cm-sq-ol-101-aF=2,7 p < .09


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMatikka & Ojanen (2002): study FI 1994
TitleHappiness in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities.
SourcePaper 2002, FAMR Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/matikka_lm_2002.pdf
Public18-77 aged intellectually disabled, Finland, 1994-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =376

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 16
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
Gender
0  Female
1  Male
Observed distribution0=191(51%), 1=185(49%)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aChi²=+.01 ns
%happy:
Male=85 
Female=85


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelSexe
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 = male
0 = female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
males      M = 3.62   (N=1294)
females    M = 3.80   (N=1395)
- difference  -0.18


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FI 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =588

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
1       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.79      Mt=7.5
1       M=7.58      Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.16      Mt=6.2
1       M=1.21      Mt=6.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
1       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
1       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
1       M=1.72      Mt=6.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.06 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.09 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.07 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.09 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.05 p < .05
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.04 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.08 p < .05
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.05 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.01 ns
ß controlled for age and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKoivumaa-Honkanen (1998): study FI 1975
TitleLife Satisfaction as a Health Predictor.
SourceDoctoral Dissertation, University of Turku, 1998, Finland (Kuopio University Publications D. Medical Sciences 143)
Public18-64 aged adult twin pairs, Finland, 1975
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response271
Respondents N =29444

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 69
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1=men
0=women
Observed distribution1=49%, 0= 51%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jDM=- p < .05
All
1: M=3.83, CI95[3.82-3.84], Mt=7.08
0: M=3.89, CI95[3.88-3.91], Mt=7.23
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jDM=-
Age 18-24
1: M=3.80, Mt=7.00
0: M=3.97, Mt=7.43
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jDM=-
Age 25-34
1: M=3.94, Mt=7.35
0: M=4.00, Mt=7.50
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jDM=-
Age 35-44
1: M=3.84, Mt=7.00
0: M=3.88, Mt=7.20
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jDM=+
Age 45-55
1: M=3.74, Mt=6.85
0: M=3.71, Mt=6.78
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jDM=+
Age 56-64
1: M=3.65, Mt=6.63
0: M=3.60, Mt=6.50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyAllardt (1973): study FI 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 female
1 male 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.02
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness,anxiety, frequency 
of meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, number of memberships in 
clubs and associations, interesting life, easyness 
of life, lonelyness, feelings of being liked, 
feeling of being able to use knowledge and skills, 
feeling of chance to succeed, gets sufficient 
attention, satisfaction with income, age, no. of 
communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHaavio-Mannila (1971): study FI 1966
TitleSatisfaction with Family, Work, Leisure and Life among Men and Women.
SourceHuman Relations, 1971, Vol. 24, 585 - 601
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1966
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =948

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 587
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Females
1 Males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-3-bG=-.17 p < .05
Unaffected by marital status.

Helsinki:                        G' = -.21 (05)
 Stronger among those of low S.E.S.
Rural communes:                  G' = -.12 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHeadey & Krause (1994): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleInequalities of Income, Health and Happiness: The Stratification Paradigm and Alternatives.
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =9114

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 22
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 female
2 male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.01
1984 raw correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=-.01
1991 raw correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.01
1984 disattenuated correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=-.01
1991 disatenuated correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Disattenuated correlations are obtained by 
assuming validity coefficients of 1.0 for gender 
and 0.8 for happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 25
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.07 p < .01
Women happier than men

B's controled for:
- age
- education
- household income
- position in the household
- employment
- country of origin
- time (dummy for wave of panel)
and additionally for:
- trait-happiness (average over all 14 waves)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLeisure Development Cen (1980): study XZ Germany West 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1020

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 737/41
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 female 
1 male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=-.01 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=-.01 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=-.00 ns
males  :   13 % very happy
females:   11 % very happy
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=-.01 ns
males  : 17 % very satisfied
females: 17 % very satisfied


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHabich (2002): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleImmer mehr für immer mehr. Anmerkungen zur Wohlfahrts forschung in vergleichenden Perspective. (Ever more for Ever more: Welfare Development in a Comparative Perpective).
SourceGlatzer, W.; et al; Eds.: "Sozialer Wandel und Gesellschaftliche Dauernbeobachtung" , Leske & Budrich, 2002, Germany, 199 - 209
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1978 - 2001.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 205
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1  males
0  females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
WEST
Age    Year     Men    Women    Difference
18-34: 1978    M=7,65  M=7,84      -,19    
       1980    M=7,63  M=7,70      -,07
       1984    M=7,68  M=7,96      -,28  
       1988    M=7,73  M=8,07      -,34
       1990      -       -    
       1993    M=8,00  M=8,01      -,01
       1998    M=7,66  M=7,67      -,01 
       1999    M=7,81  M=7,77      +,04 
       2001    M=7,35  M=7,50      -,15

35-59: 1978    M=7,83  M=7,86      -,03
       1980    M=7,61  M=7,58      +,03
       1984    M=7,70  M=7,79      -,09   
       1988    M=7,89  M=7,98      -,09 
       1990      -       -   
       1993    M=7,82  M=7,99      -,17  
       1998    M=7,71  M=7,74      -,03
       1999    M=7,71  M=7,84      -,13
       2001    M=7,64  M=7,76      -,12

+60:   1978    M=8,13  M=7,88      +,25
       1980    M=8,15  M=7,62      +,53
       1984    M=8,02  M=7,39      +,63
       1988    M=8,01  M=7,83      +,18
       1990      -       -      
       1993    M=7,88  M=7,75      +,13
       1998    M=8,00  M=7,67      +,33
       1999    M=7,88  M=7,63      +,25
       2001    M=7,69  M=7,53      +,16
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
EAST
Age    Year    Men     Women   Difference
18-34: 1990    M=6,90  M=6,72    +,18
       1993    M=7,28  M=6,98    +,30
       1998    M=7,00  M=7,52    -,52
       1999    M=7,62  M=7,42    +,20
       2001    M=6,51  M=6,83    -,32

35-59: 1990    M=6,63  M=6,23    +,40
       1993    M=6,70  M=6,69    +,01
       1998    M=6,96  M=7,23    -,27
       1999    M=6,94  M=6,80    +,14
       2001    M=6,94  M=6,73    +,21

+60:   1990    M=6,79  M=6,59    +,20
       1993    M=6,79  M=7,00    -,21
       1998    M=7,85  M=7,45    +,40
       1999    M=7,82  M=7,05    +,77
       2001    M=7,14  M=7,16    -,02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1976 /2
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public14+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7965

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 220
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 females
1 males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bG=-.04 p < .01
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-btb=-.02 p < .01
Males:   65% happy face   25% unhappy
Females: 68% happy face   24% unhappy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyEurobarometer (1975a): study XZ Germany West 1975
TitleEurobarometer, European Men and Women. A Comparison of their Attitudes to Some of the Problems Facing Society.
SourceEuropean Commission,1975, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://aei.pitt.edu/10640/
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1975
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1039

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 143/155
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.35 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.10 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1970
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, industry or service sector, Austria and West germany, ±1970
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5592

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 99
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Females 
1 Males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-aE²=-.07 p < .01
Male            M=4.91  Mt=6.52
Female          M=5.11  Mt=6.85


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCantril (1965): study XZ Germany West 1957
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
PublicAdults, general public, West-Germany, 1957
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =480

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 378
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Females
1 Males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.17 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study XZ Germany West 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =3341

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 156
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Females
1 Males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=-.02 ns
0                             M'=1.58  Mt'=2.9
1                                1.56      2.8
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.04 ns
                       
                           


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study FR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, France, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6108

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 7,86
girls:            M = 7,41
-difference:        + 0,45 (.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G diff.
0-4      7,4   6,5   8,2   - 1,5(ns)
5-6     14,9  11,4  18,4   - 7,1(ns)
7-8     41,1  40,7  41,5   - 0,9(ns)
9-10    36,6  41,5  31,8   + 9,7(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMayol & Pénard (2017): study FR 2013
TitleFacebook Use and Individual Well-Being: Like Me to Make Me Happier!
SourceRevue d'Ecenomie Industriel, 2017, Vol. 158, 101-127
URLhttp://journals.openedition.org/rei/6570
Public15+ aged, Facebook users, France, 2013
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 109-113, 117-118
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female
Observed distributionM= .50; SE= .50
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-7-ab=+.04 ns
b controlled for:
- sociodemographic characteristics:
  - age
  - social status
  - income
  - household size

- b not significantly affected by additional 
control for:
  - offline sociability
    - volunteer
    - off line sociability
    - cultural outings
    - friends
  - online sociability
    - 'interactiveuse': regular interactive use of 
Facebook)
    - 'passiveuse': looking at walls of friends on 
Facebook without interactions)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, France, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
1       M=3.12     Mt=7.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.82      Mt=6.5
1       M=6.74      Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.22      Mt=6.2
1       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.07 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.07 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.07 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.10 p < .001
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.04 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.08 p < .001
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study FR 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, France, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1200

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 370
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1. males
0. females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLeisure Development Cen (1980): study FR 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, France, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 215/9
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 female 
1 male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.05 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.03 ns
males  : 14% very happy
females: 16% very happy 
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.03 p < .05
males  : 14% very satisfied
females: 13% very satisfied


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyEurobarometer (1975a): study FR 1975
TitleEurobarometer, European Men and Women. A Comparison of their Attitudes to Some of the Problems Facing Society.
SourceEuropean Commission,1975, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://aei.pitt.edu/10640/
Public15+ aged, general public, France, 1975
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1196

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 143/155
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.14 ns
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bG=-.22 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyClement (1980): study FR 1975 /1
TitleDe la Variation de Quelques Traits de Personalité en Fonction, notamment, de l'Age, du Sexe et du Niveau Intellectuel. (The Variation of Certain Personality Traits in Relation to Age, Sex, and Intelligent Level).
SourcePsychologie Francaise, 1980, Vol. 25, 95 - 113
Public60-69 aged women, lower class, France 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =922

Correlate
Author's labelMale sexe
Page in Source 100
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 females
1 males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-ol-9-aDM=+
Females   M=6,65   Mt'=7,06
Males     M=6,72   Mt'=7,15
O-SP-u-sq-ol-9-aDM=+
Females   M=6,40   Mt'=6,75
Males     M=6,68   Mt'=7,10
O-HV-u-sq-ol-9-aDM=+
Females   M=5,91   Mt'=6,13
Males     M=6,40   Mt'=6,75


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study FR 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, France, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 147
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Females
1 Males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.01 ns
0                             M'=1.36  Mt'=1.9
1                                1.37      1.8
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.02 ns
                       
                           


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study DE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Germany, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6522

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 7,76
girls:            M = 6,96
-difference:        + 0,80(.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G diff.
0-4     11,1   7,9  14,2   - 6,4(.05)
5-6     16,1  12,1  20,0   - 7,9(.05)
7-8     38,9  39,2  38,6   + 0,6(ns)
9-10    34,0  40,9  27,2   +13,7(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSexe
Page in Source 1
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Observed distribution1: 1087, 0: 1066

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-
male     M = 6.9
female   M = 7.2
-difference -0.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBoniel-Nissim et al. (2015): study DE 2009
TitleSupportive Communication with Parents Moderates the Negative Effects of Electronic Media Use on Life Satisfaction during Adolescence
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2015, Vol. 60, 189-198
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00038-014-0636-9
DOIdoi:10.1007/s00038-014-0636-9
PublicStudents, aged 11-15,Germany, 2009-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5070

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 194,T3
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-aF=5.21 p < .05
F= 5.21


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyChristoph (2010): study DE 2007 /1
TitleThe Relation between Life Satisfaction and the Material Situation: A Re-Evaluation using Alternative Measures.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 475 - 499
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9552-4
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2007
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11424

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 492
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRCs=-.05 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.18 p < .01
Beta and OLRC controlled for:
- income
- savings
- debts
- region
- nationality
- age
- marital status
- education
- health
- employment status

OLRC-S and OLRC not significantly affected by
additionally controlling for:
- deprivation
- savings
- debts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyChristoph (2010): study DE 2007
TitleThe Relation between Life Satisfaction and the Material Situation: A Re-Evaluation using Alternative Measures.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 475 - 499
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9552-4
PublicWorking aged, general public, Germany, 2007/2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response69.5%
Respondents N =9408

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 493
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRCs=-.04 p < .05
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRC=-.15 p < .05
OLRC-S and OLRC controlled for:
- income
- savings
- debts
- region
- nationality
- age
- marital status
- education
- health
- employment status

Beta and OLRC not significantly affected by
additionally controlling for:
- deprivation
- savings
- debts
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRCs=-.06 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRC=-.24 p < .01
OLRC-S and OLRC additionally controlled for:
- deprivation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKrasnova et al. (2013): study DE Berlin 2007
TitleEnvy on Facebook: A Hidden Threat to Users’ Life Satisfaction?
SourcePaper for 11th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, 27th February - 01st March 2013, 1 - 17 Leipzig, Germany
URLhttp://aisel.aisnet.org/wi2013/92/
Public18+ aged, students, Berlin, Germany 20?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =227

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 9-11
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Observed distribution31,7% male; 67,8% female
Remarks
Sign reversed by WDH-team and hence association

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-cb=-19 p < .01
b controlled for:
- envy
- passive following Facebook
- number of friends
- age
- active participation (internet)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKrause (2013): study DE 2007
TitleDon't Worry, be Happy? Happiness and Reemployment.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013, Vol. 96, 1 - 20
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
Public16+ aged, recently fallen unemployed, Germany, 2007-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2542

Correlate
Author's labelMale
Page in Source 5, 7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female
Observed distribution1: 46.7% SD=0.499

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.22 p < .05
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) age and age squared
  b) disabled
  c) marital status
  d) having a partner
  e) employment status spouse
  f) employment status partner
  g) (number of) children in household
  h) education
  i) migrant status
  j) wage in last job
  k) duration of last job
  l) unemployment benefits
  m) reason of termination of last job
- Environmental characteristics:
  n) national unemployment rate
  o) region/state in Germany
- Interview-specific characteristics:
  p) interview cohort
  q) time between unemployment entry and


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyNesterko et al. (2013): study DE 2006
TitleLife Satisfaction and Health-Related Quality of Life in Immigrants and Native-Born Germans: The Role of Immigration-Related Factors
SourceQuality of Life Research, 22, 1005-1013
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11136-012-0239-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2006
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21079

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 1006, 1009
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female
Observed distribution1: 50.3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=+
Males:        Ma=6.93
Females:      Ma=6.89 
- difference:   0.04
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dE²=.000
Ma and eta squared are controlled for:
- immigrant background
- age
- age*gender
- immigration background*gender
- immigration background*gender*age group


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyNesterko et al. (2013): study DE 2006 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Health-Related Quality of Life in Immigrants and Native-Born Germans: The Role of Immigration-Related Factors
SourceQuality of Life Research, 22, 1005-1013
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11136-012-0239-y
Public16+ aged migrants, Germany, 2006
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2971

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 1008, 1009, 1011
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Observed distribution1: 47.1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-
Males:        Ma=6.73
Females:      Ma=6.77 
- difference:   0.04
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dE²=.000
Means and eta squared controlled for:
- age
- length of time living in Germany
- gender*length of time living in Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=
Males:        Ma=6.81
Females:      Ma=6.84 
- difference:   0.03
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dE²=.000
Ma and eta squared controlled for:
- age
- possession of German citizenship
- gender*possession of German citizenship


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2004
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22012

Correlate
Author's labelSex: male
Page in Source 508
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.25 p < .01
IN WEST-GERMANY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.20 p < .01
IN EAST-GERMANY

B's controlled for:
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) perceived local safety
  b) neighbourhood status
  c) social contact with neighbours
  d) rate of removal
  e) urbanization
- personal characteristics
  a) conscientiousness
  b) extraversion
  c) agreeableness
  d) neuroticism
  e) external locus of control
  f) internal locus of control
  g) status compared to others in neighbourhood
  h) openness
  i) nationality
  j) age and age squared
  k) household income
  l) education
  m) marital status
  n) mental health
  o) physical health
  p) having children

East-Germany is the former communist German 
Democratic Republic, which was reunited in 1990 
with West-Germany.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKoch et al. (2005): study DE 2002
TitleWorkfare: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen. (Workfare: Possibilities and Limitations).
SourceIAB Discusdsion Paper no. 17/2005, Nürnberg, Germany
URLhttps://www.econstor.eu/dspace/bitstream/10419/31924/1/498010902.PDF
Public18-65 aged, on low wage or on social security, Germany, 2002-2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2568

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 29
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Man
1 Woman

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.08 ns
B controlled for: 
- Employment status, social assistence
- Net household income
- Net household income per head
- Nationality (German, not German)
- Age
- Age squared
- Years of education in school and occupation
- Living together with a partner
- Satisfaction with health
- Level of being unfit for work activity
- Region (West, East)
- Year (2002, 2003)

Robust OLS. Ordered Probit analysis yiels similar 
result


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLau & Kramer (2005): study DE 2002
TitleDie Relativitätstheorie des Glücks. Über das Leben von Lottomillionären. The Relativity Theorie of Happiness; On the Life of Lotto Millionaires.
SourceBook, 2005, 1 - 155
URLhttp://www.springer.com/de/book/9783862260072
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response2 %
Respondents N =1715

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 115
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-5-cD%=-
% happy
male           31 %
female         37 %
-difference    -6 %


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study DE 2002
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9958

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 16
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.26 ns
B controlled for
- equivalised income
- net worth
- equivalised consumption
- age
- partnered
- education
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyErlinghagen (2011): study DE 2002
TitleNowhere Better Than Here? The Subjective Well-Being of German Emigrants and Remigrants.
SourceComparative Population Studies-Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, 2011, Vol. 36, 899 -926
URLhttp://www.comparativepopulationstudies.de/index.php/CPoS/article/view/80
Public15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11096

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 911, 916, 918
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Observed distribution1: 46%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.10 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.14 p < .01
B's controlled for:
- immigration status
- age
- age^2
- education
- employment
- friends
- partner
- children
- health
- general trustfullness
- satisfaction with democracy
- frequency of praying
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTrzcinski & Holst (2006): study DE 2001
TitleSetting the Set Point. Initial Predictors of Life Satisfaction in Early Adulthood.
SourceDiscussion paper 558, DIW (German Institute for Economic Research), 2006, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/44083/dp558.pdf
Public17 aged, Germany, 2001-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1202

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 15,24,25
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female (reference category)
1 Male
Observed distribution0= 51 %, 1 = 49 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.15 p < .05
Male (vs female)

b controlled for:
- personal control  
- satisfaction with grades
- perceived of probability of success in education 
and work
- nationality
- east or west german
- household composition
- income
- education  
- number of important relationships
- relationship with mother 
- relationship with father
- mother worked part-time or full-time entire year 
(vs not)
- months of unemployment of mother in the previous 
year
- mother’s  worries about financial situation 
- life satisfaction of mother 
b = +.15 means that being male correspondents with 
0.15 points more happiness on the 0-10 point scale 
compared to being female


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study DE 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Germany, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 10,28
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0:females
1:males
Observed distributionGermany West: Urban: 0=56.3%;1= 43.7% Rural:0=55.1%; 1=44.9% Germany East: Urban: 0=58.8%;1= 41.2% Rural:0=57.8%; 1=42.2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Germany West
-urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
-rural areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Germany East
-urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
-rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
  - satisfaction with leisure
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - Income per person
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyWinkelmann (2006): study DE 2000
TitleParental Separation and Well-Being of Youths. Evidence from Germany.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 197 - 208
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.008
Public16-18 aged, Germany, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 5,17,18
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male
Observed distributionM =0,493 (49%), SD = 0,500

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
also controlled for:
- non-intact family
- household income 
- having an own room
- being a single child
- German nationality
- Territory of West Germany
- Being in school
- Engaged in vocational training
- work
- lives at home
- region of childhood (mid-sized city,small-city, 
rural area)
probit result=-0,022
CI95=[ -0,18  0,14]
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
additionally controlled for
-type of school(hauptschule, realschule, 
gymnasium)
-good student
-repeat a grade
-education of parents(father gymnasium, mother 
gymnasium)
-log number of books in the household
probit result= 0,058
CI95=[ -0,11  0,23]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female  (reference)
Observed distributionM = 0,492 SD = 0,5
Remarks
In original: Woman. Order reversed by WDH team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.09 p < .01
B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - employment status
  - marital status
  - nationality
- personality traits
- accomodation
- absolute lack of
  - facilities (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables   (car, telephone, etc)
  - health     (bad health, disabled etc)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.10 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative (instead of absolute) lack of 
  - income
  - savings
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.09 p < .01
B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- absolute lack
- relative lack

All Bs based on Probit adapted OLS. Random effects 
model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMollenkopf & Kaspar (2005): study DE 2000
TitleAgeing in Rural Areas of East and West Germany: Increasing Similarities and Remaining Differences.
SourceEuropean Journal of Aging, 2005, Vol. 2, 120 - 130
DOIdoi:10.1007/s10433-005-0029-2
Public55+ aged, general public, rural areas, East and West Germany, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response41,6%
Respondents N =762

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 122, 127
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0:females
1:males
Observed distribution0:West-Germany:N=192; East Germany:N=189; 1:West Germany:N=191; East Germany: N=190

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=+.12 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- Socio-demographic: 
   - satisfaction with finances
   - age
- Health-related:
   - activities of daily living
   - visu-motoric coordination
   - affect balance score 
   - satisfaction with health
- Social network:
   - household type
   - network variety
- Housing:
   - basic household features
   - home ownership
   - satisfaction with housing
- Living area:
   - available services
   - neighbourhood features
   - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
   - car use as passenger
   - car use as driver
   - satisfaction with public transport
   - satisfaction with mobility
- Leisure time activities:
   - outdoor leisure activities
   - satisfaction with leisure activities

No interaction with region (East/West Germany)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyChristoph (2010): study DE 1998
TitleThe Relation between Life Satisfaction and the Material Situation: A Re-Evaluation using Alternative Measures.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 475 - 499
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9552-4
PublicWorking aged, general public, Germany, 1998
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response56%
Respondents N =2130

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 493
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRCs=-.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.15 ns
OLRC-S and OLRC controlled for:
- income
- region
- nationality
- age
- marital status
- education
- health
- employment status

Beta and OLRC not significantly affected by
additionally controlling for:
- deprivation
- savings
- debts
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRCs=-.05 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.20 p < .05
OLRC-S and OLRC additionally controlled for:
- deprivation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyObucina (2013): study DE 1994
TitleThe Patterns of Satisfaction Among Immigrants in Germany
Source Social Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 113, 1105 - 1127.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-012-0130-9
Public18-65 aged general public, Germany, followed 16 years, 1994-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =209989

Correlate
Author's labelMale
Page in Source 1115
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.15 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Relative deprivation
- Household income
- Household composition
- Marital status
- Gender
- Education
- Foreign-born
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Living in West- vs East-Germany
- Savings
- Health
- Year controls


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySchyns (2000): study DE 1992
TitleThe Relationship between Income, Changes in Income and Life-Satisfaction in West Germany and the Russian Federation. Relative, Absolute or a Combination of Both?
SourceDiener, E.;Rathz, D.R.;Eds.: "Advances in Quality of Life Theory and Research", Kluwer, 2000, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 110
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 4 years, 1992-1996
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4398

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 95
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1) males
0) females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
         Mean    Unhappy(1-3) Very happy(8-10)
Male     5.2     4.1%         19.0%
Female   4.9     34.7%        12.5%
Diff     +0.3    +30.6%       +6,5%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyClark (2015): study DE 1992
TitleSWB as a Measure of Individual Well-Being.
SourceHal Archives, 2015, Pse Working Papers, No 2015-11, 1 - 45, Paris, France
URLhttps://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01134483
Public16+ aged, general public, followed 10 years, Germany, 1992-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =368000

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 10,12,13,22
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Observed distribution0: 51%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
DM computed by WDH-team.

Pooled sample.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyFrijters et al. (2004a): study DE 1991 /1
TitleMoney does Matter! Evidence from Increasing Real Income and Life Satisfaction in East Germany following Reunification.
SourceThe American Economic Review, 2004, Vol. 94, 730 - 740
DOIDOI:10.1257/0002828041464551
Public21-64 aged general public, East Germany, 1991-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3086

Correlate
Author's labelMeans
Page in Source 731
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: males
0: females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
                1991  2001  difference
Males:     M =  6.00  6.42  +0.42
Females:   M =  5.93  6.51  +0.58
- difference   +0.07 -0.09  -0.02
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMielke (1997): study DE 1990
TitleWohlbefinden und Fitness. Eine empirische Analyse zur Lebens-, Gesundheits- und Freizeitzufriedenheit älterer Menschen. (Welfare and Fitness of Elderly).
SourceDissertation, University of Cologne, Medical Faculty, 1997, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-1991
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Responseonknown
Respondents N =6000

Correlate
Author's labelsexe
Page in Source 33
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0:female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aD%=+
% happy
- males   47%
- females 46%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBernheim et al. (2006): study DE 1990
TitleThe Potential of Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment (ACSA) to Reduce Bias in the Measurement of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2006, Vol. 7, 227 - 250
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-4755-0
PublicPatients university hospital, Berlin, Germany 1990-2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2584

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 238
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-qBeta=+.43 p < .05
C-BW-c-sq-ol-11-aBeta=+.01 ns
Beta's controled for
-age
-maried stage
-education
-employed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 1496, 1510
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: females
1: males
Observed distribution0: 258; 1: 258

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-aDM=+
Females:   M = 3,6
Males:     M = 3,8
- difference  +0.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHeadey & Headey (2003): study DE 1990
TitleGerman Reunification: Welfare Gains and Losses East and West.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol. 64, 107 - 138
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1024780114892
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response± 40%
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelMale and female headed households
Page in Source 119, 132/5
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
Household heads aged 25-29
1 females
2 males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
                   East              West
            1990  1992  1997   1990  1992  1997

Female       6.7   5.0   6.3    7.0   7.1   7.1
Male         6.6   6.1   6.2    7.4   7.4   6.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE East Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1336

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
1       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.72      Mt=6.4
1       M=6.72      Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.04      Mt=6.0
1       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.12 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.00 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-ar=+.04 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-atc=+.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.14 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.10 p < .001
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHeadey (2008): study DE 1990
TitleLife Goals Matter to Happiness: A Revision of Set-Point Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 86, 213 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9138-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3553

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 222, 225
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 males
2 females
Remarks
T1: 1990, T2: 1995, T3: 2004

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.05 ns
T3 LEVEL of happiness

Beta controlled for
-current priorities at T3 for life goals
-age
-extraversion
-neuroticism
-internal locus of control
-having a partner
-years of education
-disposable household income
-health disability

Beta very similar for men, women and respondents 
in prime age (25-59).
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.07 p < .10
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness (14 year lag)

Beta's controlled for
-average priority at T 1,2,3 for life-goals
-age
-extraversion
-neuroticism
-internal locus of control
-life satisfaction at T1 (1990)
-partner in 2004
-years of education
-disposable income
-health disability


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE West Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2201

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
1       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
1       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.16      Mt=6.2
1       M=1.75      Mt=6.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
1       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
1       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.16      Mt=6.2
1       M=1.75      Mt=6.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.16 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.16 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.00 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
ß controlled for age and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.00 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHeadey et al. (2008a): study DE 1990
TitleAuthentic Happiness Theory Supported by Impact of Religion on Life Satisfaction. A Longitudinal Analysis with Data for Germany.
SourceWorking Paper SOEP, No. 151, DIW, 2008, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.92966.de/diw_sp0151.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 15 years, 1990 - 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7329

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 24
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Observed distributionM = 1: 49,79%, 0: 50,21%
Remarks
Result is for latest year available in 1990 - 2005 
(usually 2005).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=-.00 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 44, 49
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female
Remarks
In original: Female (vs) male. Order reversed by WDH 
team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Male   M = 3,84
Female M = 3,81

The original happiness scale from 0 to 10 is 
recorded here as follow:
(0,1,2): 1
(3,4):   2
(5,6):   3
(7,8):   4
(9,10):  5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.12
Male (vs female)

B controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force satus
  - marital status
  - health status
  - number of children
  - education
  - income
  - household size
  - age
- state
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBoes & Winkelmann (2010): study DE 1984
TitleThe Effect of Income on General Life Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 95, 111 - 128
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9452-7
Public25-65 aged singles, (West-)Germany, 1984-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9735

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 118
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: males
0: females
Observed distributionN = !: 5008; 0: 4727

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Males:    M = 6,61
Females:  M = 6,85
- difference -0,24
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKoczan (2013a): study DE 1984
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceCWPE 1314 Cambridge Working Papers in Economics, 2013, Cambridge, UK
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =71779

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 11-12
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female
Observed distribution1: 49%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.10 ns
B controlled for:
- Age
- Marital status
- Years of education
- Employed
- Immigrant status
- Works in occupation of training
- Home ownership
- Household size
- Job insecurity
- Parental education 
- Urban/rural childhood
- Health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyPohl (2006): study DE 1984
TitleEmployment Status, Income and the Subjective Well-Being of Immigrants.
SourcePrinceton University, Working Paper, 2006, No. 71087
URLhttp://paa2007.princeton.edu/papers/71087
Public25-65 aged immigrants, Germany, followed yearly 1984-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15790

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 16
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 female; 1 male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.07 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- Age
- Number of children
- Marital status
- Education level
- Dummy west-germany
- Immigration background
- Employment status
- Income
- Worries
- Health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGuven (2009): study DE 1984
TitleAre Happier People better Citizens?
SourceSchool Working Papers, Economic Series, SWP 2009/4, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia (also SOEP paper no. 199, DIW, 2009, Berlin Germany)
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/dkn/econwp/eco_2009_04.html
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15397

Correlate
Author's labelFemale
Page in Source 27
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male
Remarks
order reversed by WDH

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.23 p < .01
in 1984.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.16 p < .01
in 2005.

b' s controlled for
-age
-education in years
-household size
-log income
-working part-time
-vocational training
-irregular part-time
-not working
-married
-annual doctor visits

R-squared in 1984: 0,06; in 2005: 0,12
Observations 1984: 10814 in 2005: 18078


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study DE West Germany 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1305

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 370
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1. males
0. females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCalys-Tagoe et al. (2014): study GH 2007
TitlePredictors of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Ghanaians.
SourceGhana Medical Journal, 2014, Vol. 48, 178 - 184
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4335429/
Public50+ aged, Ghana, 2007-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4724

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male
Observed distribution0 = 49.6 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eOR=+
OR male vs female 1.68 CI95 [1.39 - 2.03]

OR adjusted for:
- age
- educational level
- income
- ethnic background


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyFalco et al. (2012): study GH 2004
TitleHeterogeneity in Subjective Wellbeing. An Application to Occupational Allocation in Africa.
SourcePolicy Research Working Paper 6244, Worldbank, 2012, USA
Public15-60 aged, urban population, Ghana, followed 7 years, 2004-2010
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3216

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 43
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female
Remarks
Pooled data T1 to T+4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aOPRC=-.25 p < .01
OPRC controled for:
- self-employed, with employee
- earnings (log)
- work conditions
  - hours-squared (log)
  - tenure (log)
  - apprentice
- personal characteristics
  - household assets
  - household head
  - married
  - age
  - age-squared
  - education-squared (log)
- situation
  - ethnicity (dummy)
  - city (dummy)
  - year (dummy)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study GR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Greece, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5532

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 7,22
girls:            M = 6,59
-difference:        + 0,64 (.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4     14,7  11,3  18,2   - 6,9(.05)
5-6     21,0  18,5  23,6   - 5,1(.05)
7-8     38,1  39,1  37,0   + 2,1(ns)
9-10    26,2  31,0  21,1   + 9,9(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyPanas (2013): study GR 2009
TitleHomeorhesis and Indication of Association Between Different Types of Capital on Life Satisfaction: The Case of Greeks Under Crisis.
SourceSocial lndicators Research, 2013, Vol. 110, 171 - 186
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-011-9922-6
Public18+ aged general public Greece, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1216

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 178
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDM=+
Men          M = 6,1
Women        M = 5,8
-difference     +0,3
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caOR=1.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study HK 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Hong Kong, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5359

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 6,51
girls:            M = 6,44
-difference:        + 0,07(ns)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G diff.
0-4     15,6  16,9  14,3   +2,6(.05)
5-6     22,8  27,2  30,4   -3,2(.05)
7-8     41,7  38,4  45,1   -6,7(.05)
9-10    13,9  17,5  10,2   +7,3(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study HK 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), Hong Kong, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,111-112
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.06 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.35
Marrieds only
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=-.02 ns
All
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=-.31 ns
Marrieds only

OLRC's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
  - Satisfaction with life domains
  - Access to public services:
    - number of utilities
    - internet
    - email
    - mobile phone
  - Lifestyle characteristics:
    - frequency of praying
    - religion
    - living internationally
    - English ability
    - homeownership
    - number of family members
    - relative standard of living
    - no right to vote
  - Socioeconomic status:
    - marital status
    - age
    - income
    - educational attainment
- GEOGRAPHIC characteristics:
  - region
  - city size
  - county


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySing (2009a): study HK 2006
TitleThe Quallity of Life in Hong Kong.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 295 - 335
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9349-x
Public20-69 aged, general public, Hong Kong, 2006
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelMale sexe
Page in Source 318
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mD%=-
% happy (very and quite)
Males       11%
Females     12%
-difference -1%
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bD%=-
% feels happy (often and sometimes)
Males       62%
Females     63%
-difference -1%
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cD%=-
% accomplished wants (a great deal and some)
Males       54%
Females     57%
-difference -3%
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aDM=-
Males       M = 2,0
Females     M = 2,1
-difference    -0,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCheung et al. (2005): study HK 2001
TitleQuality of Life in Older Adults: Benefits from Caring Services in Hong Kong.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 29 1- 334
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-004-8021-3
PublicElderly, Hong Kong, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 313
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: Female 
1: Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-3.3 p < .01
B is controlled for: 
-residence
-living arrangement
-marital status
-income
-education
-age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMitchell (1972): study HK 1967
TitleLevels of Emotional Strain in East Asian Cities.
SourceAsian Folklore & Social Life Monographs, The Orient Cultural Service, 1972, Taipei, Formosa
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/mitchell_re_1972.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Hong Kong, 1967
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =3966

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 24
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0. Female
1. Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aG=+.05 p < .01
% happy:
- Females 66
- Males   68


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study HU 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Hungary, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5658

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
boys:             M = 7,54
girls:            M = 6,80
-difference:        + 0,74(.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4     13,1   9,8  16,5   - 6,7(.05)
5-6     17,4  14,7  20,2   - 5,5(ns)
7-8     37,7  37,9  37,5   + 0,4(ns)
9-10    31,7  37,6  25,8   +11,8(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBoniel-Nissim et al. (2015): study HU 2009
TitleSupportive Communication with Parents Moderates the Negative Effects of Electronic Media Use on Life Satisfaction during Adolescence
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2015, Vol. 60, 189-198
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00038-014-0636-9
DOIdoi:10.1007/s00038-014-0636-9
PublicStudents, aged 11-15, Hungary, 2009-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4864

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 194,T3
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-aF=6.10 p < .05
F= 6,10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study HU 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Hungary, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =605

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 10,28
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: females
1: males
Observed distributionUrban: 0 = 59,2%; 1 = 40,8%; Rural: 0 = 60,4%; 1 = 39,6%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
  - satisfaction with leisure
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - Income per person
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study HU 1996
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3055

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 16
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: female
1: male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fb=+.96 ns
B controlled for
- equivalised income
- net worth
- equivalised consumption
- age
- partnered
- education
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLelkes (2002): study HU 1992
TitleTasting Freedom: Happiness, Religion and Economic Transition.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2006, Vol. 59, 173 - 194
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2004.03.016
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1992-1998
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =9167

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 183
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female
Remarks
Signs are reversed for consistency. In paper:
1: Female
0: Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=-.23 p < .01
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=-.05 ns
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.04 p < .01
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.01 ns
1998

b and Beta control for:
-religious involvement
-employment status
-income
-education level
-age
-gender
-Gypsy ethnicity 
-living in Budapest
-marital status
-number of children

Analysis incorporates sampling weights for the 
correction of sampling design (1992) and sample 
fit (1998).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study HU 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =999

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.72     Mt=5.7
1       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.09      Mt=5.7
1       M=5.96      Mt=5.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .87      Mt=5.9
1       M= .85      Mt=5.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.06 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.04 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study IS 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Iceland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3374

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 8,28
girls:            M = 7,35
-difference:        + 0,93 (ns)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G diff.
0-4      9,5   5,6  13,1   -7,4(.05)
5-6     11,6   7,8  15,1   -7,3(ns)
7-8     32,3  30,8  33,6   -2,7(ns)
9-10    46,7  55,7  38,2  +17,4(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IS 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Iceland 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =702

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.43     Mt=8.1
1       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=8.16      Mt=8.0
1       M=7.89      Mt=7.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.62      Mt=7.6
1       M=2.43      Mt=7.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.06 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.09 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.08 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.09 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.10 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.08 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.08 p < .05
ß controlled for age 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.08 p < .05
ß controlled for age  
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.06 ns
ß controlled for age  


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySingh et al. (2014): study IN 2014
TitleEffects of the demographic Variables and psychometric Properties of the personal Well-being Index for School Children in India.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2015, Vol. 3, 571 - 585
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12187-014-9264-4#/page-1
DOIDOI:101007/s12187-014-9264-4
Public8-13 aged,school children, India, 2014
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1301

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table 5
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Observed distributionN: males:805, females:496

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cbDM=+
Male         M=8.00
Female       M=7.91
-difference   +0.09


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLinssen et al. (2011): study IN Orrisa 2008
TitleSubjective Well Being in Rural India: The Curse of Conspicuous Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 101, 57-72
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9635-2
PublicPoor household, rural areas, India, 2008
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =697

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table 1 & Table 2
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: Females
1: Males
Observed distributionFemales: 50.22%; Males: 49.78%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ab=-.32 p < .01
B controlled for:
-Consumption
 -absolute consumption
 -conspicuous consumption
 -relative consumption
-Village level characteristics
 -average village level consumption
-Individual level characteristic
 -Caste
 -missed days due to health
 -age
 -education
 -marital status
 -religion
 -employment status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study IN 2003
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), India, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =652

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,155-157
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.11 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.54 p < .01
Marrieds only
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=+.47 ns
All
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=-.00 ns
Marrieds only

OLRC's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
  - Satisfaction with life domains
  - Access to public services:
    - number of utilities
    - internet
    - email
    - mobile phone
  - Lifestyle characteristics:
    - frequency of praying
    - religion
    - living internationally
    - English ability
    - homeownership
    - number of family members
    - relative standard of living
    - no right to vote
  - Socioeconomic status:
    - marital status
    - age
    - income
    - educational attainment
- GEOGRAPHIC characteristics:
  - region
  - city size
  - county


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyChander (2004): study IN Haryana 2002
TitleRelationship between Constituents of Welfare and Income: A Need Based Approach
SourcePhd Dissertation, 2004, Panjab University, Chandisgarh, India
PublicAdults, varying age ranges, general public, Haryana, India, 2002
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response30
Respondents N =500

Correlate
Author's labelMales and Females
Page in Source 198,199,201, 206, exhibit 17
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 = Females
1 = Males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-eDM=+0,1 ns
Individual happiness by gender (being male).

0 = Females: 6,818
1 = Males:   6,928
Difference  +0,110
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-eOPRC=-.04 ns
OPRC controlled for:
-being married
-urban vs rural
-having a regular job
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-eb=+.42 ns
b controlled for 
-age
-benevolent attitude
-faith in God
-satisfaction with various domains in life
-self-reported economic security
-available time for leisure
-satisfaction with financial and social 
achievements
-being married
-having a regular job
-time spent on hobbies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /2
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, two poor rural villages, Garhwal area, Northern India, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response341
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 269
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male
Observed distribution0: 60% 1: 40%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.0 ns
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=-.15 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, India, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
1       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
1       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
1       M=1.72      Mt=6.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
1       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.72      Mt=7.5
1       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.20      Mt=7.2
1       M=2.22      Mt=7.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
1       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
1       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
1       M=1.72      Mt=6.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.85     Mt=6.2
1       M=2.76     Mt=5.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.30      Mt=5.9
1       M=6.09      Mt=5.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .24      Mt=5.2
1       M= .48      Mt=5.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.07 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.04 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.05 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.05 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.02 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.07 p < .001
ß controlled for age and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.04 p < .05
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.04 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.05 p < .05
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.03 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.02 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.02 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.04 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.05 p < .05
ß controlled for age and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLeisure Development Cen (1980): study IN 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, India, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 273/7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 female 
1 male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=-.07 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=-.21 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=-.13 p < .01
males  :   11 % very happy
females:   17 % very happy
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=-.04 p < .05
males  : 12 % very satisfied
females: 12 % very satisfied


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCantril (1965): study IN 1962
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, India, 1962
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2366

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 378
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Females
1 Males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=-.14 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLandiyanto et al. (2010): study ID 2007
TitleWealth and Happiness: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia.
SourceWorking Paper, 2010, 1 - 19, Mahidol University, Thailand
URLhttp://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/www/external/labor/FLS/IFLS/papers/2010_landiyanto2.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Indonesia, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =29013

Correlate
Author's labelSexe
Page in Source 17
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question related to gender
1 male
0 female
Observed distributionM=0.48; SD=0.50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-car=-.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study ID 2003
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), Indonesia, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =839

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,111-112
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.09 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=+.20 ns
Marrieds only
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=-.25 ns
All
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=-.08 ns
Marrieds only

OLRC's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
  - Satisfaction with life domains
  - Access to public services:
    - number of utilities
    - internet
    - email
    - mobile phone
  - Lifestyle characteristics:
    - frequency of praying
    - religion
    - living internationally
    - English ability
    - homeownership
    - number of family members
    - relative standard of living
    - no right to vote
  - Socioeconomic status:
    - marital status
    - age
    - income
    - educational attainment
- GEOGRAPHIC characteristics:
  - region
  - city size
  - county


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLesani et al. (2016): study IR Tehran 2011
TitleEating Breakfast, Fruit and Vegetable intake and their Relation with Happiness in College Students.
SourceEating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 2016, Vol. 21, 645 - 651
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40519-016-0261-0/fulltext.html
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s40519-016-0261-0
PublicMedical students, Teheran, Iran, 2011
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response50,18%
Respondents N =541

Correlate
Author's labelSexe
Page in Source A1
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Observed distributionN = 1: 138; 0: 403

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-6-aDM=- ns
male     M =  3,87 SD = 1,05
female   M =  3,93 SD = 1,00
- difference -0.06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKousha & Mohseni (2000): study IR 1995
TitleAre Iranians Happy? A Comparative Study between Iran and the United States.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 52, 259 - 289
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1007061431186
PublicResidents big city (Tehran), Iran, 1995-97
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response4,8%
Respondents N =1561

Correlate
Author's labelmale sex
Page in Source 272
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0.female
1.male
Observed distribution 1995: 0=265, 1=279 1997: 0=614, 1=441
Remarks
actual numbers, revised by author

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM= ns
             1995    M      S.D.          
              0=    1,80    0,32 
              1=    1,79    0,34
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM= ns
             1997    M      S.D.          
              0=    1,82    0,40 
              1=    1,83    0,36
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abD%= ns
             1995
                   very    fairly  not at all
                   happy   happy   happy
                     %       %        %   
             0=     8,1    63,7     28,2 
             1=     8,4    61,8     29,8
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abD%= ns
             1997
                   very    fairly  not at all
                   happy   happy   happy
                     %       %        %   
             0=    12,5    57,1     30,4 
             1=    11,2    60,7     28,0
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abr=-.01 ns
             1995
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.01 ns
             1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study IE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Ireland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5741

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 7,58
girls:            M = 7,02
-difference:        + 0,56 (.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G diff.
0-4     11,9   8,8  15,1   - 6,4(.05)
5-6     15,7  13,3  18,3   - 5,0(ns)
7-8     40,0  42,4  37,5   + 4,9(.05)
9-10    32,4  35,6  29,1   + 6,5(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHealy (2005): study IE 2002
TitleIn Each Other's Shadow. What Has Been the Impact of Human and Social Capital on Life Satisfaction in Ireland?
SourceThesis, National University of Ireland, 2005, Dublin, Ireland
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/healy_t_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 164
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Observed distributionM = male: 7.57, female: 7.91

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebDM=-
males     M = 7,57 
females   M = 7,91
- difference -0,34


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.42     Mt=8.1
1       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.93      Mt=7.7
1       M=7.82      Mt=7.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.42     Mt=8.1
1       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.93      Mt=7.7
1       M=7.82      Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.95      Mt=7.0
1       M=2.06      Mt=7.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
1       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
1       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
1       M=1.72      Mt=6.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.95      Mt=7.0
1       M=2.06      Mt=7.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
1       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
1       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
1       M=1.72      Mt=6.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.10 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.10 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.13 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.13 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.09 p < .01
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.02 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.04 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.05 p < .05
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.02 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.09 p < .01
ß controlled for age and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.05 p < .05
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.04 ns
ß controlled for age and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study IE 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1217

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 370
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 males
0 females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.05 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyEurobarometer (1975a): study IE 1975
TitleEurobarometer, European Men and Women. A Comparison of their Attitudes to Some of the Problems Facing Society.
SourceEuropean Commission,1975, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://aei.pitt.edu/10640/
Public15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1975
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =999

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 143/155
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bG=-.07 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.18 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBoniel-Nissim et al. (2015): study IL 2009
TitleSupportive Communication with Parents Moderates the Negative Effects of Electronic Media Use on Life Satisfaction during Adolescence
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2015, Vol. 60, 189-198
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00038-014-0636-9
DOIdoi:10.1007/s00038-014-0636-9
PublicStudents, aged 11-15, Israel, 2009-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4135

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 194,T3
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-aF=3.21 ns
F= 3.21


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySagie (2015): study IL 2009
TitlePredictors of Well-being Among Older Gays and Lesbians
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2015, Vol. 120, 859 - 870
URLhttps://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11205-014-0608-8.pdf
DOIdoi: 10.1007/s11205-014-0608-8
Public56-80 aged gays and lesbians, Israel, 2009
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response70
Respondents N =209

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 865-866
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Observed distribution1: 68,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cq-mq-n-9-ar=-.13 p < .05
M-AO-cq-mq-n-9-aBeta=+.07 ns
Beta controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - health
  - function
M-AO-cq-mq-n-9-aBeta=-.01 ns
Beta additionally controled for:
- accessibilty
  - religious
  - community
  - social
- partcipation
  - objective
  - social
  - community
  - religious
  - subjective
  - environment
M-AO-cq-mq-n-9-aBeta=-.03 ns
Beta additonally controled for:
  - hope


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyAmit & Litwin (2010): study IL 2006
TitleThe Subjective Well-being of Immigrants Aged 50 and Older in Israel.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 89 - 104
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9519-5
Public50+aged immigrants, Israel, 2005-2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =930

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 95, 98, 99
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: Female
Observed distribution!: 45 % 0: 55%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gr=-.06 ns
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=-.02 ns
Beta controled for:
- immigration history
  - continent or origin
  - language proficiency in Hebrew
- background
  - age
  - marital status
  - income
  - education
  - participation in social activities
  - selfrated health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 277,279, 285
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 males
0 females
Observed distributionM=1.53, SD=.50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=-.07 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.08 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- years of formal education
- age
- holding central office during the last five 
years
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.06 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- community value
- collectivistic value
- individualistic value
- satisfaction with realization of values
- satisfaction with fit of Kibbutz life to own 
aspirations and abilities
- satisfactionwith feeling of "belonging" and "at 
home" in Kibbutz
- Satisfaction with material standard of living
- Satisfaction with work domain
- Satisfaction with interpersonal relationships
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.46 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLissitsa & Chachashvili-Bolotin (2016): study IL 2003
TitleLife Satisfaction in the Internet Age - Changes in the Past Decade.
SourceComputers in Human Behavior, 2016, Vol. 54, 197 - 206
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.08.001
Public20+ aged general pubic, Israel, 2003-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =73523

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 200,202
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.00 ns
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-fBeta=+.00 ns
b and Beta controlled for:
- wave of data collection
- age group
- immigrant
- Arab ethnicity
- marital status
- locality
- religiosity
- family income
- education
- number of children
- employment
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.05 p < .01
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-fBeta=-.03 p < .01
b and Beta additionally controlled for:
- frequency meeting friends
- lonelyness
- health
- health problems

b and Beta not affected by additionally 
controlling for:
- internet use
- interaction between wave of data and:
   - age
   - Arab ethnicity
   - immigrant
   - internet use
   - income
   - health problems


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyShamir (1985): study IL 1983 /1
TitleSex Differences in Psychological Adjustment to Unemployment and Reemployment: A Question of Commitment, Alternatives or Finance?
SourceSocial Problems, 1985, Vol. 33, 67 - 79
Public27-47 aged academics, unemployed and reemployed, Israel, 1983
Sample
Non-Response61,5 %
Respondents N =432

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 73
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-dF=+ ns
female               M = 3.5   Mt' = 6.3
male                 M = 3.6   Mt' = 6.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMorawetz (1977): study IL 1976
TitleIncome Distributions and Self-Rated Happiness: Some Empirical Evidence.
SourceThe Economic Journal, 1977, Vol. 87, 511 - 522
PublicAdults, two villages (one equal in incomes, one unequal), Israel, 1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =109

Correlate
Author's labelsex
Page in Source 518
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 female
2 male
Observed distributionN = 1: 51,5(%, 2: 48,5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=+.40 ns
B controlled for:
- years live in moshav
- religion
- place of birth
- age
- education
- not married
- children at home
- rooms per house
- rooms per person
- telephone
- no car
- agricultural work
- income per standard adult
- Moshav
Unaffected by kind of community
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=+.30 ns
B controlled for the above variables without 
income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLevy & Guttman (1975a): study IL 1968
TitleStructure and Dynamics of Worries.
SourceSociometry, 1975, Vol. 38, 445 - 473
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2786361
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, Israel, 1968-1970
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =3600

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 453-457
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female 
1 Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-sq-v-4-bmc=-
    1968/2  1968/11  1969/2  1969/6  1970/2

mc= -.28    -.30     -.32    -.33    -.42


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCantril (1965): study IL 1961
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, Israel, 1961-62
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1170

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 378
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Females
1 Males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=-.15 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyRotondi et al. (2016): study IT 2016
TitleConnecting Alone: Smartphone Use, Quality of Social Interactions and Well-Being.
SourceWorking Paper: Politecno di Milano and University of Milan Bicocca, Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering (DIG), 2016, Italy
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 2016
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =144809

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 9
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male 
0 Female
Observed distribution49% males; 51% females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.03 p < .01
Beta's controlled for:
- time spent with friends
- smartphone use
- education
- employment
- marital status
- volunteering
- religiousness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study IT 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Italy, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11583

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 7,29
girls:            M = 6,50
-difference:         +0,79(.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G diff.
0-4     14,7  10,3  19,0   -8,7(.05)
5-6     20,4  16,6  24,0   -7,4(ns)
7-8     40,7  44,2  37,4   +6,8(.05)
9-10    24,2  29,0  19,6   +9,3(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBecchetti & Pisani (2014): study IT 2010
TitleFamily Economic Well-Being, and (Class) Relative Wealth: An Emperical Analysis of Life Satisfaction of Secundary School Students in Three Italian Cities.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 503 -525
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9433-z
Public17-18 aged , secondary school students, Italy, 2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2124

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table 1 - Table 5
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1. males
0. females
Observed distributionM = .47; SD = .50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.23 p < .01
TYPE OF SCHOOL FIXED EFFECT

OLRC controlled for:
-single parent
-repeated at least one school year
-residence location
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.27 p < .01
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-Household economic condition
 -houseownership
 -mortgage
 -current account
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.35 p < .01
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-School performance
 -final grade in Italian
 -final grade in maths
 -final grade at middle school
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.37 p < .01
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-parental jobs
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.38 p < .01
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-Relationship
 -trust in family
 -friends

With SCHOOL FIXED EFFECTS and CLASS FIXED EFFECT, 
the results are nearly the same.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySabatini & Sarracino (2014): study IT 2010
TitleOnline Networks and Subjective Well-Being
SourceKyklos, 2017, Vol. 70, 456 - 480
URLhttp://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/56436/
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 2010-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =77560

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 18
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Observed distributionMale: 48%; female: 52%
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=-.02 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- time spent commuting
- time watching TV
- age and age squared
- self-perceived health
- modem
- dsl
- fiber
- satellite
- 3G
- USB
- online networking
- contacts with friends
- social trust
- real GDP pc

OPRC not significantly affected by additonal 
control for:
- frequency of meeting friends
- social trust
- online networking
- real GDP pc


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBoniel-Nissim et al. (2015): study IT 2009
TitleSupportive Communication with Parents Moderates the Negative Effects of Electronic Media Use on Life Satisfaction during Adolescence
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2015, Vol. 60, 189-198
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00038-014-0636-9
DOIdoi:10.1007/s00038-014-0636-9
PublicStudents, aged 11-15, Itally, 2009-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4837

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 194,T3
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-aF=4.99 p < .05
F=4.99


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySabatini (2011): study IT 2008
TitleCan a Click buy a Little Happiness? The Impact of Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce on Subjective Well-Being.
SourceMPRA Paper no. 32393, 2011, München, Germany
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/eei/rpaper/eeri_rp_2011_12.html
PublicGeneral public, Italy, 2008
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4130

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table 1 & Table 2
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Males
0: Females
Observed distributionFemales: M = 0.52; SD = 0.50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=-.01 ns
B controlled for:
-E-shopping
-Social background
 -Marital status
 -Age
 -Health condition
 -Education 
-Income position
 -Ownership of the house of residence
 -Household income
 -Mortgage loan 
 -Work status
-Neighbourhood 
 -CO2 emissions
 -Public parks and gardens
 -Environmental crimes
 -Social assistance
 -Cultural supply
 -Micro-criminality
 -Dirtiness of the local area
 -Regional poverty
 -Noise in the local area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyVieno et al. (2009): study IT Veneto 2006
TitleHealth Status in Immigrants and Native Early Adolescents in Italy.
SourceJournal of Community Health, 2009, Vol. 34,181 -187
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10900-008-9144-2
Public10-18 aged general public, Vieno: Italy, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6744

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 183, 185
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Boys
0: Girls
Observed distribution50.4% boys

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eBeta=-.38 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- Immigrants (born in Italy or not)
- Age
- Family socio-economic status
- Number of friends
- Friends support
- Bullying victimization


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyDiGiacinto et al. (2007): study IT 2004
TitleCreativity and Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at teh International Conference ''Policy for Happiness'', June 2007, Siena, Italy
URLhttp://www.unisi.it/eventi/happiness/curriculum/ferrante.pdf
PublicEmployees, Italy, 2004
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =1240

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 22
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Female
2: Male (base group)
Observed distributionFemale: M=0,3089 SD=0,46221

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.13 p < .076
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-ab=+.20 p < .070
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.06 p < .070
Regressions control for:
-age
-income
-schooling*creativity index
-marital status
-educational level
-province level unemployment rate
-province level per capita disposable income
-area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study IT 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Italy, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =600

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 10,28
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: females
1: males
Observed distributionUrban 0 = 58,1%; 1 = 41,9%; Rural: 0 = 55,1%; 1 = 44,9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban area
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
  - satisfaction with leisure
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - Income per person
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyNuvolati (2004): study IT 1996
TitleCommuting and Quality of Life. The Italian Case.
SourcePaper 6the Congress ISQOLS, 2004, Philadelphia, USA
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/nuvolati_g_2004.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Italy, 1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response1,7%
Respondents N =3561

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=+
% satisfied
- males     82,5
- females   82,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2010

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
1       M=3.01     Mt=6.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
1       M=7.36      Mt=7.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.04      Mt=6.0
1       M=1.38      Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.05 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.06 p < .01
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 p < .05
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study IT 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1348

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 370
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 males
0 females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.05 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLeisure Development Cen (1980): study IT 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1042

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 331/5
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 female 
1 male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.07 p < .05
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.10 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.04 p < .01
males  :    11% very happy
females:     9% very happy
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.06 p < .01
males  :  9% very satisfied
females:  7% very satisfied


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyEurobarometer (1975a): study IT 1975
TitleEurobarometer, European Men and Women. A Comparison of their Attitudes to Some of the Problems Facing Society.
SourceEuropean Commission,1975, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://aei.pitt.edu/10640/
Public15+ aged, general public, Italy, 1975
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1043

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 143/155
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.10 ns
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.45 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study IT 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Italy, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1078

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 175
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Females
1 Males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=-.04 ns
0                             M'=1.60  Mt'=3.0
1                                1.55      2.7
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.09 ns
                       
                           


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study JP 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Japan, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6647

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/- ns
boys:             M = 6,74
girls:            M = 6,86
-difference:         -0,12 (.ns)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4     16,1  17,2  14,9   +2,3(ns)
5-6     22,9  22,5  23,3   -0,8(ns)
7-8     37,3  36,9  37,8   -0,9(ns)
9-10    23,8  23,5  24,1   -0,6(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTsurumi et al. (2018): study JP Tokyo 2014
TitleGreenery and Subjective Well-Being: Assessing the Monetary Value of Greenery by Type.
SourceEcological Economics, 2018, Vol. 148, 152 - 169
URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800917309503
Public20-83 aged, general public, Tokyo, Japan, 2014
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =2758

Correlate
Author's labelMale
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=-.00
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.04 p < .001
b (-.0051) contro;led for
- age
- chronic illness
- marital status
- personality: Big 5
- householdioncome (log annual)
- employment
- education
- number of people one can rely on
- social participation
- experience of crime in neighourhood
- satisfaction with accessibility og green in 
vinicity

Unaffected by residential proximity to green


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyNiimi (2018): study JP 2013
TitleWhat Affects Happiness Inequality? Evidence from Japan.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2018, Vol. 19, 521 - 543
URLhttps://doi .org/l 0.1007 /s10902-016-9835-9
Public20-69 aged, general public, Japan, 2013
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3257

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 531-535
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Observed distributionMales: 48%; females: 52%
Remarks
Order and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
D-LS-c-sq-n--ab-rif=-.04 ns
b-rif controlled for:
- age
- marital status
- education
- poor health
- having a child
- household size
- household income
- homeownership
- has loans
- unemployed
- not in labor force
- altruistic
- risk lover
- low time preference
- major city
D-LS-c-sq-n--ab-rif=+.21 ns
b-rif additionally controlled for:
- irregular job
- likely unemployed
- public pensions
D-LS-c-sq-n--ab-rif=+.20 ns
b-rif additionally controlled for:
- relatively poor
- relatively rich


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyWell-Being Study Unit (2012a): study JP 2012
TitleInitial investigation on the data from the Quality of Life Survey FY2011.
SourceEconomic and Social Research Institute Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2012, Japan
URLhttp://www.esri.go.jp/en/prj/current_research/koufukudo/abstract/tentative_report.pdf
Public15-69 aged, general population, Japan, 2012
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =10469

Correlate
Author's labelSex
Page in Source 3, 6, 16, 22
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Observed distribution1: 45,8%, 0: 54,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eDM=-
males     M =  5,8
females   M =  6,4
-Difference = -0,6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbDM=-
males     M =  5,4
females   M =  6,0
-Difference = -0,4
A-AB-yd-mq-n-11-aDM=-
males     M =  1,7
females   M =  2,6
-Difference = -0,9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTiefenbach & Kohlbacher (2011): study JP 2011
TitleHappiness from the Viewpoint of Economics.
SourceDeutsches Institut für Japanstudien, 2011, Tokyo, Japan
URLhttps://www.dijtokyo.org/publication/happiness-from-the-viewpoint-of-economics-findings-from-recent-survey-data-in-japan/
Public15 -79 aged, Japan, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response28,4%
Respondents N =3578

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0: woman
1: man
Observed distribution0: 0,51;1: 0,49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-fDM=-
0: woman    M = 6,7
1: man      M = 6,2
difference     -0.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2009): study JP 2009
TitleCountry Profile of Japan: Citizens' Perception of Quality of Life, Social Capital, and Governance
SourceInoguchi, T.; Ed.: "Human Beliefs and Values in East and Southeast Asia in Transition", Akashi Shoten, 2009, Japan, 129 - 151
Public20-69 aged, general public, Japan, 2009
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1003

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 134
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Observed distributionN= 1:502, 0: 501

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mDM=- p < .01
1: M =       2,62 [CI95 2,54 2,69] SD 0,85
0: M =       2,75 [CI95 2,68 2,82] SD 0,79
-difference -0,13 [CI95 -0,23 -0,03]
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bDM=- p < .00
1: M =       1,91 [CI95 1,85 1,97] SD 0,66
0: M =       2,05 [CI95 1,99 2,11] SD 0,66
-difference -0,14 [CI95 -0,23 -0,06]
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cDM=- p < .00
1: M =       1,63 [CI95 1,57 1,69] SD 0,65
0: M =       1,77 [CI95 1,72 1,82] SD 0,61
-difference -0,14 [CI95 -0,22 -0,06]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyMoon & Mikami (2007): study JP 2004
TitleDifference in subjective Well-being between ethnic Korean and Japanese elderly Residents in an Urban Community in Japan.
SourceGeriatrics and Gerontology International, 2007, Vol. 7, 371 - 379
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2007.00427.x
Public65+aged, ethnic Korean naturalized as Japanese and Japanese, Japan, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21.7%
Respondents N =425

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 376-377, 379
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female
Observed distributionEthnic Japanese n= 1: 83, 0: 136 Ethnic Korean n=1: 75, 0: 127

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aDM=+/-
Ethnic Korean
Male    M:50.0 SD:29.6 
Female  M:44.9 SD:27.9
-difference +5.1

Japanese 
Male    M:67.3 SD:24.1
Female  M:68.4 SD:22.5
-difference -1.1
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-ar=-.07 p < .05
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aBeta=+.06 ns
Beta controlled for:
-ethnicity
-age
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aBeta=.00 ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- literacy
- living alone
- absence of 'sense of purpose in life'
- pension
- public assistance
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aBeta=01 ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- depression
- performance status (ADL)
- history of lifestyle related disease


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study JP 2003
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), Japan, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,111-112
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=+.83 ns
Marrieds only
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=+.68 ns
All
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=-.96 ns
All
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=+.59 p < .01
Marrieds only

OLRC's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
  - Satisfaction with life domains
  - Access to public services:
    - number of utilities
    - internet
    - email
    - mobile phone
  - Lifestyle characteristics:
    - frequency of praying
    - religion
    - living internationally
    - English ability
    - homeownership
    - number of family members
    - relative standard of living
    - no right to vote
  - Socioeconomic status:
    - marital status
    - age
    - income
    - educational attainment
- GEOGRAPHIC characteristics:
  - region
  - city size
  - county


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study JP 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1011

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
1       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.63      Mt=6.3
1       M=6.41      Mt=6.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .35      Mt=5.3
1       M= .44      Mt=5.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
1       M=3.01     Mt=6.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
1       M=7.36      Mt=7.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.04      Mt=6.0
1       M=1.38      Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.06 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.07 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.05 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.06 p < .01
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 p < .05
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
ß controlled for age and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.12 p < .001
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.08 p < .001
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLeisure Development Cen (1980): study JP 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1574

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 389/93
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 female 
1 male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=-.11 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-abG=-.03 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=-.08 p < .01
males  :    11% very happy
females:    15% very happy
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-abtc=-.02 ns
males  :  5% very satisfied
females:  5% very satisfied


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKusago (2007): study JP 1978
TitleRethinking of Economic Growth and Life Satisfaction in Post - WW 2 Japan - A Fresh Approach
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 81, 79 - 102
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-0016-9
PublicGeneral public, Japan, 3 annual 1978-2002
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =18

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1. males
0. females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=-.15 p < .01
1978
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=-.18 p < .01
1990
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=-.12 p < .01
2002

B's controlled for:
-age
-marital status
-employment status
-house ownership
-family income
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCantril (1965): study JP 1962
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Japan, 1962
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response-
Respondents N =972

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 370
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Females
1 Males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt= -
Males   : Mt = 5.1
Females : Mt = 5.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study KZ 2003
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), Kazakhstan, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =630

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,111-112
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.37 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.05 ns
Marrieds only

OLRC's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
  - Satisfaction with other life domains
  - Access to public services:
    - water supply
    - electricity
    - piped gas
  - lifestyle characteristics:
    - religion
    - living internationally
    - English ability
    - homeownership
    - number of family members
    - relative standard of living
    - no right to vote
  - Socioeconomic status:
    - gender
    - marital status
    - age
    - income
    - educational attainment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHanda et al. (2014): study KE 2007
TitleSubjective Well-Being, Risk perceptions and Time Discounting: Evidence from a Large-Scale Cash Transfer Programme.
SourceUnicef WorkingPaper, 2014, No. 2014-02, Florence, Italy
URLhttp://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/717
PublicPoor households: benefactories of a welfare program and controls, Kenya, 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-ResponseAttrition: 2007-2009:17%;2009-2011 5%
Respondents N =1805

Correlate
Author's labelFemale
Page in Source 30,39
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.07 ns
Weighted linear probability regression 
(WLS)results for Female
M-PL-u-sq-v-5-db=+.05 ns
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-bb=+.14 p < .05
M-PL-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.03 ns
Ordinary linear probability least squares 
regression (OLS) results for Female
M-PL-u-sq-v-5-db=+.00 ns
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-bb=+.08 p < .05
b's are controlled for 
- Socio demographic variables
  - Age (x100), Age squared (x1000)
  - Household position
  - Literacy
- Health
  - Chronic Illness
  - Current Handicap
-Receiving financial support
  - Treatment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study KR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Korea (South), 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5581

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 6,59
girls:            M = 6,12
-difference:        + 0,47(.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G diff.
0-4     21,6  19,9  23,5   -3,5(.05)
5-6     25,5  22,5  28,9   -6,4(.05)
7-8     34,2  34,7  33,7   +1,0(ns)
9-10    18,6  22,9  14,0   +8,9(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyKoo & Yee (2016): study KR 2014
TitleDimensions of Social Well-being and Determinants in Korea: Personal. Relational, and Societal Aspects.
SourceThe Senshu Social Well-being Review, 2016, no 3
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 2014-2018
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 56
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 female
1 male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=-.05 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- age
- marital status
- education level
- work status
- household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=-.10 p < .01
When additionally controlled for:
- ingroup trust
- trust gap
- risk experience
- discrimination experience
- community participation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyYoo et al. (2014): study KR 2011
TitleAssociations between Overuse of the Internet and Mental Health in Adolescents.
SourceNursing and Health Sciences, 2014, Vol. 16, 193 - 200
DOIdoi: 10.1111/nhs.12086
Public12-19 aged, middle and high-school students, South Korea, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =73238

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 195
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Boys
0 Girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-dDM=+
               M
Boys         3,67
Girls        3,55
-difference:+0.12

Mean happiness scores computed by WDH-team on the 
assumption that very/much/much=4.5 and 
slightly/never=1.5
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-dD%=+
% happy               Boys    Girls   D%
Very much/much   56.8    52.3    4.5
Moderately       30.6    33.2   -2.6 
Slightly/never   12.6    14.5   -1.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study KR 2003
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), South Korea, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1342

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,111-112
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.58 p < .05
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.41 p < .01
Marrieds only
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=+.23 ns
All
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=-.68 p < .01
Marrieds only

OLRC's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
  - Satisfaction with life domains
  - Access to public services:
    - number of utilities
    - internet
    - email
    - mobile phone
  - Lifestyle characteristics:
    - frequency of praying
    - religion
    - living internationally
    - English ability
    - homeownership
    - number of family members
    - relative standard of living
    - no right to vote
  - Socioeconomic status:
    - marital status
    - age
    - income
    - educational attainment
- GEOGRAPHIC characteristics:
  - region
  - city size
  - county


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyRudolf & Cho (2011): study KR 1998
TitleThe Gender-Specific Effect of Working Hours on Family Happiness in South Korea.
SourceCourant Research Centre, Discussion Papers no. 77, 2011, Göttingen, Germany
URLhttp://www.uni-goettingen.de/crc-peg
PublicWorking aged, South-Korea, followed 10 years 1998-2008
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25461

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 19
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eDM=+
1:         M = 3.20
0:         M = 3.19
difference M =+0.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCha (2003): study KR 1998
TitleSubjective Well-Being among College Students.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol.62/63, 455 - 477
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1022669906470
PublicCollege students, Korea, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =350

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 462
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Observed distribution1: N=205, 0: N=143

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-bDM=+
Males:   M = 1.50, SD = 1.43
Females: M = 0.99, SD = 1.50
Difference  +0,51
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-bt.=+3,2 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLee (1998): study KR 1996
TitleMarital Status, Gender, and Subjective Quality of Life in Korea.
SourceDevelopment and Society, 1998, Vol. 27, 35 - 49
Public20-60 aged, general public, South Korea, 1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response4,5%
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 45
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
2 female
Observed distribution1: 50,6%; 2: 49,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-fb=+.04 ns
B controlled for
- age
- marital status
- subjective class
- household income
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study KR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1251

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.87     Mt=6.2
1       M=2.85     Mt=6.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.65      Mt=6.3
1       M=6.73      Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.00 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyShin (1986): study KR 1980
TitleEducation and the quality of life in Korea and the United States: A cross-cultural perspective.
SourcePublic Opinion Quarterly, 1986, Vol. 50, 360 - 370
URLhttp://poq.oxfordjournals.org/content/50/3/360.full.pdf+html
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 1980
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1215

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 367
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female 
1 Male 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-ar=+.01 ns
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-ar=+.01 ns
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aBeta=-.03 ns
ß controled for education, income, age, married 
status, own house and community size.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLee et al. (1982): study KR 1980
TitlePerceptions of Quality of Life in an Industrializing Country: The Case of the Republic of Korea.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1982, Vol. 10, 297 - 317
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00301097
PublicParents with unmarried children at home, South Korea, 1980
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 311
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bDM=-
Hardly any difference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyLeisure Development Cen (1980): study KR 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, South Korea, 1972
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =997

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 563/7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 female 
1 male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.03 ns
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.05 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.02 ns
males  :     5% very happy
females:     5% very happy
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.03 ns
males  : 2 % very satisfied
females: 2 % very satisfied


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyAbdel-Khalek (2010a): study KW 2004
TitleReligiosity, Subjective Well-Being, and Neuroticism.
SourceMental Health, Religion and Culture, 2010, Vol. 13, 67 - 79.
URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13674670903154167?scroll=top&needAccess=true
DOIdoi: 10.1080/13674670903!54167
PublicStudents, Kuwait, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =487

Correlate
Author's labelSexe
Page in Source 73
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: men
0: women

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-aDM=-
males::  M = 6.65  SD = 2.24
Females: M = 6.98  SD = 2.11
difference  -0.33
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-iDM=-
males:   M = 6.75 SD = 2.67
females: M = 7.39 SD = 2.29
difference  -0.64


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study KG 2003
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), Kyrgyzstan, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =496

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,111-112
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=+.45 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.28 ns
Marrieds only

OLRC's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
  - Satisfaction with other life domains
  - Access to public services:
    - water supply
    - electricity
    - piped gas
  - lifestyle characteristics:
    - religion
    - living internationally
    - English ability
    - homeownership
    - number of family members
    - relative standard of living
    - no right to vote
  - Socioeconomic status:
    - gender
    - marital status
    - age
    - income
    - educational attainment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study LA 2003
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), Laos, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,111-112
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.44 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.41 ns
Marrieds only
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=-.45 ns
All
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=-.01 ns
Marrieds only

OLRC's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
  - Satisfaction with life domains
  - Access to public services:
    - number of utilities
    - internet
    - email
    - mobile phone
  - Lifestyle characteristics:
    - frequency of praying
    - religion
    - living internationally
    - English ability
    - homeownership
    - number of family members
    - relative standard of living
    - no right to vote
  - Socioeconomic status:
    - marital status
    - age
    - income
    - educational attainment
- GEOGRAPHIC characteristics:
  - region
  - city size
  - county


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study LV 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Latvia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4869

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 7,46
girls:            M = 7,29
-difference:        + 0,16(.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4      8,9   8,4   9,4   - 1,1(ns)
5-6     18,2  17,3  19,0   - 1,7(ns)
7-8     41,5  40,4  42,5   + 2,1(ns)
9-10    31,5  33,9  29,0   + 4,9(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study LV 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =903

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .78      Mt=5.8
1       M=1.14      Mt=6.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.49     Mt=5.0
1       M=2.56     Mt=5.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.65      Mt=5.2
1       M=5.78      Mt=5.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.10 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.05 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.06 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.10 p < .01
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyAyyash-Abdo & Alamuddin (2007): study LB 2007
TitlePredictors of Subjective Well-Being Among College Youth in Lebanon.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 2007, Vol. 147, 265 - 284
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17703789
PublicStudents, Lebanon, 2007
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =689

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 274
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female
Observed distribution45.7% male, 54.3% female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aDM=+
Male         M = 1.27  SD = 0.87
Female       M = 0.98  SD = 0.85
-difference     +0.29


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study LT 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Lithuania, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6525

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/- p < .05
boys:             M = 8,12
girls:            M = 7,60
-difference:         +0,52

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4      8,1   6,6   9,7   - 3,1
5-6     12,8  10,4  15,2   - 4,8
7-8     31,5  29,5  33,5   - 3,9
9-10    47,6  53,4  41,6   +11,8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study LT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.47     Mt=4.9
1       M=2.60     Mt=5.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.01      Mt=5.6
1       M=6.02      Mt=5.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .37      Mt=5.4
1       M= .86      Mt=5.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.11 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.16 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.00 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study LU 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Luxembourg, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5299

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 7,78
girls:            M = 6,99
-difference:         +0,78(.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G diff.
0-4     11,1   8,2  13,9   - 5,7(.05)
5-6     16,6  12,3  20,8   - 8,5(.05)
7-8     36,2  35,5  36,8   - 1,2(ns)
9-10    36,1  43,9  28,5   +15,4(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyEurobarometer (1975a): study LU 1975
TitleEurobarometer, European Men and Women. A Comparison of their Attitudes to Some of the Problems Facing Society.
SourceEuropean Commission,1975, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://aei.pitt.edu/10640/
Public15+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, 1975
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =324

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 143/155
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Female
1 Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bG=-.05 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.12 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study MO 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Macao, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4476

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 6,60
girls:            M = 6,59
-difference:         +0,01(ns)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G diff.
0-4     15,4  15,5  15,3    +0,1(ns)
5-6     26,7  27,2  26,3    -0,9(.05)
7-8     41,3  39,8  42,9    +3,1(.05)
9-10    16,5  17,5  15,5    +2,1(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBartlett et al. (2010): study MK 2008
TitleThe Quality of Life and Regional Development in FYR Macedonia
SourceCroatian Economic Survey, 2010, Vol. 12, 121-162
URLhttps://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=80214
Public18+ aged, FYR Macedonie, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response73 %
Respondents N =2797

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bDM=-0,8
male    M = 5,8
female  M = 6,6
difference -0,8
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-bDM=-0,4
male    M = 5,3
female  M = 5,7
difference -0,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHinks & Simon (2012): study MW 2012
TitleLife Satisfaction in Malawi.
SourceSelin, H.; Davey, G; Eds.: "Happiness Across Cultures. Views of Happiness and Quality of Life in Non-Western Cultures Across Cultures. The History of Non-Westeren Science 6.", Springer, 2012, New York, USA, 271 - 292
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-2700-7_19
Public18+ aged, general public, Malawi, 2012
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 288
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-eOPRC=+.06 p < .10
OPRC controlled for:
- consumption per capita
- ultra poor
- age + squared
- married dummy
- employment status
- education
- household size
- rural dummy
- asset index
- hungry season
- regional dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHinks & Davies (2008): study MW 2004
TitleLife Satisfaction in Malawi and the Importance of Relative Consumption, Polygamy and Religion.
SourceJournal of International Development, 2008, Vol. 20, 888 - 904
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jid.1470/abstract
DOIDOI:10.1002/jid.1470
PublicHousehold heads, Malawai 2004-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11272

Correlate
Author's labelmale/female
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
Head of household 
1: males
0: females
Observed distributionN: 1= 8690, 0 = 2582

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eDM=+
Male heads of household      M = 2,47
Female heads of household    M = 2.29
difference:                     +0,18
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=+.05 ns
B controlled for:
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - education
  - employment
  - marriage
    - status (married,divorced, wiwow)
    - polygamous (vs not)
  - religion
  - interaction religion-polygamous marriage
- household situation
  - size
  - consumption per capita
  - sick member
- local environmnent
  - consumption level
  - safety
    - atacked in the last year
    - feeling unsafe
  - rural (vs not)
  - hunger season
  - member of parliament lives in area

B unaffected by
- additional control for personal assets
- alternative controls for relative wealth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study MY 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Malaysia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =8861

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/- ns
boys:             M = 7,12
girls:            M = 7,02
-difference:        + 0,11 

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4     11,0  10,9  11,1   -0,2
5-6     27,5  26,2  28,6   -2,3
7-8     31,6  31,7  31,5   +0,1
9-10    29,9  31,1  28,8   +2,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study MY 2003
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), Malaysia, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =710

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,111-112
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.40 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=
Marrieds only
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=+.27 ns
All
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=
Marrieds only

OLRC's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
  - Satisfaction with life domains
  - Access to public services:
    - number of utilities
    - internet
    - email
    - mobile phone
  - Lifestyle characteristics:
    - frequency of praying
    - religion
    - living internationally
    - English ability
    - homeownership
    - number of family members
    - relative standard of living
    - no right to vote
  - Socioeconomic status:
    - marital status
    - age
    - income
    - educational attainment
- GEOGRAPHIC characteristics:
  - region
  - city size
  - county


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study MV 2003
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), Maldives, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =460

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,111-112
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=+.18 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=+.60 p < .05
Marrieds only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study MX 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Mexico, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7568

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 8,33
girls:            M = 8,21
-difference:         +0,12(.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G diff.
0-4      6,4   5,8   6,9   -1,1(ns)
5-6      9,5   8,4  10,6   -2,1(.05)
7-8     25,7  26,6  24,7   +2,0(ns)
9-10    58,5  59,1  57,8   +1,2(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyTimmermans (1997): study MX 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1531

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0   female
1   male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
1       M=2.91     Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.58      Mt=7.3
1       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.38      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.38      Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.07 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.05 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.09 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.04 ns
ß controlled for age and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.06 p < .05
ß controlled for age and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.00 ns
ß controlled for age and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study MX 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, urban areas, Mexico, 1948-1949
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1752

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 188
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0 Females
1 Males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=-.02 ns
0                             M'=1.60  Mt'=3.0
1                                1.57      2.9
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.04 ns
                       
                           


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2013): study MN 2003
TitleThe Quality of Life in Asia. A Comparison of Quality of Life in Asia
SourceSpringer, 2013, Dordrecht, Netherlands
URLhttps://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=Hy69XDD2zooC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=inoguchi+%2B+The+Quality+of+Life+in+Asia&ots=rtiFUZCZPJ&sig=gD8EwuaC44rBzLvEB0TnThKoJOk#v=onepage&q=inoguchi%20%2B%20The%20Quality%20of%20Life%20in%20Asia&f=false
DOIdoi:10.1007/978-90-481-9072-0
PublicWorking aged (20-69), Mongolia, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =536

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 106,111-112
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.05 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mbOLRC=-.46 p < .05
Marrieds only

OLRC's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
  - Satisfaction with other life domains
  - Access to public services:
    - water supply
    - electricity
    - piped gas
  - lifestyle characteristics:
    - religion
    - living internationally
    - English ability
    - homeownership
    - number of family members
    - relative standard of living
    - no right to vote
  - Socioeconomic status:
    - gender
    - marital status
    - age
    - income
    - educational attainment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2017): study ME 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Montenegro, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5665

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source Table III.3.2,p278 + 286-7
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 boys
0 girls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+/-
boys:             M = 7,99
girls:            M = 7,50
-difference:        + 0,49 (.05)

Happiness score
Rating  All   Boys  Girls  B-G dif.
0-4     11,1   9,5  12,7   - 3,2(.05)
5-6     14,6  12,2  17,1   - 4,9(.05)
7-8     24,3  23,8  24,7   + 0,9(ns)
9-10    50,1  54,5  45,5   + 9,0(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyFritsch et al. (2018): study ZZ Europe 2013
TitleSelf-Employment and Well-Being Across Institutional Contexts
SourceJENA Economic Research Papers, 2018, Nr. 5, 1 - 43
Public18+aged,working people, 32 European countries, 2013
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =161127

Correlate
Author's labelMale sexe
Page in Source 43.45.47.50
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1:Male
0:Female
Observed distributionM =0,50, SD = 0.50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cbOLRC=-.01 p < .01
OLRC Controlled for:
-employment status
-age
-marital status
-level of education
-working hours per week
-job change situation
-personal income level
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cbOLRC=-.09 p < .01
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-firm size
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cbOLRC=-.01 p < .01
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-Business climate in nation (DoB score)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cbOLRC=-
OLRCs imilar across income quartiles


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyEUROSTAT (2015): study ZZ EU28 2013
TitleHow Satisfied Are People with Their Lives in The European Union? A New Multi-Dimensional Data Collection
SourceEuroStat News Release, 2015, Nr. 51
URLhttps://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/2995521/6750366/3-19032015-CP-EN.pdf/bbf302b1-597d-4bf0-96c4-9876e49b5b9d
Public16+ aged, general public, EU, 2013
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelMen and women
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
0; female
1: male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cjDM=+
0: M = 7.0
1: M = 7.1
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyOECD (2019): study ZZ EU 25 2013
TitleHow’s Life in the Digital Age? Opportunities and Risks of the Digital Transformation for People's Well-being.
SourceOECD Publishing, Paris, France
URLhttps://doi.org/10.1787/9789264311800-en
Public15+ aged, general public, Europe, 2013
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =82000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 111
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-cb=-.12 p < .01
b controlled for:
- internet access
- log income
- age
- marital status
- employment status
- education
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-cb=-.09 p < .01
b additionally controlled for:
- financial satisfaction
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-cb=-.14 p < .01
b additonally controlled for:
- interaction effect internetaccess*gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyChan, D. et al. (2017): study ZZ Developing nations 2012
TitleIs trusting others related to better health? An investigation of older adults across six non-western countries
SourceJournal of cross-cultural psychology, 2017, vol.48(8) 1288-1301
DOIdoi:10.1.1177/0022022117722632
Public50+ aged, 6 non-Western developing countries, 201?
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =35329

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 1292 1295
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female
Observed distributionMale: 44.12% Female: 55.88%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-vr=-.04 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-yr=-.04 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHerbers & Mulder (2017): study ZZ Europe 2012
TitleHousing and Subjective Well-Being of Older Adults in Europe.
SourceJournal of Housing and the Built Environment, 2017, Vol. 32, 533 - 558
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10901-016-9526-1
Public50+ aged, general public, 16 European nations, 2012
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =36015

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source table 2
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female
Remarks
Order reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cb=-.09 p < .01
b's controlled for:
- housing situation
  - dwelling size
  - household composition
  - housing tenure
- personal characteristics
  - education level
  - labour-market status
  - occupation level
  - self-reported health
  - age
-environment
  - degree of urbanization
  - country


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyHaindorfer (2019): study ZZ Eastern Europe 2012
TitleLebenszufriedenheit und Pendelerfolg. Ost-West-Pendelnde aus Tschechien, Slowakei und Ungarn in Österreich
SourceSpringer, 2019, Wiesbaden, Germany
URLhttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-658-26791-9
Public21-65 aged, commuters from Slowakia, Tsjechia and Hungary, 2012-2013
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2687

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 181,189,T18,T20
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Error EstimatesSE=.1078
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-afDM=-.37 p < .001
              Mean
Males         7.28
Females       7.65
- difference -0.37
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-afb=-.15 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-afBeta=-.04 ns
b and beta controlled for:
- Gross monthly income
- Perceived prosperity development
- Perceived job-related health risks
- Perceived job security
- Commuting time in minutes (plus squared)
- Education level
- Knowledge of the German language
- Perceived health
- Perceived identity
- Balanced relation between work and family
- Marital status
- Having children
- Frequency contact w. other commuters/friends
- Frequency contact w. Austrian friends
- Good working climate
- Discrimination at work
- Number of commuters among family/friends
- Enough leisure time
- Possibilities realizing own ideas
- Possibility for mobility at work
- Flexible work contract
- Region of origin
- Age  and age squared
- Employment status
- Type of business
- Company size
- Ethnic differentiation on workfloor
- Commuting frequency
- Employment status before current job


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyAysan & Aysan (2017): study ZZ Europe 2011
TitleThe Effect of Employment Status on Life Satisfaction in Europe.
SourceBilgin, M.H. et al. (Eds.), 2017, "Empirical Studies on Economics of Innovation, Public Economics and Management", Springer International Publishing AG, Switzerland
URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-50164-2_21
Public18+ aged, general public, 34 European nations, 2011-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =43636

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 339
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-bDM=+ p < .001
                   Mean happiness  SD 
Male                  7.05        2.16   
Female                7.02        2.18
- difference         +0.03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyCastellacci & Schwabe (2018): study ZZ EU 27 2010
TitleInternet Use and the U-shaped Relationship Between Age and Well-being.
SourceWorking Paper, 2018, Nr. 0215, TIK Centre, University of Oslo, Norway
URLhttp://www.sv.uio.no/tik/InnoWP/tik_working_paper_20180215.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 27 EU nations, 2010-2013
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 25
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female
Remarks
Sign and hence association conversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.03 p < .01
Additional control for internet use * age did not 
effect beta significantly.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.07 p < .01
Beta's and OPRC's controlled for:
- age ad age squared
- internet use
- unemployment
- education
- unmarried
- marital status
- financial situation
- living  urban/rural
- society level (above mid-point)
- job status
- time dummies
- country fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ Aged General Public in 120 Nations 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =301516

Correlate
Author's labelFemale
Page in Source 16
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.08 p < .01
a. The variable is taken for female gender

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Access to information and communication 
technology
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ North America 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public, North America, 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelFemale
Page in Source 16
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
a. The variable is taken for female gender

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Access to information and communication 
technology
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Latin America 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public , Latin American countries, 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelFemale
Page in Source 16
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
a. The variable is taken for female gender

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Access to information and communication 
technology
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public, Sub-Sahara African countries, 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelFemale
Page in Source 16
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
a. The variable is taken for female gender

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Access to information and communication 
technology
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Various nation sets 2010 /1
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public. Middle East and North African nations 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000000

Correlate
Author's labelFemale
Page in Source 16
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
a. The variable is taken for female gender

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Access to information and communication 
technology
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ East Asia 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public, East Asian countries, 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelFemale
Page in Source 16
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
a. The variable is taken for female gender

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Access to information and communication 
technology
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudySumnall & Bellis (2010): study ZZ 2010
TitleA Choise between fun for Health? Relationships between Nightlife Substance Use, Happiness, and Mental Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Substance Use, 2010, Vol. 15, 89 - 104
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/14659890903131190
DOIdoi: 10.3109/14659890903131190
Public16-35 aged night scene public, 9 European cities, 2008
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1363

Correlate
Author's labelSexe
Page in Source 94
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 male
0 female
Observed distributionmale:51.5%, female:48.5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bD%=- ns
males        83% happy
females      84% happy
- difference -1%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ South Asia 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public, South Asian countries, 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelFemale
Page in Source 16
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
a. The variable is taken for female gender

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Access to information and communication 
technology
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyWilczek (2018): study ZZ Europe 2010
TitleMedia Use and Life Satisfaction: The Moderating Role of Social Events
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2018, Vol. 65, 157 - 184
URLhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s12232-017-0290-7
Public15+ aged, general public, Europe 2010-2015
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =73860

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 165-166
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1 Male
0 Female
Observed distributionMales: 53%; females: 47%
Remarks
Sign and hence association reversed by WDH-team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=+.01 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- personal
  - age
  - marital status
  - education
  - social class
  - occupation status
- media use
  - use of written press
  - use of radio
  - use of TV
  - use of the internet
  - use of SNS
- nation
  - unemployment
  - inflation
  - GDP per capita
  - population size
  - social diversity
  - journalism culture
- events
  - adaptation and learning
  - impact levels of national social events
  - consequences of national social events


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ South East Asia 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public, South East Asian countries, 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelFemale
Page in Source 16
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
a. The variable is taken for female gender

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Access to information and communication 
technology
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sex (male vs female)

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Australia and New Zealand 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public, Australia and New Zealand, 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6000

Correlate
Author's labelFemale
Page in Source 16
Our classificationSex (male vs female)
Operationalization
1: Male
0: female

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
a. The variable is taken for female gender

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Access to information and communication 
technology
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Married
  - Married and female