Findings on Happiness and INCOME

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and main subject: INCOME

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Nr of Studieson subject
2 INCOME
1   Income career
3     Earlier income
17       Earlier level of income
10       Earlier sufficiency of income
1       Earlier relative income level
3       Earlier satisfaction with income
      Earlier source of income
1           Earlier on welfare
1       Earlier concern about income
6     Change in income
60       Change in income level
2       Change in income sufficiency
9       Change to better or worse
1       Change in relative income
9       Change in source of income
1           Change in use of public assistance
3           Got pension
3       Change in attitude to income
3       Attitude to change in income
3     Later income
12       Later level of income
1       Later relative income
2       Later source of income
4       Later satisfaction with income
133   Current income level (unspecified)
76     Personal income
2       Personal labor income
4     Other household member's income
439     Household income
5       Net household income
3       Disposable household income
      Equivalent household income
2     Negative/Zero income
3   Security of income
41   Sufficiency of current income
27     `objective` poverty
28     Subjective poverty
4     Being able to buy a house
2     Being able to save
12     Material standard of living
12   Source of current income
4     Own income or not
3     Main breadwinner
8     Type of income
      Income from enterprise
2       Income from paid work
1       Income from savings and insurances
9           Income from pension
17       Income from social security
2           Income from workfare
3       Non-money income from farming
      Non-labor income
1           Income from parents
          Income from study grant
1           Windfall income
69   Relative income
15     Relative to income of similar people
    Relative to income of family of origin
14     Relative to income in neighborhood
23     Relative to income of compatriots
1     Relative to income of spouse
    Relative to income of non-similar people
10   Attitudes to own income
12     Concerns about income
4       Aspired income-increase
4       Awareness of income change
10       Worrying about money
18     Income aspirations
13     Income expectations
10     Income comparisons
28     Satisfaction with income\finances
69       Satisfaction with income
131       Satisfaction with financial situation
22       Satisfaction with financial security
2       Satisfaction with opportunity to save
89       Satisfaction with standard of living
4       Satisfaction with physical needs met
1       Satisfaction with relative income

Appendices
Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
Appendix 2: Statistics used
Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 4: Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 5: Related Subjects

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and INCOME
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=0066
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2022, Netherlands


Correlational finding on Happiness and INCOME

StudyClark et al. (2019a): study CN 2013
TitleSubjective Well-Being in China’s Changing Society
SourcePNAS, 2019, Vol. 116, 16799-16804
URLhttps://www.pnas.org/content/116/34/16799
DOIdoi:/10.1073/pnas.1902926116
PublicGeneral Public, China, 2013-2017
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationINCOME
Operationalization
1. lower
2. middle
3. upper

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-afD%=+
% (very) happy    T1     T2    T3   T3-T1
                 2013   2015  2017
lower             50%    53%   64%  +14%
middle            55%    57%   67%  +12%
upper             65%    67%   74%  + 9%
-difference
    upper-lower  +15%   +14%  +10%  - 5%
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and INCOME

StudyChander (2004): study IN Haryana 2002
TitleRelationship between Constituents of Welfare and Income: A Need Based Approach
SourcePhd Dissertation, 2004, Panjab University, Chandisgarh, India
PublicAdults, varying age ranges, general public, Haryana, India, 2002
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response30
Respondents N =500

Correlate
Author's labelAbsolute ncome
Page in Source 168, table 1
Our classificationINCOME
Operationalization
Self-reported income  at household or family level 
after taxation.
Remarks
Reported income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-er=+.24 p < .05
Individual happiness by current income.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Income career

StudyChander (2004): study IN Haryana 2002
TitleRelationship between Constituents of Welfare and Income: A Need Based Approach
SourcePhd Dissertation, 2004, Panjab University, Chandisgarh, India
PublicAdults, varying age ranges, general public, Haryana, India, 2002
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response30
Respondents N =500

Correlate
Author's labelChange in economic conditions
Page in Source 177, 178, exhibit 6
Our classificationIncome career
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to compare their present 
position with that of the past, approximately at the 
time when they started earning. They were asked to 
indicate any improvement or deterioration in their 
financial position on a scale of -5 to +5. (CHANGEE)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-eOPRC=+.09 p < .01
Individual happiness by change in economic 
position. 

OPRC controlled for:
-change in social conditions
-current log of income per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier income

StudyHeadey & Krause (1994): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleInequalities of Income, Health and Happiness: The Stratification Paradigm and Alternatives.
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =9114

Correlate
Author's labelEquivalent income
Page in Source 14 + 22
Our classificationEarlier income
Operationalization
Household's income net of taxes and including benefits, 
adjusted for household size, using OECD equivalence 
weights which are 1.0 for the first adult, 0.7 for 
other adults and 0.5 for children under 18.

Assessed at T1  (1984) and T2 (1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.14
T1 happiness by T1 income: raw correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.19
T1 happiness by T1 income: disattenuated r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.08
T1 happiness by T2 income: raw r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Disattenuated correlations are obtained by 
assuming validity coefficients of 0.9 for income 
and 0.8 for happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.11
T1 happiness by T2 income: disattenuated r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.06
T2 happiness by T1 income: raw r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.08
T2 happiness by T1 income: disattenuated r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.12
T2 happiness by T2 income: raw r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.17
T2 happiness by T2 income: disattenuated r


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier income

StudyKrause (2013): study DE 2007
TitleDon't Worry, be Happy? Happiness and Reemployment.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013, Vol. 96, 1 - 20
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
Public16+ aged, recently fallen unemployed, Germany, 2007-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2542

Correlate
Author's labelLog net hourly wage of last job (euros)
Page in Source 5, 7
Our classificationEarlier income
Operationalization
Log net hourly wage of last job in euros
Observed distributionM= 7.49; SD=3.98

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.49 p < .001
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) age and age squared
  b) disabled
  c) marital status
  d) having a partner
  e) employment status spouse
  f) employment status partner
  g) (number of) children in household
  h) education
  i) migrant status
  j) gender
  k) duration of last job
  l) unemployment benefits
  m) reason of termination of last job
- Environmental characteristics:
  n) national unemployment rate
  o) region/state in Germany
- Interview-specific characteristics:
  p) interview cohort
  q) time between unemployment entry and


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier income

StudyBartolini et al. (2013a): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelLog of monthly household income 3 years before
Page in Source 20, 26, 33, 34
Our classificationEarlier income
Operationalization
Natural logarithm of Adjusted Monthly Household Net 
Income three years before
Remarks
Data: earlier wave in this panel study

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.03 p < .10
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.08 p < .01
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Attending events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudyPaul & Guilbert (2013): study AU 2001
TitleIncome-Happiness Paradox in Australia: Testing the Theories of Adaptation and Social Comparison.
SourceEconomic Modeling, 2013, Vol. 30, 900 - 910
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2012.08.034
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8530

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 905
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
Financial year disposable personal income, converted 
with 2001 consumper price index (log)
Observed distributionMean: - 2001: $24202 - 2002: $25241 - 2003: $25218 - 2004: $25926 - 2005: $27185
Remarks
Invididuals needed to respond about their income 
sources (both public and private) and afterwards 
disposable income is computed by estimating income 
taxes and transfers.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
CURRENT income by CURRENT happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.00 ns
PAST income by CURRENT happiness
- income 1 year ago
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
- income 2 years ago
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.01 ns
- income 3 years ago
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
- income 4 years ago

OPRC controlled for:
- Reference group income
- Age
- Education level
- Gender
- Employment status
- Health
- Living in/outside city
- Indiginous
- Marital status
- Parents together
- Volunteering
- Care performed
- Working hours
- Commuting


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelLow income
Page in Source 261
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
Have you experienced low income (wage, salary)
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answer:  No (=0) or Yes (=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 1259 Ever in your life: N = 1163

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.24
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.18
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 4.00
ever in your life:       M = 3.72
95% CI for difference:   [0.21 ; 0.35]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudyAbolhassani & Alessie (2013): study DE 1994
TitleSubjective Well-Being Around Retirement
SourceDe Economist, 2013, Vol. 161, 349-366
DOIdoi: 10.1007/s10645-013-9209-1
Public50-70 aged, followed 15 years, Germany, 1994-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10275

Correlate
Author's labelhousehold income
Page in Source Table1,4
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
selfreport of monthly household net income in EURO
Observed distributionM=2,444, SD=1,842
Remarks
log transformed.
T1:1994; T2:1999; T3:2004; T4:2009

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.80 p < .01
CURRENT income by CURRENT happines
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.67 p < .01
CURRENT income by LATER happiness (5 years)

b-fix controlled for current:
Employment status
Demographic
 - gender
 - age
 - region
 - education
 - marital status
Household status
 - number of children
 - number of adult
Health staus
 - doctor visits
 - hospital stays
 - degree disability


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudyKnabe & Rätzel (2007): study DE 1992
TitleQuantifying the Psychological Costs of Unemployment: The Role of Permanent Income.
SourceWorking Paper No. 32, DIW, 2007, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/61949/diw_sp0032.pdf
Public21-64 aged, Germany, followed 13 years ,1992-2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =152411

Correlate
Author's labelPermanent income
Page in Source 11
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
Average income of the individuals  averaged over all 
years in the panel (1992-2005)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.36 p < .01
Both sexes
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.33 p < .01
Men only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.39 p < .01
Women only

OPRC's controlled for:
- employment status
- transitory income (truncated model)
- family status
- age, age squared
- number of children
- years of education
- house ownership
- health indicators

OPRC's cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect 
size

OPRC's mean that a higher permanent income 
corresponds to more happiness and that the 
difference is similar among males and females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudyClark et al. (2015): study DE 1992
TitlePoverty Profiles and Well-Being: Panel Evidence from Germany.
SourceSOEP Papers, 2015, no. 739, 1 - 29
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2576631
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 14 years; 1992-2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =368000

Correlate
Author's labelPoverty
Page in Source 24-25
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
Yearly equivalence household income
1) Poor, below 60% of median equivalent income in 
nation
0) Not poor

a) Incidence: whether individual is poor
b) Intensity: how poor an individual is
c) Chronic poverty: occurrence of periods of poverty
d) Persistence of poverty: to what extent those periods 
are linked together
e) Past poverty
Remarks
Assessed every years
b, c and d only individuals who participated more than 
10 years in the panel

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.13 p < .01
Incidence of poverty
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.50 p < .01
Intensity of poverty
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.04 p < .05
Past poverty (scarring)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.13 p < .10
Persistence of poverty
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.07 p < .05
Chronic poverty

b-fix's  controlled for:
- Employment status
- Age group
- Number of  years of education
- Marital status
- Dummy for East Germany
- Number of children in the household


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudyD'Ambrosio & Frick (2012): study DE 1992
TitleIndividual Wellbeing in a Dynamic Perspective.
SourceEconomica, 2012, Vol. 79, 284 - 302
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x/full
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x
Public18+ aged general public, followed 15 years, 1992-2007, Germany
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184000

Correlate
Author's labelRelative income
Page in Source 296
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
Relative income to nation
a currently (T)
b one year earlier (T-1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.27 p < .01
Relative income to nation (T), postive
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.10 p < .01
Relative income to nation (T), negative
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 ns
Relative income to nation (T-1), positive
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.57 p < .01
Relative income to nation (T-1), negative


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudySaris (2001b): study DE 1990
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Satisfaction: The Effect of Measurement Error and Suppressor Variables.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 117 - 136
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1026785328244
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 4 years, 1990-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 130
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+
CURRENT happiness (T) by CURRENT income (T)

T1 happiness by T1 income: r=+.10
T2 happiness by T2 income: r=+.12
T3 happiness by T3 income: r=+.14
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+
CURRENT happiness (T) by EARLIER income (T-1)

T2 happiness by T1 income: r=+.09
T3 happiness by T1 income: r=+.10
T3 happiness by T2 income: r=+.08
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+
EARLIER happiness (T) by LATER income (T+)

T1 happiness by T2 income: r=+.12
T1 happiness by T3 income: r=+.12
T2 happiness by T3 income: r=+.14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudyWunder (2008): study DE 1985
TitleAdaptation to Income over Time: A Weak Point of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSOEP Paper no 130, 2008, DIW, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp130.html
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 21 years, 1985-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =23757

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 8 + 17
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
Aggregated income of all household members (log)
Observed distributionMean: 2359; SD:1355
Remarks
Assesed every year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.29 p < .01
Last year CHANGE in happiness (T - T-1) by CURRENT 
income (T)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.31 p < .01
Last year CHANGE in happiness (T - T-1) by PAST 
(T-1) income

b controlled for:
- Household size
- Years of education
- Home owner
- Marital status
- Employment status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudyVendrik (2013): study DE 1984
TitleAdaptation, Anticipation and Social Interaction in Happiness: An Integrated Error-correction Approach.
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2013, Vol. 105, 131 - 149
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272713001333
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2013.06.009
Public27-59 aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed at least 6 years,1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60984

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 137
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
Real household-equivalence income: real household 
income divided by equivalence scale
(equivalence scale not reported)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.03 ns
PAST income by CURRENT happiness
1 year ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.04 ns
2 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.04 p < .01
3 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.19 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.11 p < .01
LATER income by CURRENT happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudyLayard et al. (2009): study DE 1984
TitleDoes Relative Income Matter? Are the Critics Right?
SourceWorking paper SOEP No. 210, DIW, 2009, Berlin, Germany. (also published in: Diener E.;Helliwell J.E.; Kahneman D.;Eds.: ''International Differences in Well-Being'', Oxford University Press, 2010, 139 - 165)
URLhttp://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp0918.pdf
Public30-55 aged non-immigrant West-Germans, West-Germany, followed 1984-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56240

Correlate
Author's labelReal household income
Page in Source 33
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
Real net household income (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.50
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+33
b's controled for:
- age squared
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- work status
- state dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.53
b additionally controled for average income of 
similar people
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.32
b additionally controled for past incomes (1, 2 
and 3 years
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.33
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.01
CURRENT happiness by PAST (T-1) household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.01
CURRENT happiness by PAST (T-2) household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.06
Current happiness by past (T-3) household income

b's controled for:
- personal characteristics
- average income of similar compatriots
- relative income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudyDiTella et al. (2007): study DE 1984
TitleHappiness Adaptation to Income and to Status in an Individual Panel.
SourceNBER Working Paper 13159, 2007, Cambridge, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w13159
Public18+ aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed 16 years 1984-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7812

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source Table 1, 3 and 4
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
Real Household post-government income per year in 
German Marks
Observed distributionM = 60.971

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.23 p < .02
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
- Gender
  - males         Beta = +.28
  - females       Beta = +.17 
- political preference
  - left          Beta = +.28
  - right         Beta = +.21
- employment
  - employee      Beta = +.20
  - self employed Beta = +.52
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.04 p < .02
CURRENT happiness by PAST income
1 year ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.07 p < .02
2 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.06 p < .02
3 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.02 p < .02
4 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.07 ns
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE income (one year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.05 ns
income rose
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.20 ns
income declined

All betas (fixed effects) controlled for:
- status
- marital state
- employment state
- education
- physical health
- number of children
- child birth in past year
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudySlag (2017): study KR 2009
TitleThe Easterlin Paradox or Easterlin Illusion: Some Empirical Tests.
SourceMSc Thesis, 2017, School of Economics, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public18+ aged general public, South Korea, followed 5 years 2009-2014
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =79474

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier household income
Page in Source 35
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
Household income previous year (log)
Observed distributionMean: 41416.03; SD: 3630.36

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-bb-fix=+.00 ns
b-fix (+0.002) controlled for:
- yearly change in household income
- reference group income
- age
- employment status
- health status
- marital status
- education level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudySenik (2004): study RU 1994
TitleWhen Information Dominates Comparison. Learning from Russian Subjective Panel Data.
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2004, Vol. 88, 2099 - 2123
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0047-2727(03)00066-5
Public18+ aged general public, Russia, followed 6 years, 1994-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11129

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 2109
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
a) Individual income: includes cash and non cash 
salaries, other paid work and income, unemployment 
benefits and pensions
b) Household income: household income in its broadest 
sense (including rents)
Remarks
Assessed every year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hOPRC=+.13 p < .01
PAST YEAR's individual income
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hOPRC=+.24 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income (log)

Controlled for:
- age
- marital status
- household size
- mother tongue
- believer
- gender
- region
- round
- health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudySaris (2001b): study RU 1993
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Satisfaction: The Effect of Measurement Error and Suppressor Variables.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 117 - 136
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1026785328244
Public18+ aged general public, Russia, followed 3 years 1993-1995
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 126
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
not reported
Remarks
Assessed each year: T1, T2 and T3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+
CURRENT happiness(T) by CURRENT income (T)
                               Raw  .Corrected
T1 happiness by T1 income: r = +.19  +.36
T2 happiness by T2 income: r = +.18  +.32
T3 happiness by T3 income: r = +.12  +.25
Correction for measurement error in happiness and 
income (disattenuation)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+.11
CURRENT happiness (T) by EARLIER (T-1) income
                               raw    corrected
T2 happiness by T1 income: r = +.10   +.21
T3 happiness by T1 income: r = +.08   +.11
T3 happiness by T2 income: r = +.11   +.19
Correction for measurement error in happiness and 
income (disattenuation)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+
EARLIER Happiness by LATER income
T1 happiness by T2 income: r = +.18
T1 happiness by T3 income: r = +.14
T2 happiness by T3 income: r = +.12
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.56 p < .05
CHANGE happiness (T controled for T-1) by CHANGE 
income (T minus T-1): 1 year lags 

Beta's controled for
- Age
- Education
and corrected for measurement error
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudyCrivelli et al. (2016): study CH 2012
TitleHappiness and Health.
SourceBruni L.; Porta P.L.; Eds: "Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Happiness and Quality of Life"' Edward Elgar, 2016, Cheltenham, UK / Northampton, USA
DOIdoi: 10.4337/9781783471171
Public18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, followed 9 years, 2004-2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6960

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 386, 398
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
Log household equiv. income

Income categories in quintiles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hDM=+
Incomequintile  Mean Difference   sd    N
1 (reference)   7.76             1.80  1627
2               7.98   +0.24     1.47  1445
3               8.12   +0.36     1.37  1347
4               8.19   +0.43     1.31  1265
5               8.39   +0.63     1.23  1073
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hBeta-f=+.09 p < .01
CURRENT INCOME
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hBeta-f=+.03 p < .10
EARLIER INCOME

Beta's controlled for:
- health
- age
- marital status
- having children
- employment status
- death of a closely related person
- termination of a close relationship
- conflicts with/among related persons
- physical activity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudyMartin & Lichter (1983): study US Michigan 1973
TitleGeographic Mobility and Satisfaction with Life and Work.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1983, Vol. 64, 524 - 534
Public16+ aged, employees, Michigan USA, followed 4 years, 1973-1977
Sample
Non-Response(43%)
Respondents N =827

Correlate
Author's labelPast income
Page in Source 529, 531
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Adding up your income from all sources, roughly what is 
the total yearly incane before taxes of your immediate 
family--including
your income, the wages of everyone else in the family 
who works and income from any other source?
Remarks
Assessed at T1(1973) and T2(1977)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-7-dBeta=+.09 p < .01
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1 income (T2 
happiness by T1 income, controlling for T1 
happiness).

Beta addtionally controlled for:
- T1-T2 residential moving
- T1 age
- T1 education
- T1-T2 change in intrinsic job rewards
- T1-T2 change in extrinsic job rewards


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income

StudyChiriboga (1982a): study US 1969
TitleConsistency in Adult Functioning. The Influence of Stress.
SourceAgeing and Society, 1982, Vol. 2, 7 - 29
PublicPeople in transition followed 11 years, metropolis, USA, 1969-1980
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition after 11 years 24%
Respondents N =163

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier level of income
Page in Source 23
Our classificationEarlier level of income
Operationalization
Closed question asked 11 years ago at 
T1(1969)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr= ns
T1 income by T5 happiness (11 year interval
Males:   r= +.02 (ns)        
Females: r= -.13 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier sufficiency of income

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelScantiness of unemployment benefit
Page in Source 261
Our classificationEarlier sufficiency of income
Operationalization
Have you experienced scantiness of unemployment benefit
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answer: No (=0) or Yes (=1)
Observed distributionNever: N = 1746 Ever in your life: N = 656

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.28
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.25
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.99
ever in your life:       M = 3.54
95% CI for difference:   [0.37 ; 0.54]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier sufficiency of income

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelToo high living costs (rent, mortage, loan etc.)
Page in Source 261
Our classificationEarlier sufficiency of income
Operationalization
Have you experienced too high living costs (rent, 
mortage, loan etc.)
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answer:  No (=0)  or  Yes  (=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 1668 Ever in your life: N = 750

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.28
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.22
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.98
ever in your life:       M = 3.61
95% CI for difference:   [0.30 ; 0.44]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier sufficiency of income

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelDifficulties in supporting family
Page in Source 261
Our classificationEarlier sufficiency of income
Operationalization
Have you experienced difficulties in supporting your 
family
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answer:  No (=0) or Yes (=1)
Observed distributionNever: N = 1915 Ever in your life: N = 469.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.26
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.22
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.96
ever in your life:       M = 3.50
95% CI for difference:   [0.37 ; 0.55]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier sufficiency of income

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelObligatory expenditure growing too heavy
Page in Source 261
Our classificationEarlier sufficiency of income
Operationalization
Have you experienced obligatory expenditure growing too 
heavy
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answer: No (=0) or Yes (=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 1195 Ever in your life: N = 1216

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.23
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.19
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 4.02
ever in your life:       M = 3.71
95% CI for difference:   [0.24 ; 0.38]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier sufficiency of income

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelBeing heavily indebted
Page in Source 261
Our classificationEarlier sufficiency of income
Operationalization
Have you experienced being heavily indebted
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answer:  No (=0) or Yes (=1)
Observed distributionNever: 2046 Ever in your life: N = 360

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.25
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.24
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.95
ever in your life:       M = 3.41
95% CI for difference:   [0.45 ; 0.63]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier sufficiency of income

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelScantiness of social allowance (disability etc.)
Page in Source 261
Our classificationEarlier sufficiency of income
Operationalization
Have you experienced scantiness of social allowance 
(disability etc.)
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 1761 Ever in your life: N = 644

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.12
during the last year.
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.11
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.92
ever in your life:       M = 3.71
95% CI for difference:   [0.13 ; 0.29]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier sufficiency of income

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelBecoming dependent upon others
Page in Source 261
Our classificationEarlier sufficiency of income
Operationalization
Have you experienced becoming dependent upon others
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2153 Ever in your life: N = 275

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.08
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.12
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.90
ever in your life:       M = 3.58
95% CI for difference:   [0.20 ; 0.44]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier sufficiency of income

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelFinancial problems (because of illness)
Page in Source 261
Our classificationEarlier sufficiency of income
Operationalization
Have you experienced financial problems (because of 
illness)
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answer: No (=0) or Yes (=1)
Observed distributionNever: N = 1682 Ever in your life : N = 760

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.28
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.26
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 4.00
ever in your life:       M = 3.53
95% CI for difference:   [0.40 ; 0.54]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier sufficiency of income

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelScantiness of a pension
Page in Source 261
Our classificationEarlier sufficiency of income
Operationalization
Have you experienced scantiness of a pension
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2054 Ever in your life: N = 332

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.08
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.08
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.90
ever in your life:       M = 3.71
95% CI for difference:   [0.09 ; 0.29]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier sufficiency of income

StudyClark (2015): study DE 1992
TitleSWB as a Measure of Individual Well-Being.
SourceHal Archives, 2015, Pse Working Papers, No 2015-11, 1 - 45, Paris, France
URLhttps://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01134483
Public16+ aged, general public, followed 10 years, Germany, 1992-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =368000

Correlate
Author's labelPast poverty
Page in Source 10,12,13,25
Our classificationEarlier sufficiency of income
Operationalization
Poverty in the past (respondents observed for at least 
10 years).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.04 p < .05
ALL
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.04 ns
Men
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.07 p < .05
Women
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.06 ns
Age<=60
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.07 ns
Age >60 

All beta's controlled for:
- age
- employed
- residence East or West Germany
- education (years)
- marital status
- number of children in household


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier relative income level

StudyDumludag (2014): study ZZ 2010
TitleSatisfaction and Comparison Income in Transition and Developed Economies.
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2014, Vol. 61, 127 - 152
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-014-0201-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 35 nations in Europe and Asia, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response37,7%
Respondents N =38864

Correlate
Author's labelPast income compared to nation
Page in Source 135-136
Our classificationEarlier relative income level
Operationalization
Single direct question:
"Please imagine a 10-step ladder, on the bottom of 
which, on the first step, stand the poorest 10% of 
people in our country, and on the highest step, the 
tenth, stand the richest 10% in our country. On which 
step of the 10 was your household 4 years ago?"
 a Downward ranking: People who rated themselves 5 or 
lower on the ladder
b Upward ranking: People who rated themselves higher 
than 5 on the ladder.
Error EstimatesAll nations Upward: s.e.=0.041 Downward:s.e.=0.039 Developed nations Upward: s.e.=0.080 Downward:s.e.=0.081 Transition nations Upward: s.e.=0.047 Downward:s.e.=0.044

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=.14 p < .01
ALL NATIONS

Upward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.20 p < .01
Downward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.01 ns
DEVELOPED NATIONS

Upward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.08 ns
Downward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.19 p < .01
TRANSITION NATIONS

Upward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.23 p < .01
Downward ranking

Beta's controlled for: 
-Relative income:
  -present and future income rank
  -relative household position
  -relative parents position
-Social demographic:
  -age squared
  -gender
  -household size
  -marital status
  -education
  -employment
  -log household consumption
-Country dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier satisfaction with income

StudyHeadey et al. (1991): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleTop-down versus Bottom-up Theories of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1991, Vol. 24, 81 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00292652
Public18-65 aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981-1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =942

Correlate
Author's labelStandard of Living
Page in Source 94
Our classificationEarlier satisfaction with income
Operationalization
Index of two single questions on satisfaction with:
a: The income you and your family have
b: Your standard of living: the things you have; 
housing ,car, furniture, etc.
Both items scored on 1-9 D-T rating scale, summation by 
average.
Remarks
Panel analysis over four waves (1981, 1983, 1985, 1987) 
which estimates following effects
 - bottom up: effect of satisfaction with standard of 
living on life satisfaction
 - topdown: effect of life satisfaction on satisfaction 
with standard of living
 - contemporaneous: within wave correlation
 - lagged: over time (waves) correlation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=-.04 ns
Contemporaneous bottom up:satisfaction with 
standard of living makes people happy
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=+.18 p < .05
Contemporaneous top down: happy people are 
satisfied with their standard of living
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=-.02 ns
Lagged bottum up: satisfaction with standard of 
living makes people happier later
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=+.12 p < .05
Lagged top down: happy people become more 
satisfied with standard of living

Beta's controlled for satisfaction with
 - marriage
 - job
 - leisure
 - friendship
 - health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier satisfaction with income

StudyHeadey et al. (1984a): study AU 1978
TitleThe Impact of Life Events and Changes in Domain Satisfactions on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 203 - 227
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00668671
Public18-65 aged, general public, followed 3 years, Melbourne, Australia, 1979-80
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with standard of living
Page in Source 211
Our classificationEarlier satisfaction with income
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a 9- point scale (delighted 
...  terrible) Assessed at T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 ns
Happiness T2 by satisfaction T2, controlling for 
happiness T1 and satisfaction T1.

ß can be interpreted as regression between CHANGE 
OF HAPPINESS and CHANGE OF SATISFACTION in time.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier satisfaction with income

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with money
Page in Source 132,134
Our classificationEarlier satisfaction with income
Operationalization
Self report on:
- satisfaction with the income you and your family have
- satisfaction with the pay and fringe benefits you get
- how secure are you financially?

Assessed on a 1-7 scale:1 delighted...
7 terrible
Observed distributionN=121 M=3,64 SD=1,31
Error Estimatesalpha=.84
Remarks
Assessed at T1 1 or 2 weeks before vacation and T3 the 
week after vacation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.44 p < .05
T1 life satisfaction by T1 satisfaction with money
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.49 p < .05
T3 life satisfaction by T3 satisfaction with money
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.45 p < .05
T1 satisfaction with money by T3 life satisfaction
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.32 p < .05
T1 satisfaction with money by T3 life satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier on welfare

StudyDorsett & Oswald (2014): study GB 2005
TitleHuman Well-being and In-Work Benefits: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
SourceIZA Working Paper Series, 2014, No. 7943, Warwick, Uk
Public18+ aged unemployed single mothers, UK, followed 5 years. Participants and controls in a program, 2003-2008
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response41
Respondents N =3320

Correlate
Author's labelWelfare
Page in Source Table A4
Our classificationEarlier on welfare
Operationalization
Months on welfare in past 2 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-gb=.0 ns
Year 2: when half of the single mothers were 
treated in an employement program
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-gb=.0 ns
Year 5: when the employment program had stopped 
and treated mothers worked full time

b coefficients controled for:
- randomly selected into the program (or not)
- age, age squared
- age of youngest child
- education
- work in past 3 years
- weekly earnings in past year
- on welfare
- region in the UK


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier concern about income

StudyNickerson et al. (2003): study US 1976
TitleZeroing on the Dark Side of the American Dream: A Closer Look at the Negative Consequences of the Goal for Financial Success.
SourcePsychological Science, 2003, Vol. 14, 531 - 536
DOIDOI:10.1046/j.0956-7976.2003.psci_1461.x
PublicStudents USA, followed 20 years 1976-1995-97
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =12894

Correlate
Author's labelFinancial Goal
Page in Source 534
Our classificationEarlier concern about income
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

The importance to you personally of being very well off 
financially?
1: not important
2: somewhat important
3: very important
4: essential
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ib=-.04 p < .0001
T1 financial goals by T2 happiness
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ib=-.04 p < .0001
B controlled for T2 income

Effect of materialism at T1 on happiness at T2 
diminished to zero at highest income level.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2011): study CN 2002
TitleDoes Economic Growth Raise Happiness in China?
SourceOxford Development Studies, 2011, Vol. 39, 1 - 24
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13600818.2010.551006
DOIDOI:10.1080/13600818.2010.551006
PublicAdults, China, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8872

Correlate
Author's labelExpected change income over next 5 years
Page in Source 9-10
Our classificationChange in income
Operationalization
Expected change in income in next 5 years:
A Big increase
B Small increase
C Decrease

Assumed dummies
Observed distributionURBAN: Expect: big increase: 2%; small increase 46%; decrease: 19% RURAL: Expect: big increase: 10%; small increase 68%; decrease: 4% MIGRANTS: Expect: big increase: 7%; small increase 55%; decrease: 10%
Remarks
Only urban respondents

Measure and ratings not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=+/-
URBAN

Expected change      b    
A Big increase      +.28(05)
B Small increase    +.10(05)
C Decrease          -.24(01)

b's controlled for:
- basic variables:
  - gender
  - age and age squared
  - marital status
  - health
- conventional economic variables
  - log of p.c. household income
  - net wealth
  - working hours (100's per year)
- comparison variables 
  - fairness income distribution in China/city
  - living standard in city
  - mean provincial income p.c. (log)
- insecurity variables 
  - unemployed
  - self-experienced important social problems
  - enterprise profit/loss
  - laid off work sometime 2002
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=+/-
RURAL

Expected change      b    
A Big increase      +.28(05)
B Small increase    +.10(05)
C Decrease          -.24(01)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=+/-
RURAL-URBAN MIGRANTS

Expected change      b    
A Big increase      +.30(01)
B Small increase    +.03(ns)
C Decrease          -.40(01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2011): study CN 2002
TitleDoes Economic Growth Raise Happiness in China?
SourceOxford Development Studies, 2011, Vol. 39, 1 - 24
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13600818.2010.551006
DOIDOI:10.1080/13600818.2010.551006
PublicAdults, China, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8872

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent living standards compared to 5 years ago
Page in Source 6
Our classificationChange in income
Operationalization
Self-perceived change in current living standards 
compared to 5 years ago:
A better
B worse

Assumed dummies:
1 Yes
0 No
Observed distributionA: 61%; B: 5%
Remarks
Only rural population

Question and ratings not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=+/- p < .01
Living standards     b
A better            +.18(01)
B worse             -.18(01)

b's controlled for:
- basic variables:
  - gender
  - age and age squared
  - marital status
  - health
- conventional economic variables
  - log of p.c. household income
  - net wealth
  - working hours
- comparison variables 
  - household income compared to village mean
  - expected income over next 5 years
  - gini of household income p.c. county level
- attitudinal variables 
  - degree of harmony among lineages
  - degree of harmony in village
  - agree that money is important
  - importance of family
  - importance of friends


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income

StudyGerlach & Stephan (1996): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleA Paper on Unhappiness and Unemployment in Germany.
SourceEconomics Letters, 1996, Vol. 52, 325 - 330
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176596008580
Public16-65 aged, general public, Germany, followed from 1984 to1993
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54066

Correlate
Author's labelChange in income
Page in Source 328
Our classificationChange in income
Operationalization
Selff report of change in household income per capita.
0 no change/decrease
1 increase
Observed distribution0 no change/decrease 1 increase
Remarks
Subjects with at least two observations, so not all 
followed 10 years.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
T1-T2 CHANGE in happines by T1-T2 CHANGE in income
             age <30   30-49     >49

- women      +.22(01)  +.15(01)  +.04(ns)
- men        +.11(01)  +.21(01)  -.06(ns)

B's controled for CHANGE in:
- labour market position
- marital status
- self perceived disability
- self perceived health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income

StudyRudolf & Cho (2011): study KR 1998
TitleThe Gender-Specific Effect of Working Hours on Family Happiness in South Korea.
SourceCourant Research Centre, Discussion Papers no. 77, 2011, Göttingen, Germany
URLhttp://www.uni-goettingen.de/crc-peg
PublicWorking aged, South-Korea, followed 10 years 1998-2008
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25461

Correlate
Author's labelLog per-capita income
Page in Source 21
Our classificationChange in income
Operationalization
Log per capita income
Remarks
25.153 observations

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-e
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE income.
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=+.06 p < .01
Wives
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=+.06 p < .01
Husbands

b-fix controled for:
- houshold head
- spouse
- year of survey


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 1018,1022,1023
Our classificationChange in income
Operationalization
Log of self reported household income
Remarks
Lag of change not reported, probably T to T+1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-er=+.08 p < .001
CURRENT income by CURRENT happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.10 p < .001
OPRC controled for
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.03 p < .001
CURRENT income by CHANGE in happiness
b-fix controled for CURRENT 
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.02 ns
CHANGE income by CHANGE in happiness
b controled for CHANGE in
- employment
- health
- marital status
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income

StudyDunn et al. (2008): study US 2008 /1
TitleSpending Money on Others Promotes Happiness.
SourceScience, 2008, Vol. 319, 1687 - 1688
DOIDOI:10.1126/science.1150952
Public18+ aged, employees, followed 3 months before and after receiving a bonus, USA, 2008
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16

Correlate
Author's labelBonus amount
Page in Source 2
Our classificationChange in income
Operationalization
amount of bonus in $
Remarks
T1: one month before bonus
T2: 3 months later

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-g-sq-v-5-gr=+.18 ns
T1 happiness
M-TH-g-sq-v-5-gr=+.03 ns
T2 happiness
M-TH-g-sq-v-5-gBeta=+.00 ns
Beta controlled for:
- % bonus spend for others


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyChhetri et al. (2009): study AU Queensland 2003
TitleWhy Bother to ''Downshift''? The Characteristics and Satisfaction of Downshifters in the Brisbane- South East Queensland Region, Australia.
SourceJournal of Population Research, 2009, Vol. 26, 57 - 64
DOIDOI:10.1007/s12546-008-9005-y
PublicDownshifters and non-downshifters, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response60
Respondents N =773

Correlate
Author's labelDownshifters and non-downshifters
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
In the last 10 years, have you voluntarily made a 
long-term change in your lifestyle, other than planned 
retirement, which has resulted in you earning less 
money?
  1 Yes (downshifter)
  0 No (non-downshifter)
Observed distributionDownshifter: N = 202 Non-downshifter: N = 511

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-5-aDMa=- ns
Downshifters:     Ma = 4.18, SD = 0.67
Non-downshifters: Ma = 4.19, SD = 0.81
 -Difference:         -0.01

Ma adjusted for: 
 -Sex
 -Education
 -Partner
 -Employment
 -Household type
 -Marital status
 -Dwelling status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyAmbrey & Fleming (2014a): study AU 2002
TitleThe Causal Effect of Income on Life Satisfaction and the Implications for Valuing Non-market Goods.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2014, VOL, 123, 131 - 134
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2014.01.031
Public20-59 aged general public, Australia, 2002-2011
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =254727

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Natural log of household income
Observed distributionMean: $38574

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.06 p < .05
yearly CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in income

OLRC (5.28E-07) controlled for:
- age squared
- English speaking ability
- marital status
- lone parent
- number of children
- highest level of educational attainment
- self-employed
- employment status
- years at current adress
- life events
- state/territory dummies
- year dummies

Fixed effects ordered logit estimate


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudySchurer & Yong (2012): study AU 2001
TitlePersonality, well-being and the marginal utility of income: What can we learn from random Coefficient models?
SourceHEDG WP 12/01, 2012, York, UK
URLhttp://www.york.ac.uk/media/economics/documents/herc/wp/12_01.pdf
Public20-60 aged general public, followed 9 years, Australia, 2001-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7158

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 32
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Disposable household income (log): difference between 
gross household income and estimated taxes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.05 p < .05
yearly CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in income
Men only, similar results for females. 

Beta controlled for:
- personality
- age
- marital status
- number of children in household
- number of individuals in household
- health status
- education
- employment status
- total weekly work-hours
- reginal indicators
- time fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyAppleton & Song (2008): study CN 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction in Urban China: Components and Determinants.
SourceWorld Development, 2008, Vol. 36, 2325 - 2340
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.04.009
PublicAdults, general public, urban areas, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6977

Correlate
Author's labelExperienced a fall in HH income
Page in Source 2335
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Self-report on single question for every household 
member with income:
Please recall and fill in the following form regarding 
your personal income earned during 1998-2002.
Income is accumulated and distinguished by: 
1: A fall in HH income in one of the years
0: No fall in HH income in all years
Observed distribution1: 25.7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nOPRC=-.11 p < .01
OPRC controlled for:
- Household income
- Unemployed
- Age (squared)
- Gender
- Marital status
- Sociability
- Dependent relatives
- Belief in religious tolerance
- Health
- Medical insurance
- Political factors
- Occupation type
- Hukou location
- Province


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyZoch et al. (2021): study DE 2020
TitleGender Differences in Reduced Well-being during the COVID-19 Pandemic - the Role of Working Conditions
SourceIAB Discussion Paper, 2021, Nr. 4, Institute for Employment Research, Germany
URLhttps://econpapers.repec.org/paper/iabiabdpa/202104.htm
PublicWorking population, Germany, during first months of corona pandemic, 2020
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3870

Correlate
Author's labelIncome reduced in crisis
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Reduction of pre-crisis net household income in €  
0: below 10%, stable or increased income.
1: of at least 10 % or more.
Observed distributionMean = 0,19, SD = 0,39

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-gb=-.14 p < .001
b controled for:
- children under 14 in the household, 
- pre-corona satisfaction
- short-time work
- working hours
- system-relevant job
- remote work
- self-employment
- age
- gender
- education
- migration background
- pre-crisis employment
- pre-crisis log-household income
- single household
- number of household members
- East Germany.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyBoyce & Wood (2011): study DE 2005
TitlePersonality and the Marginal Utility of Income: Personality Interacts with Increases in Household Income to Determine Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2011, Vol. 78, 183 - 191
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167268111000187
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2011.01.004
Public17-96 aged, general public Germany, followed 4 years 2005-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54460

Correlate
Author's labelMontly household income (log)
Page in Source Table 2, 3
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Change Montly household income (log), in Euros
Observed distributionMean: 2801; S.D.: 1793.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.49 p < .01
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE in income

Beta (+.487), based on pooled OLS, controled for:
- age
- sexe
- Household size (log)
- Marital status
- Employment status
- Disabled
- Child dummy

b unaffected by additional control for:
- personality
- year
- region

Similar among males (+.46) and females (+.42)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.17 p < .01
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE in income

Beta (+.165), based on fixed effects, controlled 
for
- household size (log)
- marital status
- children (dummy)
- year
- region

Stronger among males (+.21) than females (+.15)

Interaction with personality:
- stronger among the conscientiousness (males) and 
neurotics (males and females)
- unaffected by openness, extraversion and 
agreeableness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyPfeifer (2013): study DE 2003
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Consumption Values of Partners and Friends: Empirical Evidence from German Panel Survey Data.
SourceEconomics Bulletin, 2013, Vol. 33, 3131 - 3142
URLhttp://econpapers.repec.org/article/eblecbull/eb-13-00787.htm
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 5 years, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9972

Correlate
Author's labelMontly net household income
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Monthly net household income (in real Euro's, 2003)
Observed distributionM=2851; SD=1881

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.10 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
b controlled for:
- marital status
- number of close friends
- number of persons in household
- german citizenship
- age
- subjective health-status
- employment status
- educational career
- year dummy 2008
- regions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyFitzroy et al. (2013): study DE 2000
TitleTesting the Tunnel Effect: Comparison, Age and Happiness in UK and German Panels.
SourceIZA DP No. 7452, 2013, Hull, United Kingdom.
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp7452.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, 2000-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =212650

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 8
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Net household income (montly)
Observed distributionWest Germany: M=2872; SD=1863 East Germany: M=2248; SD=1294

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.25 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
West-Germany only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.38 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
East-Germany only

b's are slightly smaller for individuals with age 
<45, and slightly larger for individuals with age 
>45

b's controlled for:
- Marriage
- Cohabiting
- Children
- Health status
- Education
- Work status
- Interview form
- Time in panel
- Year of last interview
- Household size
- Age group
- Year of survey
- Regional/Federal unemployment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelLn (household income)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
in Euros
Observed distributionM = 3169,118 SD = 2143,248

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.16 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income

PROBIT ADAPTED OLS. 

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - household size
  - employment status
  - marital status
  - nationality
- personality traits
- accomodation
- absolute lack of
  - facilities (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables   (car, telephone, etc)
  - health     (bad health, disabled etc)
  

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.126 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.19 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life (going to cultural events, etc)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.18 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.08 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative (instead of absolute) lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health
  - savings

Random effects. Fixed effects: +.041 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.09 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative (instead of absolute) lack of
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.086 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.10 p < .01
B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- absolute lack 
- relative lack

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.057 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.12 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- social life (absolute and relative lack)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.108 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study DE East Germany 1992
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, (East-)Germany, followed 18 years,1992-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81956

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 31
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Net equivalized household income (in price level of 
1995, euro)
Observed distributionMean: 13630; SD: 6455

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.29 p < .01
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT household income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.14 p < .01
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in household 
income (T-1 to T)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Regional GDP/capita growth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyWolbring et al. (2013): study DE 1992
TitleNeeds, Comparisons, and Adaptation: The Importance of Relative Income for Life Satisfaction.
SourceEuropean Sociological Review, 2013, Vol. 29, 86 - 104
URLHttp://www.esr.oxfordjournals.org
DOIDOI:10.1093/esr/jcr042,
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 16 years, 1992-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =19568

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 94
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Monthly disposable income per capita (in euro) (log)
Observed distributionMean: 1188; SD:981

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.17 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Beta controlled for:
- Age, age squared
- Health
- Number of friends
- Martial status
- Children
- Employment status
- Church Attendance
- Social trust


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyD'Ambrosio & Frick (2012): study DE 1992
TitleIndividual Wellbeing in a Dynamic Perspective.
SourceEconomica, 2012, Vol. 79, 284 - 302
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x/full
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x
Public18+ aged general public, followed 15 years, 1992-2007, Germany
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184000

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier level of household income
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Percentage change of equivalent montly household income 
( T-1 to T)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.12 p < .05
CURRENT Happiness (T) by earlier CHANGE in 
household income (T-1 to T)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04 p < .05
Positive change only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.31 p < .01
Negative change only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudySchyns (2000): study DE 1992
TitleThe Relationship between Income, Changes in Income and Life-Satisfaction in West Germany and the Russian Federation. Relative, Absolute or a Combination of Both?
SourceDiener, E.;Rathz, D.R.;Eds.: "Advances in Quality of Life Theory and Research", Kluwer, 2000, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 110
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 4 years, 1992-1996
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4398

Correlate
Author's labelChange in income
Page in Source 101
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Change (in %) in post-government montly household 
income from 1995 to 1996 (log)
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1995; T2: 1996

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.04
T1 happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in income level
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=0
T2 happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in income level

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Education
- Marital status
- Employment status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyFerrer-i-Carbonell (2005): study DE 1992
TitleIncome and Well-Being: An empirical Analysis of the Comparison Income Effect.
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2005, Vol. 89, 997 - 1019
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/222683403_Income_and_well-being_an_empirical_analysis_of_the_comparison_income_effect
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2004.06.003
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, 1992-1997
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16000

Correlate
Author's labelFamily income
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Family income: net household income (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.25
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
All
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.16
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Only West-Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.33
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Only East-Germany

Fixed effect analysis controlling for:
- age
- education
- number of children living in the household
- whether individual works


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyFrijters et al. (2004a): study DE 1991 /1
TitleMoney does Matter! Evidence from Increasing Real Income and Life Satisfaction in East Germany following Reunification.
SourceThe American Economic Review, 2004, Vol. 94, 730 - 740
DOIDOI:10.1257/0002828041464551
Public21-64 aged general public, East Germany, 1991-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3086

Correlate
Author's labelHoushold income
Page in Source 735
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Real household income (ln), post tax

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.86
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
men only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.72
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
women only

Beta's controlled for:
- marital status
- number of children
- disability
- employment status
- border east/west germany
- year dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyFrijters et al. (2004a): study DE 1991 /1
TitleMoney does Matter! Evidence from Increasing Real Income and Life Satisfaction in East Germany following Reunification.
SourceThe American Economic Review, 2004, Vol. 94, 730 - 740
DOIDOI:10.1257/0002828041464551
Public21-64 aged general public, East Germany, 1991-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3086

Correlate
Author's labelDifferences in income
Page in Source 737
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Natural log of real household income, post tax
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1991, T2: 1996 and T3: 2001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
T1-T2 CHANGE income by T1-T2 CHANGE happiness
Mean change in happiness due to change in income. 
Total change in happiness in this period was 
+0.545 point

Males
- all           DM = +0.281 (05)
- young         DM = +0.238 (05)
- old           DM = +0.378 (05)
- low educated  DM = +0.236 (05)
- high educated DM = +0.399 (05)
Females
- all           DM = +0.255 (05)
- young         DM = +0.257 (05)
- old           DM = +0.256 (05)
- low educated  DM = +0.219 (05)
- high educated DM = +0.310 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+/-
T2-T3 CHANGE income by T2-T3 CHANGE happiness
Mean change in happiness due to change in income. 
Total change in happiness in this period was 
+0.144 point

Males
- all           DM = -0.004 (05)
- young         DM = +0.007 (05)
- old           DM = -0.054 (05)
- low educated  DM = -0.003 (05)
- high educated DM = -0.006 (05)
Females
- all           DM = +0.005 (05)
- young         DM = -0.008 (05)
- old           DM = +0.006 (05)
- low educated  DM = +0.004 (05)
- high educated DM = -0.016 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyWelsch & Kühling (2013): study DE 1991
TitleIncome Comparison, Income Formation, and Subjective Well-Being: New Evidence on Envy versus Signaling.
SourceOldenburg Discussion Papers in Economics, No V-356-13, 2013, Oldenburg, Germany
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2258400
DOIdoi:10.2139/ssrn.2258400
Public15+ aged general public, Germany, 1991-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =293998

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 26
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Montly net real equivalized household income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.31 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
West-Germany, 1991-1999
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.54 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
East-Germany, 1991-1999
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.28 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
West-Germany, 2000-2009
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.38 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
East-Germany, 2000-2009

All b's controlled for:
- Age,
- Marital status
- Size household
- Education level
- Employment status
- Comparison income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunification.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelLog household income (post tax)
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
      Males      Females
East: Beta=+.21  Beta=+.20
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
      Males      Females
West: Beta=+.13  Beta=+.13

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Moved home within country in last year
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyCheung (2018): study DE 1984
TitleIncome Redistribution Predicts Greater Life Satisfaction Across Individual, National, and Cultural Characteristics
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2018, Vol 115, 867 - 882
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/248200
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany followed 30 years 1984 - 2013
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response183108 observations excluded because of incomplete data.
Respondents N =4484400

Correlate
Author's labelPost-Government (disposable) Household Income
Page in Source 18, 19, 29, 30, 52, 53
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Pre- and post-government annual income are calibrated 
for inflation to reflect euros in 2011 using the 
Consumer Price Index. Post-government income is 
disposable income.
Observed distributionnot reported
Remarks
Data in SOEP.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.21 p < .001
No controls, all waves,all 16 states.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+1.7 p < .001
Individual happiness by state-specific average 
disposable household-income.

Controls at individual level:
-gender
-age
-years of education
-married 
-number of Household Adults
-number of Household Children
-years of participation in SOEP

Controls at state level (16 states)
-Net Gini
-Income Redistribution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.15 p < .001
CHANGE individual Happiness by CHANGE in one's 
disposable household income (income-mobility).

Controls at individual level:
-gender
-age
-years of education
-married 
-number of Household Adults
-number of Household Children
-years of participation in SOEP

Controls at state level (16 states)
-Net Gini
-Income Redistribution

Similar b's if additionally controlled for tax and 
transfers (difference tax paid and welfare 
received).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyCheung (2018): study DE 1984
TitleIncome Redistribution Predicts Greater Life Satisfaction Across Individual, National, and Cultural Characteristics
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2018, Vol 115, 867 - 882
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/248200
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany followed 30 years 1984 - 2013
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response183108 observations excluded because of incomplete data.
Respondents N =4484400

Correlate
Author's labelTax and Welfare (change income due to government tranfers)
Page in Source 18, 19, 29, 30, 52, 53
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Individual-level government taxation was calculated by 
subtracting post-government income (log) from 
pre-government income (log), to capture the change in 
income  from taxes, welfare and other sources of 
government transfer. A positive outcome means that 
participants had higher pre-government income than 
post-government income (paid more than received).
Observed distributionnot reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.15 p < .001
No controls, all waves,all 16 states.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyVendrik (2013): study DE 1984
TitleAdaptation, Anticipation and Social Interaction in Happiness: An Integrated Error-correction Approach.
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2013, Vol. 105, 131 - 149
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272713001333
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2013.06.009
Public27-59 aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed at least 6 years,1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60984

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 137
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Real household-equivalence income: real household 
income divided by equivalence scale
(equivalence scale not reported)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.03 ns
PAST income by CURRENT happiness
1 year ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.04 ns
2 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.04 p < .01
3 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.19 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.11 p < .01
LATER income by CURRENT happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed 24 years,1984-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =318346

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 30
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Net equivalized household income (in price level of 
1995, euro)
Observed distributionMean: 16648; SD: 11610

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.26 p < .01
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT household income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.06 p < .01
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in household 
income growth (T-1 to T)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Regional GDP/capita growth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyPischke (2011): study DE 1984
TitleMoney and Happiness: Evidence from the industry Wage Structure.
SourceIZA DP no. 5705, IZA, 2011, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp1051.pdf
Public20-64 aged general public, West-Germany, 1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56476

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 55, 56
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Family income (ln)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.13
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Men only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.30
Married men only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.26
Married women only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.22
Married women, not working only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.28
Married women, working only

All betas controlled for:
- Age
- Nationality
- Education level
- Region, year dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyBoes & Winkelmann (2010): study DE 1984
TitleThe Effect of Income on General Life Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 95, 111 - 128
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9452-7
Public25-65 aged singles, (West-)Germany, 1984-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9735

Correlate
Author's labelLogaritmic income
Page in Source 121, table 4
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Log of monthly income in Euro
Observed distributionMales: M = 1403, Females: M = 1141

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.36 p < .05
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Males only
Stronger among unhappy
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.13 p < .05
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Females only
Similar among happy and unhappy

Controlled for:
- Age squared
- Good health (0/1)
- Time fixed effects
- Unemployment
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyPohl (2006): study DE 1984
TitleEmployment Status, Income and the Subjective Well-Being of Immigrants.
SourcePrinceton University, Working Paper, 2006, No. 71087
URLhttp://paa2007.princeton.edu/papers/71087
Public25-65 aged immigrants, Germany, followed yearly 1984-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15790

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 16
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Household income (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.05 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in income

OPRC controlled for:
- Sexe
- Age
- Number of children
- Marital status
- Education level
- Dummy west-germany
- Immigration background
- Employment status
- Worries
- Health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyLayard et al. (2009): study DE 1984
TitleDoes Relative Income Matter? Are the Critics Right?
SourceWorking paper SOEP No. 210, DIW, 2009, Berlin, Germany. (also published in: Diener E.;Helliwell J.E.; Kahneman D.;Eds.: ''International Differences in Well-Being'', Oxford University Press, 2010, 139 - 165)
URLhttp://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp0918.pdf
Public30-55 aged non-immigrant West-Germans, West-Germany, followed 1984-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56240

Correlate
Author's labelReal household income
Page in Source 33
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Real net household income (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.50
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+33
b's controled for:
- age squared
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- work status
- state dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.53
b additionally controled for average income of 
similar people
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.32
b additionally controled for past incomes (1, 2 
and 3 years
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.33
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.01
CURRENT happiness by PAST (T-1) household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.01
CURRENT happiness by PAST (T-2) household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.06
Current happiness by past (T-3) household income

b's controled for:
- personal characteristics
- average income of similar compatriots
- relative income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudySchaubert (2015): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleCareer, Private Life, and Well-Being among College educated West German Women.
SourceTheorie und Politik - Session: Men and Women in the Workplace, 2015, No. G18-V3, 1 - 36
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/113042
Public25- 54 aged high educated women, WestGermany, followed 1984-2012
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =13713

Correlate
Author's labelCareer-family combination: 'Get it all'
Page in Source 19
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
A Career: monthly earning above 25th percentile of 
college educated males (vs not)
B Family situation
    a cohabiting with a partner (vs not)
    b children; minor child in the household (vs not)
    c family: cohabits with partner and child(ren) (vs 
not)
Remarks
Only SOEP data.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.35 p < .01
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE in.. ONLY
A: made career only                   (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.22 p < .01
Ba: got partnered only                (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+12 p < .05
Bc: started family only               (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.25 p < .05
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE to career + partner

Among women who work half-time, while partner 
works full-time and has a high income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
b-fix's controled for:
- age
- age square
- migration background
- year fixed effects
- indicator variables for birth cohort
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.36 p < .01
Among women who work full-time, while partner does 
not and has a relatively low income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.40 p < .01
Among women who work full-time, while partner also 
works full time and has a relatively high income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyDiTella et al. (2007): study DE 1984
TitleHappiness Adaptation to Income and to Status in an Individual Panel.
SourceNBER Working Paper 13159, 2007, Cambridge, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w13159
Public18+ aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed 16 years 1984-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7812

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source Table 1, 3 and 4
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Real Household post-government income per year in 
German Marks
Observed distributionM = 60.971

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.23 p < .02
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
- Gender
  - males         Beta = +.28
  - females       Beta = +.17 
- political preference
  - left          Beta = +.28
  - right         Beta = +.21
- employment
  - employee      Beta = +.20
  - self employed Beta = +.52
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.04 p < .02
CURRENT happiness by PAST income
1 year ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.07 p < .02
2 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.06 p < .02
3 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.02 p < .02
4 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.07 ns
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE income (one year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.05 ns
income rose
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.20 ns
income declined

All betas (fixed effects) controlled for:
- status
- marital state
- employment state
- education
- physical health
- number of children
- child birth in past year
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyVendrik & Woltjer (2007): study DE 1984
TitleHappiness and Loss Aversion: Is utility concave or convex in relative income?
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2007, Vol. 91, 1423 - 1448
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2007.02.008
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 17 years, 1984-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =102068

Correlate
Author's labelFamily income
Page in Source 1436
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Annual disposable family income (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.31
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
b controlled for:
- Family composition
- Unemployment status
- Years of education
- Age
- Weekly hours worked


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyChander (2004): study IN Haryana 2002
TitleRelationship between Constituents of Welfare and Income: A Need Based Approach
SourcePhd Dissertation, 2004, Panjab University, Chandisgarh, India
PublicAdults, varying age ranges, general public, Haryana, India, 2002
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response30
Respondents N =500

Correlate
Author's labelChange in economic conditions
Page in Source 177, 178, exhibit 6
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to compare their present 
position with that of the past, approximately at the 
time when they started earning. They were asked to 
indicate any improvement or deterioration in their 
financial position on a scale of -5 to +5. (CHANGEE)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-eOPRC=+.09 p < .01
Individual happiness by change in economic 
position. 

OPRC controlled for:
-change in social conditions
-current log of income per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudySarracino et al. (2019): study JP 1990
TitleMaking Economic Growth and Well-Being Comparable: Evidence from Japan.
SourceWorking Paper, 2019, Hermes-IR, Hitotsubashi University Repository, Japan
URLhttp://hermes-ir.lib.hit-u.ac.jp/rs/handle/10086/30346
PublicGeneral public, age 18+, Japan, 1990-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelchange in yearly household income
Page in Source 34,37, 40
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to rate their net household 
income on a scale from 1 to 10 where each point 
corresponds to a specific income bracket. Average 
values of the brackets have been transformed in real 
Yen of 2010

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-lDM=+.5 p < .001
Women                  DM = - 1.915 (.001)
Elderly (aged 60+)     DM = + 0.196 (.001)

Calculated by Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyHanda et al. (2014): study KE 2007
TitleSubjective Well-Being, Risk perceptions and Time Discounting: Evidence from a Large-Scale Cash Transfer Programme.
SourceUnicef Working Paper, 2014, No. 2014-02, Florence, Italy
URLhttp://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/717
PublicPoor households: benefactories of a welfare program and controls, Kenya, 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-ResponseAttrition: 2007-2009:17%;2009-2011 5%
Respondents N =1805

Correlate
Author's labelTreatment
Page in Source 29,30,39
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Inclusion in income support programme for poor 
households with vulnerable
1 yes (Treatment)
0  no (Control)
Within each of seven districts two locations were 
randomized for immediate implementation and the 
remaining two served as control sites.
Remarks
The support programme aims at encouraging fostering and 
retention of children and promoting human capital 
development by providing regular cash transfers to 
families living with OVC  (Orphans and vulnerable 
children). The programme is being abbreviated to CT-OVC 
(Cash Transfer programmes for OVC).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-u-sq-v-5-aD%=+ p < .01
% happy (strongly agree and agree)

- Treatment (inclusion) 49,6%
- Control               42,2%
Difference              +7,4%
M-PL-u-sq-v-5-dD%=+ p < .025
- Treatment (inclusion) 49,5%
- Control               43,4%
Difference              +6,1%
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-bD%=+ p < .025
- Treatment (inclusion) 44,4%
- Control               38,6%
Difference              +5,8%
M-PL-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.07 p < .05
Weighted linear probability regression (WLS).
M-PL-u-sq-v-5-db=+.06 ns
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-bb=+.06 ns
M-PL-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.03 ns
Ordinary linear probability least squares 
regression. (OLS)
M-PL-u-sq-v-5-db=+.03 ns
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-bb=+.06 p < .05
b's are controlled for 
- Age (x100), Age squared (x1000)
- Sex
- Household position
- Literacy
- Chronic Illness
- Current Handicap


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudySlag (2017): study KR 2009
TitleThe Easterlin Paradox or Easterlin Illusion: Some Empirical Tests.
SourceMSc Thesis, 2017, School of Economics, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public18+ aged general public, South Korea, followed 5 years 2009-2014
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =79474

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 35
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Yearly change of household income (log)
Observed distributionMean: 42185.27; SD:3695.17

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-bb-fix=+.06 p < .01
b-fix controlled for:
- earlier household income
- reference group income
- age
- employment status
- health status
- marital status
- education level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudySohier (2019): study ZZ EU 9 2006
TitleDo Involuntary Longer Working Careers Reduce Well-being?
SourceApplied Research in Quality of Life, 2019, Vol.14, 171-196
URLhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s11482-017-9586-8
DOIdoi:org/10.1007/s11482-017-9586-8
Public50-70 aged adults, 9 nations, followed 7 years, 2006-2013
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16667

Correlate
Author's labelNet household income percentile
Page in Source table 5
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Net household income percentile
Remarks
T1: 2006-2007, T2: 2011, T3: 2013

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cb-fix=+.01 p < .10
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T3 CHANGE in net 
household income percentile

b-fix weighted by country population, controlled 
for
- age square
- selfperceived health, no. of daily limitation
- income difficult
- partner's health
- survey time

Similar result when excluding health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyKuhn et al. (2011): study NL 2003
TitleThe Effects of Lottery Prizes on Winners and their Neighbors: Evidence from the Dutch Postcode Lottery.
SourceIZA DP, 2011, No. 4950, Tilburg, The Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/36917
PublicLottery winners, players and controls, Netherlands, 2003-2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response32.7 %
Respondents N =2011

Correlate
Author's labelNon-lottery income
Page in Source 30
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
1: higher annual household income post tax, before 
lottery.
0: lower  annual household income post tax, before 
lottery.
Remarks
Lottery players only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.12 p < .01
B controled for:
- Car consumption
  - bought a car after lottery
  - number of cars
  - age of cars
- Monthly expenditures
  - food at home
  - food away
  - transport
  - other
- Occasional expenditures
  - exterior renovations
  - other renovations
  - vacation
  - non-car durables
- Other factors
  - PostCodeLottery (player) now
  - Charity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyFerrer-i-Carbonell & VanPraag (2002): study RU 1997
TitlePoverty in Russia.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2001, Vol.2, 147 - 172.
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1011560530411
Public18+ aged general public, Russia, 1997-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2233

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source Table 1, Table 2
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: What is your total 
monthly family income, including pensions, aliments and 
so on for the last month after tax?
Logarithm is used
Error EstimatesNon response 13%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-gb=+.50 s
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
1997
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-gb=+.35
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
1998

b's controlled for family size


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyFrijters et al. (2006): study RU 1994
TitleCan the Large Swings in Russian Life Satisfaction be Explained by Ups and Downs in Real Incomes?
SourceScandinavian Journal of Economics, 2006, Vol. 108, 433 - 458
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1467-9442.2006.00459
Public18-65 aged general public, Russia, followed yearly, 1994-2001
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =38000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome changes
Page in Source 453
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Real household income per month, in roubles
Remarks
T1: 1995; T2:1996; T3:1998; T4:2000; T5:2001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nDM=+/-
T1-T5 CHANGE income by T1-T5 CHANGE happiness
Mean change in happiness due to change in income. 
Total change in happiness in this period was 
+0.523 point (men), +0.584 (women). Differences 
are due to the changes in income.

Males
- T1-T2         DM = -0.010 (05)
- T2-T3         DM = -0.089 (05)
- T3-T4         DM = +0.093 (05)
- T4-T5         DM = +0.060 (05)
- T1-T5         DM = +0.055 (05)
Females
- T1-T2         DM = -0.008 (ns)
- T2-T3         DM = -0.100 (05)
- T3-T4         DM = +0.100 (05)
- T4-T5         DM = +0.058 (05)
- T1-T5         DM = +0.050 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudySenik (2004): study RU 1994
TitleWhen Information Dominates Comparison. Learning from Russian Subjective Panel Data.
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2004, Vol. 88, 2099 - 2123
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0047-2727(03)00066-5
Public18+ aged general public, Russia, followed 6 years, 1994-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11129

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 2109
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
a) Individual income: includes cash and non cash 
salaries, other paid work and income, unemployment 
benefits and pensions
b) Household income: household income in its broadest 
sense (including rents)
Remarks
Assessed every year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hOPRC=+.13 p < .01
PAST YEAR's individual income
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hOPRC=+.24 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income (log)

Controlled for:
- age
- marital status
- household size
- mother tongue
- believer
- gender
- region
- round
- health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudySaris (2001b): study RU 1993
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Satisfaction: The Effect of Measurement Error and Suppressor Variables.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 117 - 136
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1026785328244
Public18+ aged general public, Russia, followed 3 years 1993-1995
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 126
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
not reported
Remarks
Assessed each year: T1, T2 and T3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+
CURRENT happiness(T) by CURRENT income (T)
                               Raw  .Corrected
T1 happiness by T1 income: r = +.19  +.36
T2 happiness by T2 income: r = +.18  +.32
T3 happiness by T3 income: r = +.12  +.25
Correction for measurement error in happiness and 
income (disattenuation)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+.11
CURRENT happiness (T) by EARLIER (T-1) income
                               raw    corrected
T2 happiness by T1 income: r = +.10   +.21
T3 happiness by T1 income: r = +.08   +.11
T3 happiness by T2 income: r = +.11   +.19
Correction for measurement error in happiness and 
income (disattenuation)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+
EARLIER Happiness by LATER income
T1 happiness by T2 income: r = +.18
T1 happiness by T3 income: r = +.14
T2 happiness by T3 income: r = +.12
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.56 p < .05
CHANGE happiness (T controled for T-1) by CHANGE 
income (T minus T-1): 1 year lags 

Beta's controled for
- Age
- Education
and corrected for measurement error
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyFleche (2015): study SY 1999
TitleDistaste for Centralization: Evidence from a Quasi-Natural Experiment in Switzerland.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2015, No 1383, 1 - 48, London, UK
URLhttp://eprints.lse.ac.uk/64999/
Public14+ aged general public, Switserland, followed 12 years 1999-2012
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source Table 3 + A9
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Ln yearky total personal income
Observed distributionRange 4-16K, M = 10,914 =, SD = 0.68

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hb=+.25 p < .01
LEVEL of income

b-fix controled for CURRENT
- personal characteristics
  - sexe
  - age
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - education
  - religion
  - language
  - political preference
  - self rated health
  - foreign born
- Centralization reform in canton

Unaffected by additional control for
- canton characteristics
  - income per capita
  - unemployment rate
- municipal population size
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hb-fix=+.06 p < .01
CHANGE income over 12 years

b-fix controled for CHANGE in
- personal characteristics
  - sexe
  - age
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - self rated health
- centralizatiion reform in canton

Unaffected by additional control for:
- canton characteristics
  - income per capita
  - unemployment rate
- municipal population size


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelChange in income
Page in Source 1729/1730
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in response to question about monthly 
income from earnings and/or benefits
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2 (2 years interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=+.20 p < .05
T1-T2 INCREASE in income by T2 happiness
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-.18 p < .05
T1-T2 DECREASE in income by T2 happiness

B's controled for:
- T1 happiness
- T1 mental health status (good, moderate, poor)
- T1 objective conditions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyFitzroy et al. (2013): study GB 1996
TitleTesting the Tunnel Effect: Comparison, Age and Happiness in UK and German Panels.
SourceIZA DP No. 7452, 2013, Hull, United Kingdom.
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp7452.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, UK, 1996-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153189

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 11
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Net household income (montly in pound)
Observed distributionM=2715; SD=2155

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.04 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
All
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.06 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Age <45 only
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.02 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Age >=45 only

b's controlled for:
- marital status
- children
- health status
- education
- work status
- time in panel
- year of last interview
- household size
- age group
- wave number
- regions
- regional unemployment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study GB 1996
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, United Kingdom, followed 12 years,1996-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =125095

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 32
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Net real equalized household income (in price level of 
1987, pounds)
Observed distributionMean:16586; SD:10245

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.04 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in household 
income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.00 ns
CURRENT Happiness (T) by CHANGE in household 
income (T-1 to T)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Regional GDP/capita growth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyProto & Rustichini (2015): study GB 1996
TitleLife Satisfaction, Income, and Personality.
SourceIZA Discussion Paper, 2015, No. 8837, 1 - 30
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp8837.pdf
Public16+ aged general public, United Kingdom, 1996-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =117041

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 24
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Real household income (in 1000 USD)
Observed distributionMean: 6.44; SD: 3.7
Remarks
Converted to US$ at 2005 constant prices

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.00 ns
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income

Among neutrotics stronger effect of low income but 
smaller effect of high income.

Interactions with other BIG-5 personality traits 
non-significant.

Controlled for:
- Age, age squared
- Gender
- Number of children
- Worked hours, worked hours squared
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyMendolia (2014): study GB 1994
TitleMaternal Working Hours and the Well-Being of Adolescent Children.
SourceWorking Paper for the School of Accounting Economics and Finance, 2014, no. 01, Wollongong, Australia
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-015-9480-1
PublicChildren living with working mothers, UK, followed 12 years 1994 - 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9092

Correlate
Author's labelMaternal working hours
Page in Source 15
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Increase working hours mother
1 15
2 25
3 35

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-7-a
CHANGE work hours mother by CHANGE happiness child
O-HL-u-sq-n-7-ab-fix=+.01 ns
Mothers working hours increase by 15 hours per 
week
O-HL-u-sq-n-7-ab-fix=-.01 ns
mother working increase by 25 hours per week.
O-HL-u-sq-n-7-ab-fix=-.01 ns
mother working increase by 35 hours per week.
b-fix controled for:
- child characteristics
  - age
  - gender (boy = 1)
- mother characteristics
  - education
  - smoking
  - age
  - single mother household
- family characterisics
  - household non-labour income
  - number of children in household
- region of residence
- year of interview

Publication reports association with 'low 
life-satisfaction'.Sign reversed by WDH team.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyAngeles (2008): study GB 1991
TitleAdaptation or Social Comparison? The Effects of Income and Happiness.
SourcePaper University of Glasgow, Department of Economics, 2008, UK
URLhttp://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_110443_en.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, UK, 1991-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome relative to the past income (in logs)
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Measure of happiness dependent on the relative change 
in income level (based upon the log of T4 income 
divided by the average income of T1-T3)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.04 p < .05
b (0.035) controlled for:
- sexe
- age/age squared
- self-reported health
- marital status
- eduation
- unemployed
- number of children
- religiouness
- region
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.03 p < .10
b (0.027) when additionally controlled for 
absolute income.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyBecchetti et al. (2008): study GB 1991
TitleEasterlin-Types and Frustrated Achievers: The Heterogeneous Effects of Income Changes on Life Satisfaction.
SourceCambridge Working Papers in Economics 0816, 2008, Cambridge, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cam/camdae/0816.html
Public18+ aged general public, United Kingdom, followed 15 years 1991-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =79504

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source Table 3, 4
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Log annual household income, deflated by the price 
index
Remarks
Assessed every year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eD%=
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE in log income
Income up   happiness up    16% satisfied 
achievers
            happiness same  30%
            happiness down  18% frustrated 
achievers
Income down happiness up    9%
            happinbess same 16%
            happiness down  11%
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.00 ns
b (+0.0033) controlled for:
- family status
- number of children
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.06 ns
Satisfied achievers (Easterlin types) only:
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-3.4 p < .02
Frustrated archievers only: 

b's controlled for:
- number of children
- familiy status

Frustrated Achievers are happier than Satisfied 
Achievers (M = 5, 22 vs 4,17 p<.05)

Frustrated achievers more
- female
- divorced
- low educated
- low income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyBrown et al. (2009a): study US 2006
TitleWhen what One has is Enough: Mindfulness, Financial Desire Discrepancy, and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Research in Personality, 2009, Vol. 43, 727 - 736
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092656609001706
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jrp.2009.07.002
PublicParticipants in a mindfulness meditation course, USA, 200?
SampleNon-probability self-selected
Non-Response
Respondents N =69

Correlate
Author's labelChange in personal income past year
Page in Source 733
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Change in personal inome over 1 year. Scaled question, 
scale not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-*-mq-v*-7-er=+.32 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyBrown et al. (2009a): study US 2006
TitleWhen what One has is Enough: Mindfulness, Financial Desire Discrepancy, and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Research in Personality, 2009, Vol. 43, 727 - 736
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092656609001706
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jrp.2009.07.002
PublicParticipants in a mindfulness meditation course, USA, 200?
SampleNon-probability self-selected
Non-Response
Respondents N =69

Correlate
Author's labelChange in personal income past 5 years
Page in Source 733
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Change in personal income over 5 years. Scaled 
question, scale not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-*-mq-v*-7-er=+.2 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyBrown et al. (2009a): study US 2006
TitleWhen what One has is Enough: Mindfulness, Financial Desire Discrepancy, and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Research in Personality, 2009, Vol. 43, 727 - 736
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092656609001706
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jrp.2009.07.002
PublicParticipants in a mindfulness meditation course, USA, 200?
SampleNon-probability self-selected
Non-Response
Respondents N =69

Correlate
Author's labelChange in household income past year
Page in Source 733
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Change in household income over 1 year. Scaled 
question, scale not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-*-mq-v*-7-er=+.18 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyBrown et al. (2009a): study US 2006
TitleWhen what One has is Enough: Mindfulness, Financial Desire Discrepancy, and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Research in Personality, 2009, Vol. 43, 727 - 736
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092656609001706
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jrp.2009.07.002
PublicParticipants in a mindfulness meditation course, USA, 200?
SampleNon-probability self-selected
Non-Response
Respondents N =69

Correlate
Author's labelChange in household income past 5 years
Page in Source 733
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Change in household income over 5 years. Scaled 
question, scale not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-*-mq-v*-7-er=+.1 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyLuttmer (2005): study US 1987
TitleNeighbors as Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being.
SourceQuarterly Journal of Economics, 2005, 963-1002
URLhttp://www.nber.org/~luttmer/relative.pdf
Public19+ aged couples, United States, followed 6 years, 1987-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8944

Correlate
Author's labelln household income
Page in Source Table 1+7+8
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Household pretax income from both main respondent and 
his/her spouse

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.12 p < .05
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Beta controlled for:
- Income relative to neighborhood
- Value of home
- Renter
- Usual working hours
- Employment status
- Gender
- Age
- Race
- Years of education
- Household size
- Religion
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.14
Males only
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.11
Females only
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.09 p < .05
Age <30
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.11 p < .05
Age 30-40
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.17 p < .05
Age 40-60
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.10 p < .05
Age <60
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.02 ns
Education level: no education
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.13 p < .05
Education level: high school dropout
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.18 p < .05
Education level: high school degree
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.13 p < .05
Marital status: divorced/seperated
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.09 p < .10
Education level: college degree or more
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.12 p < .05
Marital status: married/cohabiting
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.07 ns
Marital status: widowed
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.12 p < .05
Marital status: never married
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.13 ns
Marital status: marital status changed last year
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.19 p < .05
Home ownership: rents
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.19 p < .05
Home ownership: owns
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.13 p < .05
Presence of children <18: None
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.11 p < .05
Presence of children <18: >1 child
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.10 p < .05
Lives in current home: <7 years
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.14 p < .05
Lives in current home: >7 years
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.12 p < .05
Lives in current home: duration is missing
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.13 p < .05
Socialize with neighbor: Less than once a month or 
missing
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.11 p < .05
Socialize with neighbor: Once a month or more
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.14 p < .05
Socialize with relatives: Less than once a month 
or missing
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.11 p < .05
Socialize with relatives: Once a month or more
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.15 p < .05
Socialize with friends who live outside 
neighborhood: less than once a month
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.09 p < .05
Socialize with friends who live outside 
neighborhood: once a month or more frequently
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.14 p < .05
Sociazlize with people one works with: less than 
once a month or missing
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.07 p < .05
Socialize with people one works with: once a month 
or more frequently


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyDehejia et al. (2007): study US 1987
TitleInsuring Consumption and Happiness through Religious Organizations.
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2007 Vol. 91, 259 - 279
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2006.05.004
DOIdoi:org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2006.05.004
Public19-60 aged general public USA, followed 5 years 1987-88 to1992-94
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5716

Correlate
Author's labelChange in household income
Page in Source 266-274
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Change in household income
Remarks
Question and measure not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.27 p < .05
       b     SE    p< 
White +.18   +.10  ns
Black +.78   +.32 .05

b controlled for:
- religious attendance (percentile)
- interaction religious attendance and income 
shock
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.28 p < .05
       b     SE    p< 
White +.22   +.12 .10
Black +.72   +.40 .10

b controlled for:
- actual religious attendance 
- predicted religious attendance (based on 
demographic controls)
- interaction religious attendance(actual and 
predicted) and income shock

Effects of income change on happiness are higher 
for respondents with 
- lower education
- less possessions
- lower income
- less religiosity
- Black race

Religious attendence absorbes 65% of the negative 
effect of income decline on happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyKamp Dush et al. (2008): study US 1980 /1
TitleMarital Happiness and Psychological Well-Being Across the Life Course.
SourceFamily Relations, 2008, Vol. 57, 211 - 226
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3650717/
DOIDoi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1741-3729.2008.00495.x
PublicMarried people, USA, followed 20 years 1980-2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2034

Correlate
Author's labelFamily income
Page in Source Table 1 & 4
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Log family income
Observed distributionRange= 2500-65000, M= 27,516, SD= 13,267
Remarks
Assessed at each wave. 
T1-T6 difference: 20 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cab-fix=+.16 p < .01
T1-T6 CHANGE happiness by T1-T6 CHANGE family 
income

b-fix controled for CHANGE in
- children below 18 in household
- marital happiness
- use of public assistance
- wife ermployed full-time
- husband employed
- Equal decision making
- Traditional gender studies
- Traditional marriage attitudes
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cab-fix=+.12 p < .01
b-fix additionally controled for:
- husband's share of household work
- equal decision making
- traditional gender attitudes
- traditional marriage attitudes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyLand et al. (2017): study US 1976
TitleObjective and Subjective Indices of Well-Being: Resolving the Easterlin Happiness-Income Paradox
SourceBrulé G. and Maggino M. (Eds.): "Metrics of Subjective Well-Being: Limits and Improvements" 2017, Springer, Cham, Swiss, 223-235
DOIDOI: 10.10007/978-3-319-61810_4
PublicHigh school seniors, USA, 1976-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60000

Correlate
Author's labelFamily income
Page in Source 231-32
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Average annual income of families with children under 
age 1976-2012
Remarks
Family income expressed in 2014 US dollars

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.38 p < .05
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness by CHANGE AVERAGE family 
income in the USA 1976-2012
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyDavis (1984): study US 1972
TitleNew Money, an Old Man/Lady and Two's Company: Subjective Welfare in the NORC General Social Surveys 1972-1982.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 319 - 350.
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00351443
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13581

Correlate
Author's labelRecent financial change
Page in Source 324
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
During the last few years has your financial situation 
been getting:
0 got worse
1 stayed the same
2 got better

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=+.20 p < .05
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=+.12 p < .05
% very happy   
0      21
1      34
2      42
The relationship remains sizable after control for 
perceived comparative income of parents and 
compatriots and occupational presties.
The relation also survives a control for marital 
status, race, household size and social 
participation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyDiener et al. (1993): study US 1971
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Subjective Well-Being: Relative or Absolute?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 28, 195 - 223
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01079018
Public25-74 aged general public, United States, 1971-1984
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4942

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 203-211
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Family income reported in categories.

At T1:
- lowest income group: no income to 1000$ annualy
- highest income group: 25000$ or above

At T2:
- lowest income group: no income to 3000$ annually
- highest income group: income above 100000$
Error EstimatesT1-T2 stability: r=+.67 (0.01)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-ar=+.13 p < .001
T1 income by T1 happiness
Set Image size:   

A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-ar=+.00 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE income by T2 happiness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-ar=+.12 p < .001
T2 income by T2 happiness
Set Image size:   

A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-aDM=
Income increases M=36.56
Income unchanged M=37.52
Income decreased M=37.92

Unaffected by:
- ethnicity
- education
- wealth neighboor


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyMaxwell (1985): study US 1966
TitleThe Retirement Experience: Psychological and Financial Linkages to the Labor Market.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1985, Vol. 66, 22 - 33
Public45+ aged males, USA, followed 12 years 1966-1978
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1173

Correlate
Author's labelRelative income
Page in Source 31
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Ratio of postretirement (T2) income
to preretirement (T1) income.
Remarks
T1: 1966 when still working; T2: 1978 retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=.04 ns
T1- T2 CHANGE in income by T2 happiness

Beta controlled for:
- Reasons for retirement
  - health  
  - compulsory plan
  - unemployment
- T1 work situation                       
  - work motivation
  - occupational status (of longest job)
- T2 life situation
  - health problems
  - marital status                       
  - dependents in household         
  - number of years retired
  - income (logarithm)
- Race (Black vs white)
      
Same for blacks and whites.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelIncrease of income
Page in Source 104
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Change in total family income between T1 and T3 (one 
year).
1. less
2. same
3. more

Total family income assessed by estimates.
T1 (Jan. 1963): estimated income 1962.
T3 (Okt. 1963): expected income 1963.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=± ns
CHANGE in income by CHANGE in happiness.
Happiness (Affect Balance) assessed at T1 and T3.

Change in happiness expressed in change () in 
average ridits (RT). RT above .50 indicates that 
Ss in the category became more happy than the 
reference group, RT below .50 that they became 
relatively less happy. The sample of 10 
metropolitan areas served as reference.

1. less income      RT = .49
2. same             RT = .53
3. more income      RT = .50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelChange in pay
Page in Source 104
Our classificationChange in income level
Operationalization
Single direct retrospective questions:
a. Raise in pay
   0 No
   1 Yes
b. Cut in pay
   0 No 
   1 Yes
Remarks
Data T1.Employed Ss only.
Happiness level in average ridits (RT).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=+ p < .05
Yes: RT=.48            No: RT=.43
               
                    
                     
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=- ns
Yes: RT=.39            No: RT=.43

Ridit analysis compares distribution in category 
with distribution in total sample. RT above .50 
means relative high level, RT below .50 relative 
low level of happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income sufficiency

StudySohier (2019): study ZZ EU 9 2006
TitleDo Involuntary Longer Working Careers Reduce Well-being?
SourceApplied Research in Quality of Life, 2019, Vol.14, 171-196
URLhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s11482-017-9586-8
DOIdoi:org/10.1007/s11482-017-9586-8
Public50-70 aged adults, 9 nations, followed 7 years, 2006-2013
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16667

Correlate
Author's labelFinancial situation
Page in Source table 5
Our classificationChange in income sufficiency
Operationalization
Selfreported whether he or she can make ends meet. 
3. Easily (reference)
2. Fairly easily
1. With some difficulty
0. with great difficulty
Remarks
T1: 2006-2007, T2: 2011, T3: 2013

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cb-fix=-.53 p < .01
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T3 CHANGE in 
income sufficient  
- Fairly easily          (vs easily)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cb-fix=-.29 p < .01
- With some difficulty   (vs easily)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cb-fix=-.09 p < .01
- with great difficulty  (vs easily)

b-fix weighted by country population, controlled 
for
- age square
- selfperceived health, no. of daily limitation
- net household income
- partner's health
- survey time

Similar result when excluding health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income sufficiency

StudyTaylor et al. (2009): study GB 1996
TitleFinancial Capability and Wellbeing: Evidence from the BHPS
SourceOccasional Paper Series, 2009, Vol. 34, 1 - 98
URLhttp://eprints.lse.ac.uk/31979/
Public16+ aged, United Kingdom, 1996-2000, 2002-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =72954

Correlate
Author's labelChange in financial incapability
Page in Source 69,73-74,82-85
Our classificationChange in income sufficiency
Operationalization
Index constructed from questions about the following 
variables:
- perceived current financial situation
- reporting that financial situation has worsened since 
last year
- whether saves
- has housing payment problems
- problems required borrowing
- problems required cutbacks
-  been at least two months in housing arrears in last 
12 months
A Not income-adjusted
B Income-adjusted
C Number of financial problems adjusted
Remarks
Questions and ratings not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-ers=+.19
CHANGE in life satisfaction by CHANGE in income 
sufficiwency
rs not significantly affected by adjusting for:
- income
- number of financial problems
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse

StudyKennedy & Mehra (1985): study CA Edmonton CMA 1977
TitleEffects of Social Change on Well-Being: Boom and Bust in a Western Canadian City.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 17, 101 - 113
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00302416
Public18+ aged, general public, City of Edmonton, Canada, 1977-1984
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3440

Correlate
Author's labelFinancial well-being in previous year
Page in Source 108
Our classificationChange to better or worse
Operationalization
Question on respondent's view of financiel well-being 
in previous year  compared to now:
1: better off 
2. same
3. worse off

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.10
Stepwise regression by age-group.
age group 17-25

Beta controlled for:
- standard of living satisfaction
- friendship satisfaction
- family satisfaction
- job satisfaction
- neighbourhood satisfaction
- health satisfaction
- year of significant social change
- education
- things wanted to do satisfaction
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.07
age-group 26-45
 
Beta controlled for:
- standard of living satisfaction
-friendship satisfaction
- family satisfaction
- job satisfaction
- health satisfaction
- non work activities satisfaction
- neighbourhood satisfaction
- sex
- year of significant social change
- things wanted to do satisfaction
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.13
age-group 45+ 
 
Beta controlled for:
- standard of living satisfaction
- health satisfaction
- non work activities satisfaction
- job satisfacion
- frienship satisfaction
- family satisfaction
- things wanted to do satisfaction
- sex
- year of significant social change


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse

StudyDumludag (2014): study ZZ 2010
TitleSatisfaction and Comparison Income in Transition and Developed Economies.
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2014, Vol. 61, 127 - 152
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-014-0201-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 35 nations in Europe and Asia, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response37,7%
Respondents N =38864

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold comparison with past
Page in Source 135-136
Our classificationChange to better or worse
Operationalization
Single direct question:
"My household lives better nowadays than 4 years ago".
A My household lives better:
    1 "Agree" and "Strongly agree"
    0  Otherwise
B My household lives worse:
    1 "Disagree" and "Strongly disagree"
    0   Otherwise
Error EstimatesAll nations Lives better: s.e.=0.038 Lives worse: s.e.=0.035 Developed nations Lives better: s.e.=0.073 Lives worse: s.e.=0.070 Transition nations Lives better: s.e.=0.045 Lives worse:s.e.=0.040

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.20 p < .01
ALLL NATIONS

Lives better
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.46 p < .01
Lives worse
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.09 ns
DEVELOPED NATIONS

Lives better
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.62 p < .01
Lives worse
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.25 p < .01
TRANSITION NATIONS

Lives better
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.40 p < .01
Lives worse

Beta's controlled for: 
-Relative income:
  -past,present and future income rank
  -relative parents position
-Social demographic:
  -age squared
  -gender
  -household size
  -marital status
  -education
  -employment
  -log household consumption
-Country dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived deterioration/improvement in material situation
Page in Source q2
Our classificationChange to better or worse
Operationalization
How has the material situation of your family changed 
within last 6 months? 
1 it has worsened
2 didn't change
3 it has improved
- NR
Observed distributionN: 1: 52,3%; 2: 35,6%; 3:9,3% NR: 2,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=+
1: M = 2,31
2: M = 2,73
3: M = 2,94
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=+.29 p < .00000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse

StudyPosel & Casale (2011): study ZA 2008
TitleRelative Standing and Subjective Well-Being in South Africa: The Role of Perception, Expectations and Income Mobility.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 104, 195 - 223
URLhttp://econrsa.org/home/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=295&Itemid=67
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-010-9740-2
Public17+ aged general public, South-Africa., 2008
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =28000

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived to be better/worse off than at age 15
Page in Source 204,209,213
Our classificationChange to better or worse
Operationalization
Perceived to be
3. better
2. same
1. worse 
off than at age 15:
Observed distribution3. M = 0.55 SE = 0.008 2. M = 0.31 SE = 0.007 1. M = 0.13 SE = 0.005

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=+.33 p < .01
Percieved to be better than age 15 (vs same)
- Africans only OPRC = +0.34 (p<.01)
- Whites only   OPRC = -0.14 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=-.12 p < .01
Percieved to be worse  than age 15 (vs same)
- Africans only OPRC = -.05 (ns)
- Whites only   OPRC = -.27 (p<.05)

OPRC's controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - ethnicity
  - head
  - age
  - years of schooling
  - sexe
  - marital status
  - health status
- household characteristics
  - number of children
  - number of pensioners
  - quality dwelling place
- social capital variables
  - involved in religious activities
  - neighbours help out
  - neighbours are aggressive
  - crime in neighbourhood
  - member of a group
  - owns a cellular phone
- income variables
  - per capita household income (Rands)
  - actual rank in SA (richest, middle, poorest)
  - percieved rank in SA (richest, middle, 
poorest)
  - percieved rank in village/suburb (richest, 
poorest)
    - expect to be better/same/worse off 2 years 
hence


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse

StudyPosel & Casale (2011): study ZA 2008
TitleRelative Standing and Subjective Well-Being in South Africa: The Role of Perception, Expectations and Income Mobility.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 104, 195 - 223
URLhttp://econrsa.org/home/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=295&Itemid=67
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-010-9740-2
Public17+ aged general public, South-Africa., 2008
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =28000

Correlate
Author's labelExpect to be better/worse off 2 years hence
Page in Source 204,209,213
Our classificationChange to better or worse
Operationalization
Expect to be ..  2 years hence:
3. better off
2. same
1. worse off
Observed distribution3. M = 0.72 SE = 0.007 2. M = 0.26 SE = 0.007 1. M = 0.02 SE = 0.002

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=+.12 p < .01
Expect to be better off 2 years hence (vs same)
- Africans only OPRC = +0.16 (p<.01)
- Whites only   OPRC = -0.26 (p<.01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=-.05 ns
Expect to be worse off 2 years hence (vs same)
- Africans only OPRC = -0.05 (ns)
- Whites only   OPRC = -0.31 (p<.10)

OPRC's controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - ethnicity
  - head
  - age
  - years of schooling
  - sexe
  - marital status
  - health status
- household characteristics
  - number of children
  - number of pensioners
  - quality dwelling place
- social capital variables
  - involved in religious activities
  - neighbours help out
  - neighbours are aggressive
  - crime in neighbourhood
  - member of a group
  - owns a cellular phone
- income variables
  - per capita household income (Rands)
  - actual rank in SA (richest, middle, poorest)
  - percieved rank in SA (richest, middle, 
poorest)
  - percieved rank in village/suburb (richest, 
poorest)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse

StudyMoller (1989): study ZA 1983 /1
TitleCan't get no Satisfaction. Quality of Life in the 1980's.
SourceIndicator South Africa, 1989, Vol. 7, 43 - 46
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moller_v_1989.pdf
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived financial deprevation in retirement
Page in Source 630
Our classificationChange to better or worse
Operationalization
Now that you are retired, is your standard of living 
better or worse than during most of your working 
life-time?'
0: worse
1: better

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.28 p < .01
Direction of correlation unclear in original 
report. Sign in table is negative, but text 
indicates positive relationship. Present version 
approved by author.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.33 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse

StudyUgur (2019): study TR 2013
TitleDoes Money Buy Happiness in Turkey?
SourceApplied Research in Quality of Life
DOIdoi:/10.1007/s11482-019-09805-1
Public18+ aged general public, Turkey 2013
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196303

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived change in standard of living over past 5 years
Page in Source Table 2. 3
Our classificationChange to better or worse
Operationalization
Selfreport on question about change in one's standard 
of living over past 5 years
3: improved
2: stayed the same(reference)
1: declined

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.10 p < .01
Standard of living IMPROVED(vs stayed the same)

b (+.097) controled for:
- Basic controls
  - income bracket
  - gender
  - age, age squared
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - education
  - satisfaction with health
  - satisfaction with relations with friends
  - year fixed effects
- Expected improvement/deterioration of living 
standard in next 5 years
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.07 p < .01
b (+.072) additionally controled for comparison 
income
- self placement on income ladder

b unaffected by additional control for either
- average income in city lived, or
- average income of age group in city lived

Similar across
- gender
- age
- education
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-ab=-.16 p < .01
Standard of living DECLINED(vs stayed the same)

b (-,159) controled for:
- Basic controls
  - income bracket
  - gender
  - age, age squared
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - education
  - satisfaction with health
  - satisfaction with relations with friends
  - year fixed effects
- expected improvement/deterioration of living 
standard in next 5 years
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-ab=-.14 p < .01
b (-.141) additionally controled for comparison 
income
- self-placement on income ladder

b unaffected by additional control for either
- average income in city lived, or
- average income of age group in city lived

Similar across
- gender
- age
- education
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.02 ns
DO NOT KNOW whether standard of living improved or 
deteriorated over past 5 years    (vs stayed the 
same)

b (+.017) controled for:
- Basic controls
  - income bracket
  - gender
  - age, age squared
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - education
  - satisfaction with health
  - satisfaction with relations with friends
  - year fixed effects
- expected improvement/deterioration of living 
standard in next 5 years

Similar across
- males and females
  Except 'do not know' unrelated to happiness 
among females
- age groups
- education lavels
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.05 p < .01
b (+.053) additionally controled for comparison 
income
- self placement on income ladder

Similar with additional control for either
- average income in city lived, or
- average income of age group in city lived

Significant only among
- males
- young, middle aged. Not among elderly
- lower education than university


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse

StudyUgur (2019): study TR 2003
TitleDoes Money Buy Happiness in Turkey?
SourceApplied Research in Quality of Life
DOIdoi:/10.1007/s11482-019-09805-1
Public18+ aged general public, Turkey 2003-2017
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =300313

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived change in standard of living over past 5 years
Page in Source Table 2. 3
Our classificationChange to better or worse
Operationalization
Selfreport on question about change in one's standard 
of living over past 5 years
3: improved
2: stayed the same(reference)
1: declined

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.10 p < .01
Standard of living improved(vs stayed the same)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-ab=-.17 p < .01
Standard of living declined(vs stayed the same)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-ab=-.03 p < .01
Do not know                (vs stayed the same)

b coefficients controled for:
- income
- gender
- age, age squared
- marital status
- employment status
- education
- satisfaction with health
- satisfaction with relations with friends
- year fixed effects

b similar across
- males and females
  Except 'do not know' unrelated to happiness 
among females
- age groups
- education lavels
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.03
b (-.033) additionally controled for:
- self placement on incomerladder


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse

StudyShin & Johnson (1978): study US 1975
TitleAvowed Happiness as the Overall Assessment of the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 475 - 492
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352944
PublicHeads of households, Illinois, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response17%
Respondents N =665

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived financial improvement over time
Page in Source 483/487
Our classificationChange to better or worse
Operationalization
Self report on single question about the financial 
situation during the past few years: had it 'been 
worse', did it stay 'about the same', or had it been 
'getting better'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.22 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.14
Beta controlled for:
- comparisons only
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.15
Beta controlled for:
- resources
- comparisons
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.07
Beta controlled for:
- assessments
- comparisons
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.07
Beta controlled for:
- comparisons
- resources
- assessments

Comparisons:
- perception of being happier than others
Resources:
- race
- sex
- age
- income
- education
- home ownership
- marital status
- number of children
- number of household members
Assessments: satisfaction with:
- standard of living
- leisure time
- housing
- health
- education
- community
- government


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in relative income

StudyHill & Dorfman (1982): study US 1977
TitleReaction of Housewives to the Retirement of Their Husbands.
SourceFamily Relations, 1982, Vol. 31, 195 - 200
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/584397
PublicHousewives whose husbands had retired within past two years. USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response12%
Respondents N =36

Correlate
Author's labelFinancial status
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationChange in relative income
Operationalization
self-report in one open-ended question on rating of 
present compared to preretirement financial status.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-10-cr=+.28 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in source of income

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelCut in unemployment benefit
Page in Source 261
Our classificationChange in source of income
Operationalization
Have you experienced cut in unemployment benefit
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answer:  No (=0) or Yes (=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2148 Ever in your life: N = 296

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.19
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.20
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.92
ever in your life:       M = 3.45
95% CI for difference:   [0.36 ; 0.58]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in source of income

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelFalling outside the social welfare system
Page in Source 261
Our classificationChange in source of income
Operationalization
Have you experienced falling outside the social welfare 
system
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answer:  No(=0) or Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2038 Ever in your life: N = 355

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.17
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.16
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.93
ever in your life:       M = 3.46
95% CI for difference:   [0.27 ; 0.47]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in source of income

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelCuts in social and health services
Page in Source 261
Our classificationChange in source of income
Operationalization
Have you experienced cuts in social and health services
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N= 1875 Ever in your life: N = 572

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.12
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.13
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.92
ever in your life:       M = 3.68
95% CI for difference:   [0.16 ; 0.32]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in source of income

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelCuts in child allowance or child benefits
Page in Source 261
Our classificationChange in source of income
Operationalization
Have you experienced cuts in child allowance or child 
benefits
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
answers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 1936 Ever in your life: N = 338

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.07
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.06
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.88
ever in your life:       M = 3.77
95% CI for difference:   [0.02 ; 0.20]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in source of income

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelCuts in health benefits
Page in Source 261
Our classificationChange in source of income
Operationalization
Have you experienced cuts in health  benefits
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:   No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever : N = 2092 Ever in your life: N = 338

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.06
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.08
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.89
ever in your life:       M = 3.71
95% CI for difference:   [0.08 ; 0.28]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in source of income

StudyCheung (2018): study DE 1984
TitleIncome Redistribution Predicts Greater Life Satisfaction Across Individual, National, and Cultural Characteristics
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2018, Vol 115, 867 - 882
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/248200
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany followed 30 years 1984 - 2013
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response183108 observations excluded because of incomplete data.
Respondents N =4484400

Correlate
Author's labelTax and Welfare (change income due to government tranfers)
Page in Source 18, 19, 29, 30, 52, 53
Our classificationChange in source of income
Operationalization
Individual-level government taxation was calculated by 
subtracting post-government income (log) from 
pre-government income (log), to capture the change in 
income  from taxes, welfare and other sources of 
government transfer. A positive outcome means that 
participants had higher pre-government income than 
post-government income (paid more than received).
Observed distributionnot reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.15 p < .001
No controls, all waves,all 16 states.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in source of income

StudyHanda et al. (2014): study KE 2007
TitleSubjective Well-Being, Risk perceptions and Time Discounting: Evidence from a Large-Scale Cash Transfer Programme.
SourceUnicef Working Paper, 2014, No. 2014-02, Florence, Italy
URLhttp://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/717
PublicPoor households: benefactories of a welfare program and controls, Kenya, 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-ResponseAttrition: 2007-2009:17%;2009-2011 5%
Respondents N =1805

Correlate
Author's labelTreatment
Page in Source 29,30,39
Our classificationChange in source of income
Operationalization
Inclusion in income support programme for poor 
households with vulnerable
1 yes (Treatment)
0  no (Control)
Within each of seven districts two locations were 
randomized for immediate implementation and the 
remaining two served as control sites.
Remarks
The support programme aims at encouraging fostering and 
retention of children and promoting human capital 
development by providing regular cash transfers to 
families living with OVC  (Orphans and vulnerable 
children). The programme is being abbreviated to CT-OVC 
(Cash Transfer programmes for OVC).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-u-sq-v-5-aD%=+ p < .01
% happy (strongly agree and agree)

- Treatment (inclusion) 49,6%
- Control               42,2%
Difference              +7,4%
M-PL-u-sq-v-5-dD%=+ p < .025
- Treatment (inclusion) 49,5%
- Control               43,4%
Difference              +6,1%
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-bD%=+ p < .025
- Treatment (inclusion) 44,4%
- Control               38,6%
Difference              +5,8%
M-PL-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.07 p < .05
Weighted linear probability regression (WLS).
M-PL-u-sq-v-5-db=+.06 ns
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-bb=+.06 ns
M-PL-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.03 ns
Ordinary linear probability least squares 
regression. (OLS)
M-PL-u-sq-v-5-db=+.03 ns
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-bb=+.06 p < .05
b's are controlled for 
- Age (x100), Age squared (x1000)
- Sex
- Household position
- Literacy
- Chronic Illness
- Current Handicap


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in source of income

StudyWingen et al. (2012): study NL 1998
TitleDe Invloed van Emotionele Gebeurtenissen op Geluk en Tevredenheid. (The Impact of Emotional Events on Happiness and Satisfaction with Life).
SourceCentral Bureau for Statistics (CBS), Serie Bevolkingstrends, 2012, The Hague, Netherlands
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/wingen_m_2012.pdf
Public20+ aged, The Netherlands, 1998-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =240000

Correlate
Author's labelChange in employment status
Our classificationChange in source of income
Operationalization
Change in employment status 1998-2009
as registered in employment registration.
a: going to be/got employed
b: going to be/got unemployed
c: going to be/got retired
d: going to be/got disabled
e: going to be/got social assistance
Observed distributiona: 0,93%; b: 0,14%; c: 0,27%; d: 0,11%; e: 0,05%; No event: 98,50%
Remarks
Data: Social Statistical Database which covers earlier 
and later employment registration data. Survey 
respondents identified using their their (encrypted) 
civil service number.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
AVERAGE happiness in the years before and after 
CHANGE in employment status.
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dDM=
a: Getting employed slightly increases happiness
b: Getting unemployed after employment is 
preceeded by a decline in happiness and slow 
recovery afterwards which comes close to pre-event 
happiness after 8 years.
c: Retirement does not affect happiness much
d: Disabled already less happy before being 
officially registered as disabled
e: Happiness continues to decrease after getting 
social assistance.

Cross sectional survey data on happiness linked to 
registration data on employment history.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in source of income

StudyBendo & Feldman (1974): study US 1970
TitleA Comparison of the Self-Concept of Low Income Women with and without Husbands Present.
SourceThe Cornell Journal of Social Relations, 1974, Vol. 9, 53 - 85
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bendo_aa_1974.pdf
PublicLow-income women with children, small cities and rural areas, New York State, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1325

Correlate
Author's labelWelfare status
Page in Source 77
Our classificationChange in source of income
Operationalization
0 Formerly-welfare 
1 Currently on welfare

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-5-cDM=-
Significant (05) among husband-present females 
only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in use of public assistance

StudyKamp Dush et al. (2008): study US 1980 /1
TitleMarital Happiness and Psychological Well-Being Across the Life Course.
SourceFamily Relations, 2008, Vol. 57, 211 - 226
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3650717/
DOIDoi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1741-3729.2008.00495.x
PublicMarried people, USA, followed 20 years 1980-2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2034

Correlate
Author's labelPublic assistance
Page in Source Table 1 & 4
Our classificationChange in use of public assistance
Operationalization
Used public assistance
1 yes
Observed distributionRange=0-1, M=0.10, SD=
Remarks
Assessed at each wave. 
T1-T6 difference: 20 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cab-fix=+.01 ns
T1-T6 CHANGE happiness by T1-T6 CHANGE use of 
public assistance

b-fix controled for CHANGE in:
- children be low 18
- marital happiness
- family income
- wife ermployed full-time
- Husband employed
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cab-fix=+.01 ns
b-fix additionally controled for CHANGE in:
- husband's share of household work
- equal decision making
- traditional gender attitudes
- traditional marriage attitudes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Got pension

StudyNguyen et al. (2020): study AU 2001
TitleDoes Retirement Lead to Life Satisfaction? Causal Evidence from Fixed Effect Instrumental Variable Models
SourceWorking Paper, 2020, GLO Nr. 536, Global Labor Organization, Essen, Germany
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/216896
Public55-75 aged adults, Australia, followed 17 years, 2001-2018
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7568

Correlate
Author's labelPension eligibility
Page in Source table A2, A5
Our classificationGot pension
Operationalization
Reaching or greater than pension age at survey time
1 yes
0 no
Observed distribution1: 45%, 0: 55%
Remarks
followed 17 years, from 2001-2018 (T1-T18)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+9.9 p < .01
T1-T18 happiness CHANGE by pension eligibility (vs 
not)

b-fix controlled for
- age, age squared
- migration status
- aboriginal status
- education
- marital status
- number of household members at various age 
groups
- home ownership status
- state/territory dummies
- survey year
- survey quarters
- local socio-economic background variables
  - regional unemployment rates
  - an index of relative socio-economic 
advantage/disadvantage
  - a metropolitan dummy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Got pension

StudyGrogan & Summerfield (2014): study RU 2006
TitleGovernment Transfers, Work and Occupational Identity: Evidence from the Russian Old-Age Pension.
SourceRimini Centre for Economic Analysis, 2014, Working Paper No. 22_14, Rimini, Italy
URLhttp://econpapers.repec.org/paper/rimrimwps/22_5f14.htm
Public46-59 aged women and 51-64 aged men, Russia, followed 5 years, 2006-2011
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =12466

Correlate
Author's labelPension eligibility
Page in Source table 4
Our classificationGot pension
Operationalization
Reaching pension age
1 yes ( 55+ aged women, 60+ aged men)
0 no
Remarks
Age of state pension eligibility in Russia was 55 for 
women and 60 for men
5 years follow-up data from 2006-2011(T1-T6),

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hb-fix=-.08 p < .10
T1-T6 Happiness CHANGE by pension eligibility (vs 
not)
- women (aged 55+)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hb-fix=+.00 ns
- men (aged 60+)

b-fix controlled for:
- individual fixed effects
- age, age square
- survey year
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hOPRC=-.20 p < .05
T1-T6 Happiness CHANGE by pension eligibility (vs 
not)
- women (aged 55+)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hOPRC=-.06 ns
- men (aged 60+)

OPRC controlled for:
- local fixed effect with clustered standard 
errors, but not individual fixed effects
- age
- age square
- survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Got pension

StudyDanzer & Danzer (2016): study UA 2003
TitlePension Generosity and Mental Wellbeing: The Effect of Eradicating Poverty at Old-Age.
SourceEconstor Working Paper, 2016, No.145910, 1 - 33
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/145910
PublicElderly followed 5 years before and after reaching pension age, Ukraine, 2003-2007
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4927

Correlate
Author's labelpension age
Page in Source Tables 1
Our classificationGot pension
Operationalization
1: Above pension eligibility age
0: Below pension eligibility age

Pension age: women 55, men 60
Remarks
T1-T2: 2003-2004 before pension age, before reform
T3: 2007 after pension age, after reform
Pensions increased substantially after reform 
in September 2004

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hDM=-
                 Before    After    Difference
                 pension   pension
Before reform     2.35     2.15     -.20
After  reform     2.79     2.77     -.02
- difference                        -.18

Pre-pension dip in happiness disappeared after 
reform.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hBeta=-.08 ns
T1-T3 CHANGE happiness by reaching pension age
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hBeta-f=-.14 ns
T1-T3 CHANGE happiness by reaching pension age

Beta(additional control for gender) and Beta-fix 
controlled for:
- post reform
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - chronic disease
  - marital status
  - years of schooling
- household characteristics
  - household size
  - had children
  - income of household members
- interaction pension aged x post reform
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hBeta-f=+.36 p < .01
Beta-fix additionally controled for:
- personal income (log)

Pre-reform pre-pension dip was apparently caused 
by low income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in attitude to income

StudyHeadey & Wearing (1981): study AU AU Victoria 1978 /1
TitleAustralians' Priorities, Satisfaction and Well-Being.
SourceMonograph in Public Policy Studies, nr. 4, University of Melbourne, 1981, Australia
PublicAdults, general public, Melbourne, Australia, followed 25 months 1978-1981
Sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =184

Correlate
Author's labelChange in satisfaction with standard of living
Our classificationChange in attitude to income
Operationalization
Index of two single questions on satisfaction with:
a: The income you and your family have
b: Your standard of living: the things you have; 
housing ,car, furniture, etc.
Both items scored on 1-9 D-T rating scale, summation by 
average.
Remarks
Both Happiness (ABS) and satisfaction with standard of 
living were assessed at T1 and T2 (25 month interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
satisfaction with standard of living
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.09 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
satisfaction with standard of living
Beta controlled for satisfaction with
- sex life
- health
- house
- friends
- self-fulfillment
- leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in attitude to income

StudyHeadey et al. (1984a): study AU 1978
TitleThe Impact of Life Events and Changes in Domain Satisfactions on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 203 - 227
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00668671
Public18-65 aged, general public, followed 3 years, Melbourne, Australia, 1979-80
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with standard of living
Page in Source 211
Our classificationChange in attitude to income
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a 9- point scale (delighted 
...  terrible) Assessed at T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 ns
Happiness T2 by satisfaction T2, controlling for 
happiness T1 and satisfaction T1.

ß can be interpreted as regression between CHANGE 
OF HAPPINESS and CHANGE OF SATISFACTION in time.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in attitude to income

StudyHeadey & Krause (1988): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleA Health and Wealth Model of Change in Life Satisfaction.
SourceArbeitspapier 260, Sonderforschungsbereich 3, University of Mannheim, 1988, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-1985
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition sample A: 8%, sample B: 15%
Respondents N =2718

Correlate
Author's labelChange in satisfaction with income
Page in Source 18
Our classificationChange in attitude to income
Operationalization
Closed questions rated on an 11 point scale. Assessed 
at T1 and T2.
'Residual  changes scores' computed by by first 
regressing T2-scores on T1- scores : 
- ^Satisfaction T2^= a + b * Sat T1. 
-  Residual change = Sat T2-^Sat T2^.
Residual change is in fact the deviation of an 
individuals satisfaction at T2 from the average T2- 
satisfaction of Ss who were equally satisfied at T1.
Remarks
CHANGE HAPPINESS by CHANGE SATISFACTION


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.33
Happiness assessed at T1 and T2. 
Change in happiness measured by:
1 Residual change (like change in satisfaction) 
2 Change in happiness expected at T1
                                              
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.29
ß controlled for satisfaction with health.


O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta-L=+.37
ßL path coefficient in the LISREL model, 
also involving : change in health satisfaction, 
change in income, change in employment, change in 
health and age. 
Change in satisfaction with income related to 
change in income (ßL=+.15)  and loss of job 
(ßL=-.18), which in their turn  are related  to 
age (resp. ßL=-.09 and -.08)
  
  


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to change in income

StudyAntonides (2004): study NL 2004
TitleMinder Geld, Minder Gelukkig? (Less Money, Less Happier?)
SourceResearch Report in order of NIBUD, 2004, Wageningen University, Netherlands
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/antonides_g_2004.pdf
PublicPeople with income setback in past 2 years, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =808

Correlate
Author's labelPrepared for drop in income
Page in Source 26
Our classificationAttitude to change in income
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Earlier in this interview you indicated that you have 
experienced an involuntary setback in your income 
during the last two years. The following questions are 
about that phase in your life:

Did you prepare for the drop in income?
1 Not at all. I just see what my income would be and 
whether I could make and meet
2 I had some idea about my future income and 
expenditures. I have given it a thought
3 I have carefully planned my financial future and 
calculated whether I could make and meet
- Don't know
Observed distributionN = 1: 214, 2: 299, 3: 219, DK: 94

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-kbDM=+
1: M = 6,81  SD = 1,83
2: M = 6,97  SD = 1,64
3: M = 7,16  SD = 1,62
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-kbBMCT= ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-kb


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to change in income

StudyAntonides (2004): study NL 2004
TitleMinder Geld, Minder Gelukkig? (Less Money, Less Happier?)
SourceResearch Report in order of NIBUD, 2004, Wageningen University, Netherlands
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/antonides_g_2004.pdf
PublicPeople with income setback in past 2 years, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =808

Correlate
Author's labelInformation gathered consequences drop income
Page in Source 26
Our classificationAttitude to change in income
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Earlier in this interview you indicated that you have 
experienced an involuntary setback in your income 
during the last two years. The following questions are 
about that phase in your life:
 
Have you gathered information about the consequences 
about drop in income?
a: No, I felt sufficiently informed
b: No, I didn't know where to find information 
c: No, I waited what would happen
d: Yes, I gathered information with….
Observed distributionN:= 1: 314, 2: 121, 3: 105, 4: 286

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-kbDM=
1: M = 7,19  SD = 1,67
2: M = 6,29  SD = 1,84
3: M = 7,03  SD = 1,69
4: M = 6.87  SD = 1,78
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-kbBMCT=
b< a,c,d


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to change in income

StudyAntonides (2004): study NL 2004
TitleMinder Geld, Minder Gelukkig? (Less Money, Less Happier?)
SourceResearch Report in order of NIBUD, 2004, Wageningen University, Netherlands
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/antonides_g_2004.pdf
PublicPeople with income setback in past 2 years, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =808

Correlate
Author's labelLooking back done enough to deal new financial situation
Page in Source 26
Our classificationAttitude to change in income
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Earlier in this interview you indicated that you have 
experienced an involuntary setback in your income 
during the last two years. The following questions are 
about that phase in your life:

Looking back, have you done enough to deal with the new 
financial situation?
1 No
2 Yes
Observed distributionN = 1: 376, 2: 442

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-kbDM=+
1: M = 6,71  SD = 1,80
2: M = 7,11  SD = 1,72


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later income

StudyHeadey & Krause (1994): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleInequalities of Income, Health and Happiness: The Stratification Paradigm and Alternatives.
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =9114

Correlate
Author's labelEquivalent income
Page in Source 14 + 22
Our classificationLater income
Operationalization
Household's income net of taxes and including benefits, 
adjusted for household size, using OECD equivalence 
weights which are 1.0 for the first adult, 0.7 for 
other adults and 0.5 for children under 18.

Assessed at T1  (1984) and T2 (1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.14
T1 happiness by T1 income: raw correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.19
T1 happiness by T1 income: disattenuated r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.08
T1 happiness by T2 income: raw r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Disattenuated correlations are obtained by 
assuming validity coefficients of 0.9 for income 
and 0.8 for happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.11
T1 happiness by T2 income: disattenuated r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.06
T2 happiness by T1 income: raw r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.08
T2 happiness by T1 income: disattenuated r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.12
T2 happiness by T2 income: raw r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.17
T2 happiness by T2 income: disattenuated r


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later income

StudySaris (2001b): study RU 1993
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Satisfaction: The Effect of Measurement Error and Suppressor Variables.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 117 - 136
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1026785328244
Public18+ aged general public, Russia, followed 3 years 1993-1995
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 126
Our classificationLater income
Operationalization
not reported
Remarks
Assessed each year: T1, T2 and T3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+
CURRENT happiness(T) by CURRENT income (T)
                               Raw  .Corrected
T1 happiness by T1 income: r = +.19  +.36
T2 happiness by T2 income: r = +.18  +.32
T3 happiness by T3 income: r = +.12  +.25
Correction for measurement error in happiness and 
income (disattenuation)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+.11
CURRENT happiness (T) by EARLIER (T-1) income
                               raw    corrected
T2 happiness by T1 income: r = +.10   +.21
T3 happiness by T1 income: r = +.08   +.11
T3 happiness by T2 income: r = +.11   +.19
Correction for measurement error in happiness and 
income (disattenuation)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+
EARLIER Happiness by LATER income
T1 happiness by T2 income: r = +.18
T1 happiness by T3 income: r = +.14
T2 happiness by T3 income: r = +.12
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.56 p < .05
CHANGE happiness (T controled for T-1) by CHANGE 
income (T minus T-1): 1 year lags 

Beta's controled for
- Age
- Education
and corrected for measurement error
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Later income

StudyLayard et al. (2009): study US 1972
TitleDoes Relative Income Matter? Are the Critics Right?
SourceWorking paper SOEP No. 210, DIW, 2009, Berlin, Germany. (also published in: Diener E.;Helliwell J.E.; Kahneman D.;Eds.: ''International Differences in Well-Being'', Oxford University Press, 2010, 139 - 165)
URLhttp://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp0918.pdf
Public30-55 aged white males, United States, 1972-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14836

Correlate
Author's labelFinancial situation relative to others
Page in Source 31
Our classificationLater income
Operationalization
Answer to the question:
Compared with other American families in general, would 
you say your family income is far below average, below 
average, average, above average or far above average?
Observed distribution0 well below average; 2,5 below average; 5 average; 7,5 above average; 10 well above average

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.15
b controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - Age, age squared
  - Sex
  - Marital status
  - Employment status
- average income of similar compatriots


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income

StudySaris (2001b): study DE 1990
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Satisfaction: The Effect of Measurement Error and Suppressor Variables.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 117 - 136
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1026785328244
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 4 years, 1990-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 130
Our classificationLater level of income
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+
CURRENT happiness (T) by CURRENT income (T)

T1 happiness by T1 income: r=+.10
T2 happiness by T2 income: r=+.12
T3 happiness by T3 income: r=+.14
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+
CURRENT happiness (T) by EARLIER income (T-1)

T2 happiness by T1 income: r=+.09
T3 happiness by T1 income: r=+.10
T3 happiness by T2 income: r=+.08
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+
EARLIER happiness (T) by LATER income (T+)

T1 happiness by T2 income: r=+.12
T1 happiness by T3 income: r=+.12
T2 happiness by T3 income: r=+.14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income

StudyVendrik (2013): study DE 1984
TitleAdaptation, Anticipation and Social Interaction in Happiness: An Integrated Error-correction Approach.
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2013, Vol. 105, 131 - 149
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272713001333
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2013.06.009
Public27-59 aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed at least 6 years,1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60984

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 137
Our classificationLater level of income
Operationalization
Real household-equivalence income: real household 
income divided by equivalence scale
(equivalence scale not reported)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.03 ns
PAST income by CURRENT happiness
1 year ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.04 ns
2 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.04 p < .01
3 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.19 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.11 p < .01
LATER income by CURRENT happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income

StudyOishi et al. (2007a): study DE 1984
TitleThe Optimum Level of Well-Being. Can People Be Too Happy?
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2007, Vol. 2, 346 - 360
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00048.x
Public16+ aged, general population, Germany, 1984-2003
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3000

Correlate
Author's labelSalary
Page in Source 355
Our classificationLater level of income
Operationalization
Household income
Remarks
Average over 4 year period: 2000-2003. Based on 
detailed measurement of incomes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.09 p < .001
T1 happiness (1984-87) by T2 income (2000-03)
The initially most happy earned less 15 years 
later.


Control variables not reported.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 350
Our classificationLater level of income
Operationalization
Monthly T2 income in dutch currency:
1: below      ƒ 1200,-
2: ƒ 1201, -  ƒ 1600,-
3: ƒ 1601, -  ƒ 2000,-
4: over       ƒ 2000,-
Assessed at T2 (1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.08 ns
T2 happiness by T2 income 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.03 ns
T3 happiness by T2 income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelLater income
Page in Source 331,333,336
Our classificationLater level of income
Operationalization
Household income in rubles/square root of the number of 
people in the household
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2 (2000)
Russia went through major changes in this era, among 
which a financial crisis in 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-na
T1 happiness by T2 income (5 year lag)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.03
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- minority status

Similar in all income quintiles
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.03 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for
T1 income (indicating CHANGE in income)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-na
T1 income by T2 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.32
T1-T2 CHANGE in income by T2 happiness

Beta's controlled for:
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- occupation/employment
- health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.19 p < .001
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income

StudyZhang & Hwang (2007): study RU 1994
TitleThe Micro Consequences of Macro-Level Social Transition: How did Russians Survive in the 1990s?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 82, 337 - 360.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9037-7
PublicAdults, general public, Russia, 1994-2004
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8439

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationLater level of income
Operationalization
Income in rubles
Remarks
Assessed at:
T1:  1994
T2:  1995
T3:  1996
T4:  1997
T5:  1998
T6:  1999
T7:  2000
T8:  2001
T9:  2002
T10: 2003
T11: 2004

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.04 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 income
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.04 p < .01
T2 happiness by T3 income
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.04 p < .01
T4 happiness by T5 income
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.06 p < .01
T6 happiness by T7 income

Beta's controled for
-age
-gender
-education

Sign of correlation reversed, correlation in 
report as dissatisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income

StudyOishi et al. (2007a): study GB 1996
TitleThe Optimum Level of Well-Being. Can People Be Too Happy?
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2007, Vol. 2, 346 - 360
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00048.x
Public16+ aged, UK, 1993-2006
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5000

Correlate
Author's labelSalary
Page in Source 356
Our classificationLater level of income
Operationalization
Household income
Observed distributionSee picture.
Remarks
Average over three years 1996-98

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=-.04 p < .001
T1 happiness (1996-98) by T2 income (2001-03)
The initially most happy earned less 5 years 
later.


Control variables not reported.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelFamily income
Page in Source 458
Our classificationLater level of income
Operationalization
Thousands of dollars, computed by combining all incomes 
of $65,000 and above into one category to minimize 
skewness.
Observed distributionM=45.48, SD=17.10
Remarks
Measured at T4 (1992)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.03 ns
T4 Happiness by T4 income
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.08 p < .05
T1 Happiness by T4 income
(12 year interval)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=.00 ns
T1-T4 change in happiness(T4 happiness controlling 
T1 happiness)
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
- Divorced/Remarried
- Age
- Gender
- White
- Years of education
- Number of children
- Stepchild
- Religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income

StudyNickerson et al. (2003): study US 1976
TitleZeroing on the Dark Side of the American Dream: A Closer Look at the Negative Consequences of the Goal for Financial Success.
SourcePsychological Science, 2003, Vol. 14, 531 - 536
DOIDOI:10.1046/j.0956-7976.2003.psci_1461.x
PublicStudents USA, followed 20 years 1976-1995-97
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =12894

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Income
Page in Source 533
Our classificationLater level of income
Operationalization
Household Income in 1995 
1:  less than $1000 
2:  $1000-$9999
3:  $10000-$19999
4:  $20000-$29999
5:  $30000-$49999
6:  $50000-$74999
7:  $75000-$99999
8:  $100000-$149999
9:  $150000-$199999
10: $200000 or more
Remarks
Assessed at T2 (1995-1997)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ib=+.30 p < .0001
T2 happiness by T2 income
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ib=+.26 p < .0001
B controlled for T1 materialism


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income

StudyStull (1988): study US 1975
TitleA Dyadic Approach to Predicting Well-Being in Later Life.
SourceResearch on Aging, 1988, Vol.10, 81 - 101
URLhttp://roa.sagepub.com/content/10/1/81
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0164027588101004
Public58-63 aged married, followed 2 years, USA, 1975-1979
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response50.9%
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source Tables 2,3,4,5
Our classificationLater level of income
Operationalization
Selfreport on total household income in  the previous 
year.
Observed distributionMedian income (preretirement): $10,500 Median income (postretirement): $10,500
Remarks
T1: pre-retirment in 1975 or 1977
T2: post-retirement in 1977 or 1999

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+
T1 happiness by T1 income (pre-etirement)
- Husbands Beta = +.20(P<.05)
- Wives    Beta = +.06(ns)

Betas controled for T1:
- husbands occupation
- wives employment
- own health
- spouse health
- spouse happiness
- joint leisure activities
- contacts with relatives
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+
T2 happiness by T2 income (post-etirement)
- Husbands Beta = +.24(P<.05)
- Wives    Beta = +.07(ns)

Betas controled for T2:
- wives employment
- own health
- spouse health
- spouse happiness
- joint leisure activities
- contacts with relatrves
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+
T1-T2 CHANGE of happiness by T2 income
- Husbands Beta = +.16(05)  
- Wives    Brta = +.05(ns)

Betas additionally controled for T1 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelLater pay
Our classificationLater level of income
Operationalization
Pay at T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
T1 happiness:        tau = -.04  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau =  .00  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau =  .00  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau =  .00  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income

StudyThompson et al. (1960): study US 1952
TitleThe Effect of Retirement on Personal Adjustment: A Panel Analysis.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1960, Vol. 15, 165 - 169
Public60+ aged, employed at start, followed 2 years, USA, 1952-54
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1559

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic deprivation
Page in Source 168
Our classificationLater level of income
Operationalization
Self report on single question (text not reported)
0: not deprived
1: economically deprived
Assessed at T2
Observed distributionN = 0: 682, 1: 105
Remarks
T1-T2 difference 1,5 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-*-mq-v*-10-aD%=
                              T2 deprivation
                              NO       YES
T1-T2 CHANGE happy to unhappy
- Gainfull employed thoughout 31%(500) 60%(50)
- Retired willing             30%(125) 58%(24)
- Retired reluctant           51%(57)  71%(31)

Economic deprevation at T2 goed together with a 
loss of happiness since T1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later relative income

StudyDumludag (2014): study ZZ 2010
TitleSatisfaction and Comparison Income in Transition and Developed Economies.
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2014, Vol. 61, 127 - 152
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-014-0201-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 35 nations in Europe and Asia, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response37,7%
Respondents N =38864

Correlate
Author's labelFuture income compared to nation
Page in Source 135-136
Our classificationLater relative income
Operationalization
Single direct question:
"Please imagine a 10-step ladder, on the bottom of 
which, on the first step, stand the poorest 10% of 
people in our country, and on the highest step, the 
tenth, stand the richest 10% in our country. On which 
step of the 10 was your household 4 years from now?"
 a Downward ranking: People who rated themselves 5 or 
lower on the ladder
b Upward ranking: People who rated themselves higher 
than 5 on the ladder.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.12 p < .01
ALL NATIONS

Upward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.37 p < .01
Downward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.08 ns
DEVELOPED NATIONS

Upward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.15 p < .05
Downward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.15 p < .01
TRANSITION NATIONS

Upward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.46 p < .01
Downward ranking

Beta's controlled for: 
-Relative income:
  -future and present income rank
  -relative household position
  -relative parents position
-Social demographic:
  -age squared
  -gender
  -household size
  -marital status
  -education
  -employment
  -log household consumption
-Country dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later source of income

StudyMoon & Mikami (2007): study JP 2004
TitleDifference in subjective Well-being between ethnic Korean and Japanese elderly Residents in an Urban Community in Japan.
SourceGeriatrics and Gerontology International, 2007, Vol. 7, 371 - 379
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2007.00427.x
Public65+aged, ethnic Korean naturalized as Japanese and Japanese, Japan, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21.7%
Respondents N =425

Correlate
Author's labelPublic Assistance
Page in Source 377, 379
Our classificationLater source of income
Operationalization
Self report on receiving public assistance (vs not). 
Text is not reported.
1: Yes
0: No
Remarks
Public Assistance refers to financial and medical 
assistance provided by the Japanese Government to those 
who meet the criteria of need under Japanese welfare 
laws.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-ar=-.17 p < .01
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aBeta=-.09 p < .10
Beta controlled for:
- ethnicity
- age
- gender
- literacy
- living alone
- absence of 'sense of purpose in life'
- pension
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aBeta=-.11 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- depression
- performance status (ADL)
- history of lifestyle related disease


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later source of income

StudyAngel & Angel (1992): study US 1988
TitleAge at Migration, Social Connections, and Well-Being among Elderly Hispanics.
SourceJournal of Aging and Health, 1992, Vol. 4, 480-499
DOIDOI: 10.1177/089826439200400402
Public65+aged, Hispanics, United States, 1988
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2019

Correlate
Author's labelMissing income
Page in Source 493, 497
Our classificationLater source of income
Operationalization
1: missing income
0: not having missing income (reference)
Observed distributionN1: 34.1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.22 ns
Missing income (vs not having missing income)
Beta controlled for 
- age 
- Gender
- age at migration
- origin
- education
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.14 ns
Beta additionally controlled for
- Church
- Friends
- Group Events


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later satisfaction with income

StudyHeadey et al. (1991): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleTop-down versus Bottom-up Theories of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1991, Vol. 24, 81 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00292652
Public18-65 aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981-1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =942

Correlate
Author's labelStandard of Living
Page in Source 94
Our classificationLater satisfaction with income
Operationalization
Index of two single questions on satisfaction with:
a: The income you and your family have
b: Your standard of living: the things you have; 
housing ,car, furniture, etc.
Both items scored on 1-9 D-T rating scale, summation by 
average.
Remarks
Panel analysis over four waves (1981, 1983, 1985, 1987) 
which estimates following effects
 - bottom up: effect of satisfaction with standard of 
living on life satisfaction
 - topdown: effect of life satisfaction on satisfaction 
with standard of living
 - contemporaneous: within wave correlation
 - lagged: over time (waves) correlation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=-.04 ns
Contemporaneous bottom up:satisfaction with 
standard of living makes people happy
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=+.18 p < .05
Contemporaneous top down: happy people are 
satisfied with their standard of living
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=-.02 ns
Lagged bottum up: satisfaction with standard of 
living makes people happier later
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=+.12 p < .05
Lagged top down: happy people become more 
satisfied with standard of living

Beta's controlled for satisfaction with
 - marriage
 - job
 - leisure
 - friendship
 - health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later satisfaction with income

StudyHeadey & Veenhoven (1989): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDoes Happiness Induce a Rosy Outlook?
SourceVeenhoven, R.;Ed.:"How Harmful is Happiness?", Universitaire Pers Rotterdam, 1989, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 106 - 127
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/89c-full.pdf
Public18-65 aged, general public, followed 6 years, Melbourne, Australia, 1981-87
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition T1-T4: 31%
Respondents N =649

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with standard of living
Page in Source 115
Our classificationLater satisfaction with income
Operationalization
Index of two identical questions asked at the beginning 
and the end of the interview (20 minute interval)    
Rated on a 9-point scale ranging from terrible (1) to 
delightfull (9). Assessed at T1 (1981), T2 (1983),    
T3 (1985) and T4 (1987). 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-10-aBeta-L=-.06 ns
Estimated same-time causal EFFECT ON HAPPINESS of 
satisfaction with standard of living (bottum-up).

O-DT-u-sqt-v-10-aBeta-L=+.17 p < .05
Estimated same-time causal EFFECT OF HAPPINESS on 
satisfaction with standard of living (top-down).

Effect assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4.      
Effect assumed to be identical at all times. 
ßL is the path-coefficient in a four wave LISREL
model. T1 sex, age, SES, extraversion and 
neuroticism are controlled.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later satisfaction with income

StudySchyns (2000): study DE 1992
TitleThe Relationship between Income, Changes in Income and Life-Satisfaction in West Germany and the Russian Federation. Relative, Absolute or a Combination of Both?
SourceDiener, E.;Rathz, D.R.;Eds.: "Advances in Quality of Life Theory and Research", Kluwer, 2000, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 110
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 4 years, 1992-1996
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4398

Correlate
Author's labelIncome satisfaction
Page in Source 101
Our classificationLater satisfaction with income
Operationalization
Self report on single quesiton: How satisfied are you 
with the following area's of your life?
- Household income
Answers: 0 (totally unsatisfied) - 10 (totally 
satisfied)
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1995, T2: 1996

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.50
T1 happiness by T1 satisfaction with income level
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.04 ns
T2 happiness by T1 satisfaction with income level

All beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Education
- Marital status
- Employment status
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Later satisfaction with income

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with money
Page in Source 132,134
Our classificationLater satisfaction with income
Operationalization
Self report on:
- satisfaction with the income you and your family have
- satisfaction with the pay and fringe benefits you get
- how secure are you financially?

Assessed on a 1-7 scale:1 delighted...
7 terrible
Observed distributionN=121 M=3,64 SD=1,31
Error Estimatesalpha=.84
Remarks
Assessed at T1 1 or 2 weeks before vacation and T3 the 
week after vacation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.44 p < .05
T1 life satisfaction by T1 satisfaction with money
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.49 p < .05
T3 life satisfaction by T3 satisfaction with money
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.45 p < .05
T1 satisfaction with money by T3 life satisfaction
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.32 p < .05
T1 satisfaction with money by T3 life satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2004 /2
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response89%
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 109+111+112+113+117
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1: <$15000
2:  $15000-$30000
3:  $31000-$60000
4:  $61000-$90000
5:  $91000-$120000
6:  $121000-$150000
7:  $150000+

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt= p < .377
1 Mt = 7,88; SD = 1,55
2 Mt = 7,83; SD = 1,56
3 Mt = 7,75; SD = 1,52
4 Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,27
5 Mt = 7,95; SD = 1,17
6 Mt = 7,96; SD = 1,09
7 Mt = 8,16; SD = 1,13
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+ p < .026
1 Mt = 7,55; SD = 2,04
2 Mt = 7,61; SD = 1,95
3 Mt = 7,64; SD = 1,64
4 Mt = 7,76; SD - 1,57
5 Mt = 8,04; SD = 1,32
6 Mt = 7,85; SD = 1,61
7 Mt = 8,23; SD = 1,17
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV= p < .003
Survey 7:
5>1
5>3
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV= p < .046
Survey 9:
5>1
5>2
5>3
6>1
6>2, p< .033


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Income
Page in Source AB11+13+14+15+18+2
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1: <$15000
2:  $15000-$30000
3:  $31000-$60000
4:  $61000-$90000
5:  $91000-$120000
6:  $121000-$150000
7: >$150000
Observed distributionN = 1:212, 2: 334, 3: 501, 4: 287, 5: 129, 6: 48, 7: 62

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+ p < .199
1 Mt = 7,44; SD = 2,28
2 Mt = 7,75; SD = 1,88
3 Mt = 7,73; SD = 1,55
4 Mt = 7,84; SD = 1,45
5 Mt = 7,78; SD = 1,21
6 Mt = 8,01; SD = 1,08
7 Mt = 7,95; SD = 1,84
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=+ p < .167
1 Mt = 7,58; SD = 2,10
2 Mt = 7,34; SD = 2,07
3 Mt = 7,43; SD = 1,69
4 Mt = 7,66; SD = 1,48
5 Mt = 7,54; SD = 1,63
6 Mt = 7,27; SD = 2,15
7 Mt = 7,81; SD = 1,60
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1997

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Income
Page in Source B12
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1:<$15000
2: $15000- $ 30000
3: $31000- $ 60000
4: $61000- $ 90000
5: $91000- $120000
6: $121000-$150000
7:>$150000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
1 Mt = 7,35; SD = 2,31; N = 184
2 Mt = 7,90; SD = 1,67; N = 390
3 Mt = 8,00; SD = 1,46; N = 420
4 Mt = 8,00; SD = 1,27; N = 280
5 Mt = 7,78; SD = 1,56; N = 120
6 Mt = 7,98; SD = 1,25; N =  49
7 Mt = 8,21; SD = 1,01; N =  39
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
3>1; p<.012
4>1; p<.014
7>1; p<.008


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCummins et al. (2004c): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Report 9.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Effects of Household Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1897

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Income
Page in Source 97+102+103+163
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Single question:
Can you please give me an idea of your households total 
annual income before tax?
1: <$15000
2:  $15000-$30000
3:  $31000-$60000
4:  $61000-$90000
5:  $91000-$120000
6:  $121000-$150000
7: >$150000
Observed distributionN = 1: 246, 2: 241, 3: 377, 4: 250, 5: 128, 6: 37, 7: 64

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cDMt= p < .000
1: Mt = 7,50; SD = 1,97
2: Mt = 7,55; SD = 1,96
3: Mt = 7,76; SD = 1,59
4: Mt = 7,78; SD = 1.60
5: Mt = 8,17; SD = 1,30
6: Mt = 8,22; SD = 0.98
7: Mt = 8,14; SD = 1,66
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cAoV=
5>1, p< .001
5>2, p< .004
5>3, p< .046
6>1, p< .015
6>2, p< .033


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCummins et al. (2001): study AU 2001 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 2, Report 1.
SourceAustralian Centre on Quality of Life, 2001, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response90%
Respondents N =2004

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 34
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1: <$15000
2:  $15000-$30000
3:  $30000-$60000
4:  $60000-$90000
5:  $90000+
Observed distributionN = 1: 413, 2: 472, 3: 603, 4: 310, 5: 206

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+ p < .000
1 Mt = 7,55; SD = 2,26
2 Mt = 7,57; SD = 2,09
3 Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,87
4 Mt = 7,87; SD = 1,61
5 Mt = 8,20; SD = 1,42


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelFamily income (ln)
Page in Source 25,55,57
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Income from al sources and, if married, also from their 
spouse.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+2.5
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=+.10
B and beta controlled for:
- Gender
- Migration
- Family of origin:
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings
- Current family situation:
   - Marital status:
      - Married (1st,2nd and de facto)
      - Widowed
      - Divorced
   - Family size
- Age
- Religious involvement:
   - Church attendance
   - Denomination
   - Charity work
- Work status:
   - Education
   - Family income
   - Labor force participation
   - Spouse in labor force
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+0.0
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=+.05
Beta and above B when additionally controlled for:
- hours worked
- occupational status
- job security
- unemployment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 18,30,T21
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Austrian shillings a month:
< 6.000 / 6.000-10.000 / 10.000-16.000/  >16.000        

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-mq-v-5-aG=+.23 p < .01
M-AO-c-mq-*-*-aG=+.24 p < .05
M-AO-c-mq-*-*-atc=+.18 p < .05
M-AO-c-mq-v-5-atc=+.16 p < .01
M-AO-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.16
M-AO-c-mq-*-*-aBeta=+.12 p < .05
ß controlled for: gender, age, marital status, 
education, professional status, and community size
M-AO-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.14 p < .05
ß controlled for: gender, age, marital status, 
education, professional status, and community size


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBlandford & Chappell (1990): study CA 1985
TitleSubjective Well-being among Native and Non-Native Elderly Persons: Do Differences Exist?
SourceCanadian Journal on Aging, 1990, Vol. 9, 386 - 399
Public50+ aged, Winnipeg,Canada, 1985
Sample
Non-Response15% Natives
Respondents N =390

Correlate
Author's labelMonthly income
Page in Source 395
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1. Less than $250
2. $250 to $499
3. $500 to $749
4. $750 or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tb=+.22 ns
b  controlled by :
1. Male Sex
2. Married
3. Widowed
4. Age
5. Perceived health
6. Days in bed
7. Family size
8. Functional ability
9. Satisfaction with family
   relationships
10.Social contacts 
11.Number of children
12.Number of siblings
13.Number of caregivers
14.Interaction of ethnicity with
   ability & marital status & days ill


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyMichalos (1986): study CA 1984
TitleAn Application of Multiple Discrepancies Theory (MDT) to Seniors.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 349 - 378
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300488
Public60+ aged, rural districts, Canada, 1984
Sample
Non-Response47%
Respondents N =457

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 363
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Income before taxes
1: under     $  3.000
2: $  3.000- $  5.999
3  $  6.000- $  9.999
4  $ 10.000- $ 19.999
5  $ 20.000- $ 34.999
6: $ 35.000 and over

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.0 ns
ß path-coefficient controlled for sex, age, 
education, and the perceived discrepancies: own 
life with that of others, life with that deserved, 
life with needs, life with progress in life, life 
now with best previous experience, life with 
wants.
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.0 ns
ß path-coefficient controlled for sex, age, 
education, and the perceived discrepancies: own 
life with that of others, life with that deserved, 
life with needs, life with progress in life, life 
now with best previous experience, life with 
wants.
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.04
Total of direct path and indirect paths via life 
compared with wants.
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.05
Total of direct path and indirect paths via life 
compared with wants.
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.0 ns
Males: direct path
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.0 ns
Males: direct path
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.13
Males: total of direct path and indirect paths via 
life compared with wants.
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.14
Males: Total of direct path and indirect paths via 
life compared with wants.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyKennedy et al. (1978): study CA Edmonton CMA 1977
TitleSubjective Evaluation of Well-Being: Problems and Prospects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 457 - 474
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352943
Public18+ aged, general public, City of Edmonton, Canada, 1977
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =335

Correlate
Author's labelincome
Page in Source 467
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Self-reported income.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bG=+.18 p < .01
All
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bG=+.15 p < .05
dwelling: single house
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bG= ns
dwelling: semi-detached
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bG= ns
dwelling: apartment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1977
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1977
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =3289

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Income percentiles:
 1-15
16-27
28-40
41-64
65-75
76-85
86-100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-br=+.09 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-bG=+.04 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-btc=+.03 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBlishen & Atkinson (1980): study CA 1977
TitleAnglophone and Francophone Perceptions of the Quality of Life in Canada.
SourceSzalai, A.; Andrews, F.; Eds.:" The Quality of Life, Comparative Studies.", Sage, 1980, London, 25 - 40
PublicAdults, general public, Canada, 1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3288

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 30
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Quintiles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-br=+.07
Lowest   1  Mt'= 8.39          SD = 2.12
         2  Mt'= 8.52          SD = 1.88
         3  Mt'= 8.64          SD = 1.82
         4  Mt'= 9.03          SD = 1.51
Highest  5  Mt'= 8.86          SD = 1.55

Unaffected by age.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudySnider (1980): study CA 1976
TitleExplaining Life Satisfaction: It's the Elderly's Attitudes that Count.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1980, Vol. 61, 253 - 263
Public65+ aged, retired whites, Edmonton, Canada, 1976
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response10%
Respondents N =428

Correlate
Author's labelMonthly income
Page in Source 257-258
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Single direct question rated on a 3-point scale with 
the choice statements: '$ 1-150', '$ 151-300' and '$ 
301 plus'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-ar=+.07 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-atb=+.06 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-aDyx=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1974
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1974
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1234

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Income percentiles:
1 -15
16-27
28-40
41-64
65-75
76-85
86-100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dr=+.19 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dG=+.13 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dtc=+.16 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1968
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1968
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2734

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Income percentiles:
1: 1 - 15
2: 16- 27
3: 28- 40
4: 41- 64
5: 65- 75
6: 76- 85
7: 86- 100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-ar=+.18 p < .01
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-aG=+.27 p < .01
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-atc=+.21 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAbbott et al. (2016): study CN 2012
TitleThe Quality of Society and Life Satisfaction in China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2016, Vol. 127, 653 - 670
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-015-0989-3
DOIdoi:10.1007/sl 1205-015-0989-3
Public18-75 aged, general public, China, 2012-13
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelIncomes scale
Page in Source 660, 663
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Self rating of income position on 10-step scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.23 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.06 ns
Beta controled for:
- Socio-economic security
  - save money
- Social cohesion
  - most people can be trusted
  - would people take advantage (or try to be 
fair)
  - civil society confidence
  - media confidence
  - government institutions confidence
  - trust: your family
  - trust: your neighbourhood
  - trust: people you know personally
- Social inclusion
  - married
  - part of chinese nation
  - part of local community
- Social empowerment
  - education
  - state of subjective health
  - freedom of choice and control over life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCheng et al. (2014a): study CN 2011
TitleHousing Property Rights and Subjective Wellbeing in Urban China.
SourceMonash University Discussion Paper, 2013, No 44, 1 - 24
URLhttp://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1550&context=buspapers
PublicAdults, urban areas, age range not reported, China, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5229

Correlate
Author's labelIncome(ln)
Page in Source 20-21
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Monthly income level (RMB/month in 2011)
Observed distributionM= 1359 RMB/month

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rb=-.00 ns
b controlled for:
- age and age squared
- schooling
- married
- household size
- CCP party member
- rural/urban
- no. of social insurances
- homeownership

b not significantly affected when additionally 
controlled for:
- partial homeownership
- full homeownership
- minor homeownership
- home loan
- full homeownership x home loan
- property tenure
- property size
- no. of partial home ownership properties
- no. of full homeownership properties
- no. of minor homeownership properties
- source of homeownership
- type of home loan
- perceived local public safety
- express lower risk aversion
- expect better economy
- expect higher house price
- expect better commodity price
- expect higher interest rate
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyQuinta (2011): study CN 2010
TitleLocals' Happiness 'Above Average'.
SourceMacau Daily Times, 20 January 2011
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/quinta_v_2011.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Macau, China, 2010
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response14
Respondents N =996

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
0 monthly wage < MOP 3000
1 monthly wage >= MOP 3000
Remarks
MOP = Macau Pataca  (Macau currency)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=+
0: M=6.74
1: M=?


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudySmyth et al. (2008): study CN 2003
TitleThe Environment and Well-being in Urban China.
SourceEcological Economics, 2008, Vol.68, 547 - 555
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.eclecon.2008.05.017
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, China, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =8890

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 550.552
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
An ordered variable representing monthly household 
income over 20 categories from 1 (<260RMB) to 20 
(>20,000 RMB).
Observed distributionMedian=9 (RMB2001-2250).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eOPRC=+.07 p < .001
OPRC(0.0692) controled for:
- Environmental surroundings
  - pollution
  - disaster
  - congestion
  - parks
- Personal characteristics
  - gender
  - age
  - marital status
  - education
  - occupation
  - unemployed
  - income
- Environment attitudes
  - environment awareness
- Attitudes on other socio-economic and political 
issues
  - pro-market
  - income inequality
  - social protection
  - national reunification
  - SARS


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyGalama et al. (2017): study CO 2010
TitleWealthier, Happier and More Self-Sufficient: When Anti-Poverty Programs Improve Economic and Subjective Wellbeing at a Reduced Cost to Taxpayers.
Sourcehttps://ideas.repec.org/f/pga364.html
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w24090
PublicHeads of poor families, earlier benefactors and non-benefactors of a welfare program, Colombia, 2010
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =668

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source Table 5
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Income
Observed distributionControl Mean=+0.27

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-dPRC=+ ns
PRC coefficient differ for degrees of poverty
- poverty position 9 +.13(ns) N = 583
- poverty position 8 +.19(ns) N = 530
- poverty position 7 +.17(ns) N = 472
- poverty position 6 +.11(ns) N = 413
- poverty position 5 +.00(ns) N = 336
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyKaliterna Lipovcan et al. (2007): study HR 2005
TitleMonthly Income and Subjective Well-being of Croatian Citizens.
SourceCroatian Medical Journal, 2007, Vol. 48, 727 - 733.
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2205984/pdf/CroatMedJ_48_0727.pdf
Public18-85 aged, general public, Croatia, 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =896

Correlate
Author's labelmonthly income
Page in Source 730
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
six categories monthly income (Euro):
6: from 531;
5: 401-530;
4: 271-400;
3: 131-270;
2:   71-130;
1:     0-70.
Observed distributionN; 6:69, 5:107, 4: 258, 3:303, 2:119, 1: 40

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aDM= p < .001
    Mean (SD),  
6:  8.6  (1.17) 
5:  8.0  (1.32) 
4:  8.0  (1.47) 
3:  7.6  (1.93) 
2:  7.6  (2.26) 
1:  7.0  (2.18)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyKaliterna Lipovcan & Prizmic-Larsen (2006): study HR 2003
TitleWhat makes Croats Happy? Predictors of Happiness in Representative Sample.
SourceDelle Fave, A.;Ed.: "Dimensions of Well- Being. Research and Intervention, Franco Angeli, 2006, Milan, Italy, 53 - 59
Public18+aged, general public, Croatia, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =1242

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic status
Page in Source 3,12
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Self report of monthly income in Euro's, circled one of 
7 options
Observed distribution<70 8% 70-130 19% 130-200 21% 200-270 17% 270-400 15% 400-530 8% >530 9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
-standard of living, 
-health, 
-achievement in life, 
-relationship with family and friends, 
-feelings of physical safety, 
-acceptance by community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAllardt (1973): study DK 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comparative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Denmark, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Coded in 4 numbers

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.23
Controlled for:Housing density, education, social 
status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequency of 
meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possiblities to decide on matters concerning one's 
own personal life, number of memberships in clubs 
and associations, interesting life, easyness of 
life, loneliness, feelings of being liked, 
feelings of being able to use knowledge and 
skills, feeling of chance to succeed, feelings of 
getting sufficient attention, satisfaction with 
income, year of birth(young-old), male vs. female, 
no. of communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyKainulainen et al. (2018): study FI 2012 /1
TitleLife-Satisfaction is More a Matter of Feeling Well Than Having What You Want. Tests of Veenhoven's Theory
SourceInternational Journal of Happiness and Development, 2018, Vol. 4, 209 - 235
URLhttps://econpapers.repec.org/article/idsijhdev/v_3a4_3ay_3a2018_3ai_3a3_3ap_3a209-235.htm
Public20-64 aged, Finland, 2012
Sample
Non-Response62%
Respondents N =1883

Correlate
Author's labelNet income
Page in Source 19
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
Remarks
Question not reported
N=1100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.11
C-W-h-sq-n-11-br=+.13
r's not affected by controlling for age

Significance of both r's not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAllardt (1973): study FI 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comparative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Coded in 4 numbers

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.25
Controlled for:Housing density, education, social 
status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequency of 
meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possiblities to decide on matters concerning one's 
own personal life, number of memberships in clubs 
and associations, interesting life, easyness of 
life, loneliness, feelings of being liked, 
feelings of being able to use knowledge and 
skills, feeling of chance to succeed, feelings of 
getting sufficient attention, satisfaction with 
income, year of birth(young-old), male vs. female, 
no. of communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1970
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, industry or service sector, Austria and West germany, ±1970
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5592

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 99
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
DM 2500,-

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-aE²=+.06 p < .01
DM 2500,-        M=5.23  Mt'=7.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCheung & Lucas (2014): study DE 2010
TitleAssessing the Validity of Single-Item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Three Large Samples.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2014, Vol. 23, 2809 - 2818.
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11136-014-0726-4
DOIdoi:10.1007/sll 136-014-0726-4
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2010
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1312

Correlate
Author's labelincome
Page in Source 2817
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Selfreport of monthly post-governmental income (i.e., 
after tax).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.22 p < .05
CI95[+.15;+.28]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBerger (2013): study DE 1994
TitleHappy Working Mothers? Investigating the Effect of Maternal Employment on Life Satisfaction.
SourceEconomica, 2013, Vol. 80, 23 - 43
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2012.00932.x/abstract
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2012.00932.x
PublicMothers, Germany, followed 15 years, 1994-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5150

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source table 2 , 2A
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
In income in Euro
A: Total household income
B: Residual income (total minus mother's earnings)
Observed distribution A: M=3118, SD=1620; B; M=2557, SD =1531

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.37 p < .01
Total household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.14 p < .01
Residual income (partners income only)

b's controled for:
- age
- education
- family situation
  - partnered
  - age of children
  - pregnant
  - person needing care in household
- health
  - disabled
  - self rated
- employment 
- region
- municipality size
- year dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyEasterlin (2014a): study DE East Germany 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction in the Transition from Socialism to Capitalism.
SourceClark, A.E.;Ed.:" Happiness and Economic Growth: Lessons from Developing Countries", Oxford Scholarship Online: 2015, 1 - 24
DOIdoi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723653.003.0002
Public18+ aged, general public, East-Germany 1990-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =200000

Correlate
Author's labelTrends in income before and after the fall of socialism
Page in Source Table 1.A5
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Before and after the fall of socialism:
0 Before (1990)
1 After      (2006)
Income distribution in thirds:
A Lower
B Middle
C Upper
Remarks
From 1945 to 1990 East Germany was a socialist state. 
Following developments in Russia and other 
East-European nations this socialist state collapsed 
and ended in 1990. In 1990 West- and East-Germany 
united to form the democratic state of Germany.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aDM=
Happiness by income thirds:
             1990  2006  difference
Upper         6,6   7,1    +0,5
Middle        6,0   6,2    +0,2
Lower         5,3   4,3    -1,0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyHeadey & Headey (2003): study DE 1990
TitleGerman Reunification: Welfare Gains and Losses East and West.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol. 64, 107 - 138
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1024780114892
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response± 40%
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome quintiles
Page in Source 119, 120/5
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Quintile 1 is poorest fifth of the population
Quintile 3 is fifth of the population with middle 
income
Quintile 5 is fifth of the population with highest 
income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
                   East              West
             1990  1992  1997  1990  1992  1997

Quintile 1    6.6   5.8   5.8   6.8   6.6   6.1
Quintile 3    6.7   6.1   6.3   6.7   6.7   6.4
Quintile 5    6.7   6.3   6.7   7.6   7.7   7.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 49
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
In thousands

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.47
B controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force satus
  - marital status
  - health status
  - number of children
  - education
  - household size
  - gender
  - age
- state
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCalys-Tagoe et al. (2014): study GH 2007
TitlePredictors of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Ghanaians.
SourceGhana Medical Journal, 2014, Vol. 48, 178 - 184
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4335429/
Public50+ aged, Ghana, 2007-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4724

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 181/182
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
income level in quintiles, 
Q1 = poorest, 
:
Q5 = richest
Observed distributionQ1 = 20%, Q2 = 20%, Q3 = 20%, Q4 = 20%, Q5 = 20%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eOR=+ p < .05
Income  OR       CI95
Q1      0.304    [0.220-0.420](vs Q5)
Q2      0.345    [0.251-0.476](vs Q5)
Q3      0.374    [0.272-0.514](vs Q5)
Q4      0.581    [0.418-0.806](vs Q5)

OR adjusted for:
- age
- sex
- educational level
- ethnic background


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyMichalko et al. (2009): study HU 2007
TitleThe Impact of Tourism on Subjective Quality of Life among Hungarian Population
SourceHungarian Geographical Bulletin, 2009, Vol. 58, 121 - 136
URLhttp://real-j.mtak.hu/2891/13/HunGeoBull_2009_2.pdf#page=43
Public18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2007
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11500

Correlate
Author's labelincome level
Page in Source 128
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1 very low (reference)
2 low
3 average
4 high
5 very high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aDM=+
                       DM:
1 very:      2.80
2 low:       3.14     +0.34
3 average:   3.50     +0.70
4 high:      3.79     +0.99
5 very high: 3.93     +1.13


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyChander (2004): study IN Haryana 2002
TitleRelationship between Constituents of Welfare and Income: A Need Based Approach
SourcePhd Dissertation, 2004, Panjab University, Chandisgarh, India
PublicAdults, varying age ranges, general public, Haryana, India, 2002
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response30
Respondents N =500

Correlate
Author's labelLog of per capita income (LINPC)
Page in Source 168, 172,173,174, 175,
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Log of per capita income (LINPC)
(measurement not reported)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-er=+.28 p < .05
Individual happiness by log of per capita income.
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-eOPRCIV=+.26 p < .05
Individual happiness by log of per capita income
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-eOPRCIV=+.02 ns
OPRC controlled for:
-self-reported economic security
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-eOPRCIV=+.15 p < .01
Individual happiness by log of per capita 
income,OPRC controlled for:
-Availability of leisure-time
-Benevolence, related to personality
-Spending time on hobbies
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-eOPRCIV=+.03 p < .10
Individual happiness by log of per capita income, 
OPRC controlled for:
-Fulfilment financial expectations (ACHIEVF)
-Fulfilment social expectations  (ACHIEVS)
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-eOPRCIV=+.13 p < .001
Individual happiness by log of per capita income, 
OPRC controlled for:
-social status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyChander (2004): study IN Haryana 2002
TitleRelationship between Constituents of Welfare and Income: A Need Based Approach
SourcePhd Dissertation, 2004, Panjab University, Chandisgarh, India
PublicAdults, varying age ranges, general public, Haryana, India, 2002
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response30
Respondents N =500

Correlate
Author's labelAbsolute ncome
Page in Source 168, table 1
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Self-reported income  at household or family level 
after taxation.
Remarks
Reported income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-er=+.24 p < .05
Individual happiness by current income.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /2
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, two poor rural villages, Garhwal area, Northern India, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response341
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelStandard of living
Page in Source 269
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.20 p < .001
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+.12 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyKousha & Mohseni (2000): study IR 1995
TitleAre Iranians Happy? A Comparative Study between Iran and the United States.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 52, 259 - 289
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1007061431186
PublicResidents big city (Tehran), Iran, 1995-97
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response4,8%
Respondents N =1561

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 273/276
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1= no income
2= < 20.000
3= 20.000 to 39.999
4= 40.000 to 59.999
5= 60.000 to 100.000
6= > 100.000
Observed distribution 1995: 1= 79, 2=100, 3=149, 4= 76, 5= 76, 6= 55 1997: 1=306, 2= 63, 3=159, 4=137, 5=165, 6=190

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM= p < .02
            1995    M      S.D.          
             1=    1,84    0,35 
             2=    1,69    0,33 
             3=    1,78    0,25
             4=    1,86    0,44
             5=    1,82    0,26
             6=    1,82    0,44
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM= p < .01
            1997    M      S.D.          
             1=    1,76    0,43 
             2=    1,83    0,33 
             3=    1,82    0,40
             4=    1,86    0,34
             5=    1,88    0,36
             6=    1,92    0,34
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abD%= p < .02
             1995
                   very    fairly  not at all
                   happy   happy   happy
                     %       %        %   
             1=    10,8    62,2     27,0 
             2=     6,0    57,0     37,0 
             3=     4,0    69,8     26,2
             4=    15,8    53,9     30,3
             5=     5,3    71,1     23,7
             6=    14,5    52,7     32,7
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abD%= p < .01
             1997
                   very    fairly  not at all
                   happy   happy   happy
                     %       %        %   
             1=    12,4    51,3     36,3 
             2=     9,5    63,5     27,0 
             3=    11,3    51,6     37,1
             4=    10,9    64,2     24,8
             5=    12,7    63,0     24,2
             6=    13,2    65,3     21,6
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.05 ns
             1995
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.09 p < .00
             1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyHealy (2005): study IE 2002
TitleIn Each Other's Shadow. What Has Been the Impact of Human and Social Capital on Life Satisfaction in Ireland?
SourceThesis, National University of Ireland, 2005, Dublin, Ireland
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/healy_t_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelincome (net weekly)
Page in Source 164
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
!: first quartile
2: second quartile
3: third quartile
4: fourth quartile

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebDM=-
first quartile:  M = 7.73
second quartile: M = 7.40
third quartile:  M = 7.61
fourth quartile: M = 7.81


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyTiefenbach & Kohlbacher (2011): study JP 2011
TitleHappiness from the Viewpoint of Economics.
SourceDeutsches Institut für Japanstudien, 2011, Tokyo, Japan
URLhttps://www.dijtokyo.org/publication/happiness-from-the-viewpoint-of-economics-findings-from-recent-survey-data-in-japan/
Public15 -79 aged, Japan, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response28,4%
Respondents N =3578

Correlate
Author's labelIncome and assets
Page in Source 7
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1: very low income
2: low income
3: middle income
4: high income
5: very high income
Observed distributionN=3147; 1:0,04; 2: 0,29; 3: 0,3; 4: 0,3; 5: 0,07.
Remarks
N/A = 431

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-fDM=+
1: very low income  M = 5,22
2: low income       M = 5,88
3: middle income    M = 6,51
4: high income      M = 6,93
5: very high income M = 7,45


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyKoo & Yee (2016): study KR 2014
TitleDimensions of Social Well-being and Determinants in Korea: Personal. Relational, and Societal Aspects.
SourceThe Senshu Social Well-being Review, 2016, no 3
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 2014-2018
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 46,52,55,56
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Household income in quintiles:
1 low income
2 mid-low income
3 mid-mid income
4 mid-high income
5 high incomer
Observed distribution1st decile: 22.0%; 2nd-5th decile: 20.0%; 6th-8th decile: 19.8 %; 9th-10th decile: 38.2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceDM=+
Relation between quintiles curvilinear 
(diminishing returns):
Income level       
1 M=4.38
2 M=5.58
3 M=6.00
4 M=6.31
5 M=6.43
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=+.23 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- marital status
- education level
- work status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=+.14 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- ingroup trust
- trust gap
- risk experience
- discrimination experience
- community participation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyDiener & Suh (2010): study KR 2010
TitleUnhappiness in South Korea: Why it is High and What Might be done About It.
SourceProceedings of the Korean Psychological Association, 2010, Seoul, South Korea
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/diener_e_2010a.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, South Korea, 2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 7, 8
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
in US $
A raw on $ 1000
B: log raw
Observed distributionA: range: 0 to 16.000 B: range 2.6 - 5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-uDMt=+
Happiness by RAW income
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDMt=+
Happiness converted to z-scores

Convex relation with both Contentment and Affect 
Balance
Set Image size:   

A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-ub=+
Happiness by LOG income
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+
b stronger for Contentment than for Affect Balance
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyChan, D. et al. (2017): study ZZ Developing nations 2012
TitleIs trusting others related to better health? An investigation of older adults across six non-western countries
SourceJournal of cross-cultural psychology, 2017, vol.48(8) 1288-1301
DOIdoi:10.1.1177/0022022117722632
Public50+ aged, 6 non-Western developing countries, 201?
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =35329

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 1295
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-vr=+.21 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-yr=+.22 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCampbell & Porquet (2014): study ZZ EU 27 2010
TitleWell-Being and the labour Market from a Global View: It's not Just the Money
SourceGlatzer, W.; Camfield, L.; Moller, V.; Rojas, M.; Eds.: "Global Handbook of Quality of Life" , Springer Science+Buisiness Media, 2014, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 351 - 379
DOIdoi: 10.1007/978-017-9178-6_15
Public18+ aged, general public, 27 EU nations, 2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26723

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment vs. low pay work
Page in Source 356
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1 Unemployed
0 High paid worker

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=-
AVREAGE happiness by unemployment rate in 27 EU 
nations

Unemployed are 250% likely to feel less happy than 
high paid workers, and about 150% from low paid 
workers
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudySulemana et al. (2016): study ZZ 2005
TitlePerceived Environmental Quality and Subjective Well-being: are African Countries different from Developed Countries?
SourceInternational Journal of Happiness and Development, 2016, Vol. 3, 64 - 87
URLhttps://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2783842
Public18+ aged, general public, 13 nations, 2005-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =23000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome scale
Page in Source 78
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Ten-point income scale in respondent’s country where 
respondent believes their household income is 
1:  lowest decile
:
10: highest decile)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=
African Countries   b = +.05(001)
Developed Countries b = -.02(001) 

b controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - Age, age squared
  - Gender
  - Education
  - Health status
  - Marital status
  - Employment status
  - Social Capital
  - Satisfaction with finances
  - Children
  - Control over life
  - Religiosity
- Environmental characteristics
  - Local conditions
    - quality of water
    - quality of air
    - quality of sewage and sanitation
  - City size
  -Country dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBCS (2010): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleThe Information Dividend: Can IT Make you ''Happier''.
SourceResearch Report by Trajectory Partnership i.o.o. BCS the Chartered Institute for IT, 2010, London, UK
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~BCS_2010.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, World, 2005
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =35000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 13,15
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.19 p < .01
B controlled for:
- sense of freedom and control
- media use:
  - accessed internet
  - watched TV
- demographics:
  - gender
  - age, age squared
  - education
  - size of town
-employment:
  - work part time
  - self-employed 
  - retired
  - housewife
  - student
  - unemloyed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCavalcanti et al. (2009): study ZZ 2005
TitleIs Brazil the Land of Happiness? A comparative Study Using a Sample with Economics Students from UFPE and Purdue.
SourceBrazilian Review of Econometrics, 2009, Vol. 29, 17 - 35
URLhttp://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/index.php/bre/article/viewArticle/2694
PublicUniversity students, Brazil and United States, 2005-2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =185

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 22-23
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Single direct question on the income background of the 
student's family:
2 High income (reference)
1 Middle-income
0 Low Income
Observed distribution INCOME in % Low Middle High Purdue students 5 62 33 UFPE students 7 81 12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-dOLRC=-2.3 p < .01
LOW income (vs. HIGH)

ORLC controlled for:
- nationality
- age
- gender
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-dOLRC=-2.4 p < .01
OLRC additionally controlled for:
- employment status

When not controlled for nationality:
USA:    OLRC= -1.896 (ns)
UFPE:   OLRC= -3.757 (p<.01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-dOLRC=-.81 p < .05
MIDDLE income (vs. HIGH)

ORLC controlled for:
- nationality
- age
- gender
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-dOLRC=-.83 p < .05
OLRC additionally controlled for:
- employment status

When not controlled for nationality:
USA:    OLRC= -0.340 (ns)
Brazil: OLRC= -2.074 (p<.01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyVanderMeer & Wielers (2013): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleWhat Makes Workers Happy?
SourceApplied Economics, 2013, Vol. 45, 357 - 368
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
DOIDOI:10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
PublicWorking people, 20 European countries, 2004.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =11986

Correlate
Author's labelln(income)
Page in Source 364-66
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
self reported natural logarithm of income.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.22
OPRC controled for
- log work hours
- missing income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.08
OPRC additionally controlled for
- subjective income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.07
OPRC additionally controlled for Job 
characteristics
- autonomy
- Work pressure
- Development
- Irregular hours
- Supervisor
- Temporary Job
- Firmsize 
- Number of collegues
- Turn down Job
- Similar job elsewhere
- Easily replaced to Job 
- Time to work
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.01
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.1
OPRC additionally controlled for
- subjective income
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.21
OPRC controled for
- log work hours
- missing income
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.09
OPRC additionally controlled for Job 
characteristics
- autonomy
- Work pressure
- Development
- Irregular hours
- Supervisor
- Temporary Job
- Firmsize 
- Number of collegues
- Turn down Job
- Similar job elsewhere
- Easily replaced to Job 
- Time to work
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.01
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-Sum-*-mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.33
OPRC controled for
- log work hours
- missing income
O-Sum-*-mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.15
OPRC additionally controlled for
- subjective income
O-Sum-*-mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.12
OPRC additionally controlled for Job 
characteristics
- autonomy
- Work pressure
- Development
- Irregular hours
- Supervisor
- Temporary Job
- Firmsize 
- Number of collegues
- Turn down Job
- Similar job elsewhere
- Easily replaced to Job 
- Time to work
O-Sum-*-mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.03
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAlber & Lenarz (2008): study ZZ EU 27 2003
TitleWachsende soziale Ungleichheit in Europa. (Growing Social Inequality in Europe).
SourceISI Bulletin, 2008, Vol. 39, 1 - 5
URLhttp://www.gesis.org/fileadmin/upload/forschung/publikationen/zeitschriften/isi/isi-39.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, EU 27 member states and Turkey, 2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =35000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 4
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Income Quartiles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-bDM=+
Average happiness in income quartiles in 25 
nations

In rich nations, the poor are happier than the 
rich in poor nations.

Difference in happiness across income categories 
is smaller in rich nations than in poor nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBöhnke & Kohler (2008): study ZZ EU 27 2003
TitleWell-Being and Inequality.
SourceWZB Discussion Paper no. SP I 2008-201, 2008, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://bibliothek.wzb.eu/pdf/2008/i08-201.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 27 and Turkey, 2003
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =18600

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 24
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
0 = 1st quartile (low, reference)
1 = 2nd quartile
2 = 3rd quartile
4 = 4th quartile (high)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.42 p < .05
2nd QUARTILE (vs 1st) No controls
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.82 p < .05
3rd QUARTILE (vs 1st) No controls
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-bb=+1,7 p < .05
4th QUARTILE (vs 1st) No controls
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.87 p < .05
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-employment
-class/occupation
-education
-housing
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.77 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-marital status
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.76 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-church attendance
-internet use
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.65 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness and health satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBeja Jr. (2013): study ZZ 2000
TitleWho is Happier; The Housewife or the Working Wife?
SourceApplied Research in Quality of Life., 2014, Vol. 9, 157 - 177
URLhttp://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/37551/
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11482-013-9235-9
PublicMarried women, 44 nations, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14013

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 161,167-172
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Selfreport on a 10-point scale from 1 ( 'lowest 
decile') to 10 ('highest decile'). 2 consecutive values 
are collapsed to form 5 subjective income categories 
with Quintile 1 as the reference state.
Observed distributionIncome quintile M = 3,05, SD =1.16

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+
             ECONOMIC LEVEL NATION
            UPPER     MIDDLE     LOWER
Income      b      p<   b    p<    b    p<
Quintile 2 + .27  .05  +.15 .05  + .43 .01
Quintile 3 + .69  .01  +.54 .01  +1.12 .01
Quintile 4 +1.08  .01  +.91 .01  +1.85 .01
Quintile 5 +1.33  .01  +.89 .01  +2.63 .01

b's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
      - age (+ age squared)
      - education
      - employment status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+
When additonally controlled for:
- NATIONAL characteristics:
     - GDP p.c.(GDPPPC)
     - Female labour participation rate(LABOR)

             ECONOMIC LEVEL NATION
            UPPER     MIDDLE     LOWER
Income      b      p<   b    p<    b    p<
Quintile 2 + .22  .05  +.20 .01  + .44 .01
Quintile 3 + .62  .01  +.58 .01  +1.16 .01
Quintile 4 + .90  .01  +.87 .01  +1.84 .01
Quintile 5 +1.04  .01  +.76 .01  +2.77 .01

Additional control for log(GDPPC) and 
log(LABOR)gives similar results.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+/-
When additonally controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
     - perceived fate control
     - financial satisfaction
     - selffulfillment

             ECONOMIC LEVEL NATION
            UPPER     MIDDLE     LOWER
Income      b      p<   b    p<    b    p<
Quintile 2 + .07   ns  -.08  ns  + .31 .05
Quintile 3 + .08   ns  +.06  ns  + .41 .01
Quintile 4 + .14   ns  +.08  ns  + .64 .01
Quintile 5 + .14   ns  -.11  ns  + .93 .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+
When additonally controlled for NATIONAL AND 
INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
- NATION CHARACTERISTICS:
    - GDP P.C.
    - Female labor participation rate
- INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS:
     - perceived fate control
     - financial satisfaction
     - selffulfillment

             ECONOMIC LEVEL NATION
            UPPER     MIDDLE     LOWER
Income      b      p<   b    p<    b    p<
Quintile 2 + .04   ns  -.05  ns  + .32 .05
Quintile 3 + .05   ns  +.10  ns  + .44 .01
Quintile 4 + .06   ns  +.11  ns  + .69 .01
Quintile 5 + .01   ns  -.14  ns  +1.09 .01

Additional control for log nation characteristics 
gives similar results


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyFahey & Smyth (2004a): study ZZ Europe 1999
TitleThe Link between Subjective Well-Being and Objective Conditions in European Societies.
SourceArts, W.;Halman, L.;Eds.: ''European Values at the Turn of the Millennium'', Brill, 2004, Boston, USA, 57 - 80
Public18+ aged, general public, 33 European nations, 1999-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =39799

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 72/76
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Self-reported household income; coded on a ten-point 
ordinal scale, based on income categories which differ 
by society. This closes off the possibility of 
adjusting household incomes for household size and of 
comparing absolute levels of household income across 
societies.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.12 p < .05
In all nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.19
In poorest nations in lowest GDP-quartile.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.15
In medium poor nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.09
In medium rich nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.09
In richest nations in highest GDP-quartile.

B's controlled for at individual level:
 -gender
 -marital status
 -age & age squared
 -social class
 -employment status

Unaffected by additional control at country-level 
for:
-GDP per capita
-income inequality
-growth GDP last 10 years
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=
Income has more impact on life-satisfaction in 
poor nations, like Ukraine and Belarus, than in 
rich nations, like Ireland and Sweden.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyRodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ Eastern Europe 1999
TitleCan Policy make us Happier? Individual Characteristics, Socioeconomic Factors and Life Satisfaction in Central and Eastern Europe.
SourceCambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 2011, 1-20
URLhttps://academic.oup.com/cjres/article/5/1/77/326486
DOIdoi: 10.1093/cjres/rsr038
Public18+ aged, general public, Eastern Europe, Multiple nations, 1999 - 2008
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12500

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 8, 9
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1999   
Self-reported income on a scale:
0:   very poor
 :
10: very rich

2008: 
Income per year in Euro
1:  <1800
2:  <3600
3: <6000
4: <12000
5: <18000
6: <24000
7: <30000
8: <36000
9: <60000 (reference)
Remarks
Source: EVS

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.20 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL Happiness by personal income in 1999.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+
INDIVIDUAL Happiness by personal income in 2008.

b coefficients controlled for:
- indiviual characteristics 
  - Health
  - Gender
  - Age
  - Married
  - Nr.of children
  - Unemployed
  - Retired
  - Student
  - Self-employed
  - Long-term unemployed
  - Secundary education
  - Tertiary education
- Situational characteristics
  - Big City
  - Remote Area

Comparable results if additionally controlled for 
country.

Income 2008 without and with country controls. 

Without                  With
<1800   b -.1.28 p<.001; -.71  p<.001
<3600   b -.58   p<.001; -.21  p<.01
<6000   b -.30   p<.001; -.04  ns
<12000  b -.04   ns;     +.11  p<.05
<18000  b +.16   p<.05   +.19  p<.01
<24000  b +.36   p<.001; +.32  p<.001
<30000  b +.37   p<.01;  +.27  p<.05
<36000  b +.35   ns;     +.22  ns

A regime change took place between 1999-2008 in 
these nations. The Russion oriented communist 
regime was replaced by a western oriented market 
democracy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyFischer (2008a): study ZZ 1997
TitleCompetition and Well-Being: Does Market Competition make People Unhappy ?
SourceSSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance, 2008, No. 697
URLhttp://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/7097952.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, 60 nations, 1997-2001
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =79064

Correlate
Author's labelIncome level
Page in Source 45
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Deciles
1 lowest (reference)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 highest

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.10 p < .01
Income level 2 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.17 p < .01
Income level 3 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.29 p < .01
Income level 4 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.36 p < .01
Income level 5 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.44 p < .01
Income level 6 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.50 p < .01
Income level 7 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.51 p < .01
Income level 8 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.56 p < .01
Income level 9 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.69 p < .01
Income level 10 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
Stronger in nations with more market competition. 
Similar among males and females.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
Interaction with competition differs not very much 
with income level.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1
TitleCross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants across Groups in Society.
SourceSocial Choice and Welfare, 2008, Vol. 30, 119 - 173
DOIDOI:10,1007/s00355-007-0225-4
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =87748

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 137
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Income levels 1 (low) to 9 (high)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa
Individual happiness (not average) by individual 
income.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.10 p < .05
Income level 2 (compared to 1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.13 p < .05
Income level 3 (compared to 1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.27 p < .01
Income level 4 (compared to 1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.34 p < .01
Income level 5 (compared to 1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.47 p < .01
Income level 6 (compared to 1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.56 p < .01
Income level 7 (compared to 1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.57 p < .01
Income level 8 (compared to 1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.65 p < .01
Income level 9 (compared to 1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.74 p < .01
Income level 10 (compared to 1)

Beta's controlled for other individual level 
variables:
- religion
- conservative ideology
- confidence in parliament
- trust most people
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- children
- selfemployed
- housewife
- retired
- student
- unemployed
- service attendance (church etc.)
- belief in superior being

Beta's are similar if additionally controlled for 
aggregated variables at country level:
- infant mortality
- years of independence
- share of catholics
- share of protestants
- bicameral system
- openness to trade
- investment price level
- postcommunist
- Asia
- Latin America
- Africa
- Middle East and North Africa


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyEurobarometer (1997): study ZZ EU 15 1997 /1
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 47.
SourceEuropean Commission,1997, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb47/eb47_en.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 1997
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15900

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source B2
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Income:
1:--
2: -
3: +
4:++
Observed distributionDivided in income quartiles for every country, totalled for EU: 1: 18%, 2: 17%, 3: 19%, 4: 19% Don't know or refusal to answer 27%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=+ p < .05
1:--  M=2,71  CI95: 2,68-2,74 
2:-   M=2,91  CI95: 2,88-2,94
3:+   M=2,94  CI95: 2,91-2,96
4:++  M=3,09  CI95: 3,07-3,11
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT=+ p < .05
1< 2,3,4
2< 4
4> 1,2,3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBenesch et al. (2007): study ZZ World samples 1995 /1
TitleTV Channels, Self Control and Happiness.
SourcePaper International Conference "Policies for Happiness", 2007, Siena, Italy
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/benesch_c_2007.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 45 nations, 1995-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response3.3%
Respondents N =72012

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
income decile

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.10 p < .01
B (0.102) controlled for:
- TV viewing
  - residual TV viewing time
  - interaction with number of TV channels in the 
country
- individual characteristics
  - age, age,squared
  - gender
  - residence
  - employmnet
  - education
  - marital status
- national characteristics
  - number of TV channels
  - average TV viewing time in country (in 
minutes)
  - gross national income (GNI, real and squared)
- survey


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyWelzel & Inglehart (2010): study ZZ World samples 1995
TitleAgency, Values, and Well-Being: A Human Development Model
SourceJournal of happiness Studies, 2010, Vol. 97, 43 - 63
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9557-z
Public18+ aged, general public, 89 nations, 1995-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome level
Page in Source 59
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Self-reported income rank. Normalized scale with 0 for 
the lowest income bracket and 1 for the highest income 
bracket.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.04 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL income level in 
76 nations

b controls for:
-societal characteristics
 -Western tradition
 -agentic life strategies
-individual characteristics
 -biological age
 -female sex
 -income level
 -education level
-interaction between societal characteristics 
(agentic strategy and Western tradition) with 
individual characteristics:
 -communion emphasis (people's emphasis on family 
and friends as important life domains)
 -monetary saturation (satisfaction with financial 
situation of household)
 -agency feeling
 -agency feeling*monetary saturation
 -agency feeling*communion
 -communion*monetary saturation


Method used is hierarchical linear modeling.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBjornskov (2006a): study ZZ 1995
TitleIdeological Interpretation of Easterlin's Income-Happiness Paradox: A Warning.
SourcePaper Aarhus School of Business, May 2006, Denmark
Public18+ aged, general public, 67 nations, 1995-2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =70000

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic openness
Page in Source 8
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Openness of economy; exports and imports as % of GDP.
Observed distributionN = 67 M = 77,16 SD = 53,23
Remarks
Source: Penn World Tables, Heston et al. (2002)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-a
DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS between poor and rich 
citizens by openness of the economy in 67 nations. 


'Poor' is lowest 33%, 'rich highest 33% in self 
rated income position.
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-ab=+.00 ns
B (+0,000) controlled for:
-income inequality
-GDP per capita
-Postcommunist
-Government consumption
-Regulatory freedom

No relation between economic openness and the 
difference in happiness between poor and rich.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBjornskov (2006a): study ZZ 1995
TitleIdeological Interpretation of Easterlin's Income-Happiness Paradox: A Warning.
SourcePaper Aarhus School of Business, May 2006, Denmark
Public18+ aged, general public, 67 nations, 1995-2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =70000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita
Page in Source 8
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
GDP per capita in dollars
Observed distributionN = 67 M = 9,717 SD = 2,841
Remarks
Source: Penn World Tables, Heston et al. (2002)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-a
DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS between poor and rich 
citizens by real income per head in 67 nations. 

'Poor' is lowest 33%, 'rich highest 33% in self 
rated income position.
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-ab=-.05 ns
B (-0,054) controlled for
-income inequality
-Openness
-Postcommunist
-Government consumption
-Regulatory freedom

The higher the GDP per capita in a nation, the 
less difference in happiness between poor and rich 
(but not significant). This relationship is 
stronger (and significant) among rich and 
democratic nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBjornskov (2006a): study ZZ 1995
TitleIdeological Interpretation of Easterlin's Income-Happiness Paradox: A Warning.
SourcePaper Aarhus School of Business, May 2006, Denmark
Public18+ aged, general public, 67 nations, 1995-2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =70000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome inequality
Page in Source 7
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Income inequality (Gini)
Observed distributionN = 67 M = 37,62 SD = 10,14
Remarks
Source: World Income Inequality Database

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-a
DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS between poor and rich 
citizens by income inequality in 67 nations. 

'Poor' is lowest 33%, 'rich highest 33% in self 
rated income position.

Dependent variable: the DIFFERENCE in AVERAGE life 
satisfaction between the richest people (33% 
richest) and poorest people (33% poorest) in 67 
nations. Average difference on 1-10-scale: 0,43; 
SD = 0,34; calculated on the basis of World Values 
Surveys (Inglehart et al. 2004).
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-ab=+.29 ns
B (+0,290) controlled for:
-GDP per capita
-Openness
-Postcommunist
-Government consumption
-Regulatory freedom

The greater income inequality in a nation, the 
bigger the difference in happiness between poor 
and rich (but not significantly). 

This relation is reversed among rich and 
democratic nations (and significantly negative)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBjornskov (2006a): study ZZ 1995
TitleIdeological Interpretation of Easterlin's Income-Happiness Paradox: A Warning.
SourcePaper Aarhus School of Business, May 2006, Denmark
Public18+ aged, general public, 67 nations, 1995-2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =70000

Correlate
Author's labelGovernment consumption
Page in Source 7
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Government consumption as % of national consumption.
Observed distributionN = 67 M = 16,88 SD = 9,22
Remarks
Source: Penn World Tables, Heston et al. (2002)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-a
DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS between poor and rich 
citizens by government consumption in 67 nations. 

'Poor' is lowest 33%, 'rich highest 33% in self 
rated income position.
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-ab=+.01 p < .10
B (+.0,009) controlled for
-GDP per capita
-Openness
-Postcommunist
-Income-inequality
-Regulatory freedom

The more government consumption in a nation, the 
bigger difference in happiness between poor and 
rich. Yet among rich and democratic nations 
government consumption is unrelated to difference 
in happiness between the rich and the poor.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBjornskov (2006a): study ZZ 1995
TitleIdeological Interpretation of Easterlin's Income-Happiness Paradox: A Warning.
SourcePaper Aarhus School of Business, May 2006, Denmark
Public18+ aged, general public, 67 nations, 1995-2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =70000

Correlate
Author's labelRegulatory Freedom
Page in Source 8
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Regulatory Freedom
Observed distributionN = 67 M = 0.56 ; Sd = 0,98 (z-scores in original sample).
Remarks
Source: Gwartney and Lawson (Fraser Institute, 2005)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-a
DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS between poor and rich 
citizens by regulatory freedom in 67 nations. 

'Poor' is lowest 33%, 'rich highest 33% in self 
rated income position.
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-ab=-.13 p < .05
B (-0,133) controlled for
-GDP per capita
-Openness
-Government share in national consumption
-Postcommunist
-Income-inequality

The more freedom in a nation, the less difference 
in happiness between poor and rich. 
Yet among rich and democratic nations freedom is 
not related to difference in happiness between the 
rich and the poor


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyHayo (2007): study ZZ Eastern Europe 1991
TitleHappiness in Transition: An Empirical Study on Eastern Europe.
SourceEconomic Systems, 2007, Vol. 31, 204 - 222
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecosys.2006.08.003
Public18+ aged, general public, Eastern European Countries, 1991
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5592

Correlate
Author's labelIncome quartiles
Page in Source 207,210
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1 lower quartile
2 lower-middle quartile
3 upper-middle quartile
4 highest quartile
Observed distribution1: M=0,25, SD=0,43; 2: M=0,25, SD-0,43; 3: M=0,27, SD= 0,44; 4: M=0,23, SD=0,42

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-br=
1 lower quartile           r=-0,10
2 lower-middle quartile    r=-0,04
3 upper-middle quartile    r=+0,03
4 highest quartile         r=+0,12
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=.25 p < .01
Lower-middel quartile (vs lower)   SE =.08
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=+.51 p < .01
Upper-middle quartile (vs lower)   SE =.08
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=+.91 p < .01
Highest quartile (vs lower)        SE =.09

lgt's controlled for:
- country
- age
- gender
- marital status
- education
- type of employment
- community size
- church attendance
- religion

No substantial changes in reduced logit model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBruni & Stanca (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleWatching Alone: Relational Goods, Television and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2006, Vol. 30, 1 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2005.12.005
PublicAdults, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2004
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =259947

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 7
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Measured by self-reported deciles in the national 
distribution of income, so that income levels expressed 
in relative terms are comparable across countries and 
individuals.
Observed distributionRange 1-10, M= 4.73 SD= 2.53

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.1 p < .05
B (+1.15) controlled for:
- member of voluntary organization
- active in voluntary organization 
- income
- self rated health
- perceived freedom
- unemployed
- married
- education
- age
- gender
- religion perceived as important
- trust in people
- honesty (cheating on tax justifiable or not)
- individual country dummies
- time dummies for survey waves

B means 1 point extra income decile goes with 0.12 
point greater happiness on scale 1-10 (1.12 on 
scale 10-100)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudySarracino (2008): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleSubjective Well-Being in Low Income Countries: Positional, Relational and Social Capital Components.
SourceStudi e Note di Economica, vol. 5, nr 3, pp 449-477
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/255637468_SUBJECTIVE_WELL-BEING_IN_LOW_INCOME_COUNTRIES_POSITIONAL_RELATIONAL_AND_SOCIAL_CAPITAL_COMPONENTS
Public18+ aged, general public, 39 nations, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 461,466, 468
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Observed distributionM=15.09, SD=3.03

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.03 ns
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.16 ns
High income nations

OLRC's controlled for:
- socio-demographic aspects:
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - employment
  - marital status
- wealth
  - subjective health
- relational goods
  - time spend in social contacts
  - memberships of voluntary organizations
- social capital
  - perceived freedom and control
  - trust in people
  - honesty
- positional goods
  - social class
  - income quintile

In regression with proxies on wealth absolute 
income coefficients became  sihnificant and there 
is  a stronger effect in LICs.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyRadcliff (2005): study ZZ 1990
TitleClass Organization and Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Analysis
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 513 - 530
Public15+ aged, general public, 17 developed nations, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =17000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 519-521+526
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Self-rating of current income-position on 1-10 scale.
Remarks
1990 World Values Survey (CPSR 6160) v363

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.04 p < .001
b (0,04044)controlled for
National characteristics:
-union density
-social democracy
-culture
-GDP per capita
-unemployment

Individual characteristics:
-union membership
-marital status
-gender
-education
-age
-age squared
-number of children
-home life quality
-unemployed
-church attendance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCheung (2018a): study ZZ World samples 1989
TitleIncome Redistribution Predicts Greater Life Satisfaction across Individual, National, and Cultural Characteristics
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2018, Vol 115, 867-882
URLhttps://psycnet.apa.org/record/2017-33355-001?doi=1
DOIDOI: 10.1037/pspp0000164
Public18+ aged, general public, 33 nations, followed 1989 - 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =112876

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 54
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Respondents reported their income using deciles on 
income data from their residing country.
Observed distributionM = 4,63 SD = 2,43

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.21 p < .01
All nations, all waves, no controls.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyVerme (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleThe Role of Freedom and Control in Explaining Happiness.
SourceLegatum Institute, " The 2008 Legatum Prosperity Index report. Methodology, Data and Findings" , 2008, Dubai, United Arabic Emirates, 78 - 98
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelIncome rank
Page in Source 94
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Self-perceived income rank in nation on a scale of 1 
(lowest) to 10 (highest).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.16 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL income rank
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.01 p < .001
Income rank squared

In pooled data set:
OLRC controls for:
- individual characteristics
   -income (rank and squared rank)
   -employment
   -gender
   -age (and age squared)
   -tertiary education
   -maried
   -attitudes
    -about cheating on taxes
    -trust in people
    -trust in institutions
    -importance of family
    -importance of work
    -importance of religion
    -importance of politics
-national characteristics
 -GDP (and GDP squared)
 -employment rate (and squared)
-year fixed effects
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+
In 74 nations separately.
Significantly positive in 54 nations.
Not significant in other nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyHeukamp & Arino (2011): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleDoes Country Matter for Subjective Well-Being?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, 100: 155 - 170
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9610-y
Public18+ aged general public, 64 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =114281

Correlate
Author's labelRelative income
Page in Source 159
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
The relative income position of the participants (based 
on a self-reported deciles scale) in their respective 
society. 

The same variable is also included raised to the power 
two to capture a possible nonlinear relationschip.
Observed distributionRelative income: range 0.1-1, M= 0.48, SD= 0.25 Relative income 2: range 0.01-1, M= 0.29, SD= 0.26

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+2.1 p < .00
Relative income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-1.0 p < .000
Relative income squared

B's controlled for:
- self assessed health
- employment status
- marital status 
- education
- age
- gender
- church attendance 
- belief in god
- membership of voluntary organizations 
- cheating
- trust in people


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyOuweneel (2002): study ZZ Developed nations 1980 /1
TitleSocial Security and Well-Being of the Unemployed in 42 Nations.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2002, Vol. 3, 167 - 192
DOIdoi:10.1023/A:1019619324661
PublicEmployed and unemployed adults, 42 nations, 1980-90
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =60000

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income in 1990
Page in Source 187
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Self rated income category on scale 1-10

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.13 p < .01
Employed
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.19 p < .01
Unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.13 p < .01
Employed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.18 p < .01
Unemployed
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.13 p < .01
Employed
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.24 p < .01
Unemployed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyOuweneel (2002): study ZZ Developed nations 1980
TitleSocial Security and Well-Being of the Unemployed in 42 Nations.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2002, Vol. 3, 167 - 192
DOIdoi:10.1023/A:1019619324661
PublicUnemployed adults, 42 nations, 1980-90
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =60000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial security and income level
Page in Source 184, 186
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
A Low social security level:
 a Low personal income
 b High personal income

B High social security level:
 a Low personal income
 b High personal income
Observed distribution39 nations in 1990 N= Aa: 343, Ab: 488, Ba: 257, Bb: 439, total number: 1547 23 first world nations in 1990 N= Aa: 205, Ab: 174, Ba: 237, Bb: 185, total number: 801
Remarks
level of social security spending in a welfare state 
was split at the median

personal income was split at the nation's median of 
self-reported income on a scale of 1-10

data social security: ILO

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
39 nations in 1990

Aa:  .35
Ab:  .67
Ba:  .26
Bb: 1.21
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=
Aa: 6.36
Ab: 6.33
Ba: 5.65
Bb: 6.42
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
Aa: 2.70
Ab: 2.91
Ba: 2.64
Bb: 2.99
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
23 first world nations in 1990

Aa:  .90
Ab: 1.18
Ba:  .37
Bb: 1.41
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=
Aa: 6.53
Ab: 6.84
Ba: 5.44
Bb: 6.72
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
Aa: 2.90
Ab: 3.11
Ba: 2.67
Bb: 3.11


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyVeenhoven (1990c): study ZZ 1970
TitleDe Vrolijke Vechtmaatschappij. (The Merry Competition Society).
SourcePaper Erasmus University, 1990, Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16153
PublicAdults, general public, 22 nations, 1970-1985
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome position
Page in Source 9
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Various classifications
Remarks
Meta analysis on data drawn from this database

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-*-sq-*-11-aG=+
Gamma's range from +.85 (Dominican Republic) to 
-.20 (Hong Kong)

Correlations tend to be lower in rich nations 
(r=-.35)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCantril (1965): study ZZ 1960
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, 14 countries, ±1960
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response-
Respondents N =18653

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 259
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Low / medium / high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.38 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyGökdemir & Dumludag (2012): study NL 2010
TitleLife Satisfaction Among Turkish and Moroccan Immigrants in the Netherlands: The Role of Absolute and Relative Income.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 06, 407 - 417
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-011-9815-8
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s1120501198158
PublicAdults, Turkish and Moroccan immigrants, The Netherlands, 2010
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =207

Correlate
Author's labelAbsolute Income (per month)
Page in Source 4, 7
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
1 lower than 1000
2 1000-2000
3 2000-3000
4 more than 3000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=±
                     TURKISH  MOROCCAN  diff.
Lower than 1000: M=  6.29     7.30      -1.01
1000-2000:       M=  6.54     6.76      -0.22
2000-3000:       M=  6.38     8.00      -1.62
More than 3000:  M=  6.28     8.00      -1.72
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.11 ns
Turkish
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.1 p < .01
Moroccan

B's controlled for:
- Income(Relative)
- Marital status
- Gender
- Generation
- Education
- Religion
- Perceived Discrimination


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAussen et al. (2008): study NL Rotterdam 2007
TitleGeluk in Rotterdam. Het Effect van Vrijetijds Voorzieningen op het Geluk in Wijken. (Happiness in Rotterdam. The Effect of Leisure Time Facilities on the Happiness in Neighbourhoods).
SourceBachelor Thesis, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/aussen_s_2008.pdf
Public16-75 aged, general public, City of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4420

Correlate
Author's labelincome level
Page in Source 26, 31, 86
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1: <  € 950
2: €950 -   € 1.300
3: € 1.300- € 1.900
4: € 1.900- € 3.150
5. € 3.150- € 3.500
6 > € 3.500
Observed distributionN=1: 409; 2: 672; 3: 993; 4: 1165; 5: 384 ; 6: 631.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-abr=+.21 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyJansma (1997): study NL Friesland 1994
TitleThe Happiness of the Frisians and Their Consorts. (It lok fan Friezen en wat dêr mei anneks is. Title in Frisian).
SourceTydskrift fan de Fryske Akademy, 1997, Vol. 59, 208 - 226
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/jansma_lg_1997.pdf
PublicAdult general public, Frisia, Netherlands, 1994
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1362

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 215
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Net income per month in Dutch Guilders
1 less 2000
2 2000-3000
3 3000-4000
4 4000+

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-nD%=+/-
            % very happy
- less 2000   43%
- 2000-3000   51%
- 3000-4000   52%
- 4000+       44%
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-nChi²= p < .031


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 48
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.21
OLRC controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - household size
  - gender
  - health status
  - age
  - parental status
- province
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyStapel (1988): study NL 1988
TitleDe Gelukkige Nederlanders. (The Happy Dutchman).
SourceUnpublished Paper, N.I.P.O.(Gallup Affiliate), 1988, Amsterdam, Netherlands
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/stapel_j_1988.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1988
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =952

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income
Page in Source 9
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
less than 1.300
around 1.300-2.000,
around 2.000-3.200
3.200 or more.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.38 p < .01
Linear relationship


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyStapel (1987): study NL 1987
TitleKundigheid en Geluk. (Abilities end Happiness)
SourceUnpublished Paper, N.I.P.O.(Gallup Affiliate), 1987, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1987
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =825

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 6
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Under 1300, around 1460, around 1825, around 2280, 
around 2850 and 3200 or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.07 p < .05
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.07 p < .05
Slightly curvilinear: middle incomes happiest


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBoelhouwer (2010): study NL 1977
TitleWellbeing in the Netherlands. The SCP Life Situation Index since 1974.
SourceSocial Cultural Planning Office (SCP), 2010, the Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.scp.nl/english/Publications/Publications_by_year/Publications_2010/Wellbeing_in_the_Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1977-2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54299

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 134
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
In deciles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab= ns
B controlled for:
-Life situation:
 -Housing
 -Health
 -Purchasing power/ consumer durables
 -Leisure activities
 -Mobility
 -Social participation
 -Sport activity
 -Vacation
-Background features:
 -Gender
 -Education
 -Employment
 -Age
 -City
 -Household composition
 -Ethnicity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 350
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Monthly T2 income in dutch currency:
1: below      ƒ 1200,-
2: ƒ 1201, -  ƒ 1600,-
3: ƒ 1601, -  ƒ 2000,-
4: over       ƒ 2000,-
Assessed at T2 (1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.08 ns
T2 happiness by T2 income 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.03 ns
T3 happiness by T2 income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyNIPO (1949): study NL 1948
TitleWat de Mensen Gelukkig Maakt. (The Things that Contribute to Happiness).
SourceDe Publieke Opinie, 1949, Vol. 3, 3 - 4
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~NIPO_1949.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, The Netherlands, 1948
Sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =500

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 4
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
4-point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.19 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1982
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
Public18-79 aged, general public, Norway, 1982
Sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =972

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 412
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
10 step scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dBeta=+.19
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.11
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dBeta=+.14 p < .01
ß controlled for education, age, sex, household 
size, occupational prestige, occupationally 
active, marital status, degree of urbanization.

Unaffected by both traditionalism and economic 
level of the county.
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.11 p < .05
ß controlled for education, age, sex, household 
size, occupational prestige, occupationally 
active, marital status, degree of urbanization.

Unaffected by both traditionalism and economic 
level of the county.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1981
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
PublicAdults, general public, Norway, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 411
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
12 step scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.08
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.06 ns
ß controlled for education, age, sex, household 
size, number of friends, occupationally active, 
marital status, degree of urbanization.      
Unaffected by both traditionalism and economic 
level of the county.
          


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAllardt (1973): study NO 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comparative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Norway, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Coded in 4 numbers

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.18
Controlled for:Housing density, education, social 
status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequency of 
meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possiblities to decide on matters concerning one's 
own personal life, number of memberships in clubs 
and associations, interesting life, easyness of 
life, loneliness, feelings of being liked, 
feelings of being able to use knowledge and 
skills, feeling of chance to succeed, feelings of 
getting sufficient attention, satisfaction with 
income, year of birth(young-old), male vs. female, 
no. of communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1971
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
Public15-64 aged, general public, Norway, 1971
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =854

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 411
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Units of 100 Norwegian Kroner.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dBeta=+.09 p < .05
ß controlled for education, age, sex, household 
size, occupational prestige, number of friends, 
occupational active, marital status.       
Unaffected by both traditionalism and economic
level of the county.  


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyMatlin (1966): study PR 1963
TitleThe Demography of Happiness.
SourceUniversity of Puerto Rico, Health & Welfare Series 2, nr. 3, 1966, Puerto Rico
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/matlin_n_1966.pdf
Public20+ aged, general public, Puerto Rico, 1963-1964
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1417

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 22
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
8-point scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.20 p < .01
Unaffected by educational level.
Stronger among those of age 50+.
Lower in rural areas (Q = +.13).
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-cG=+.19 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBaltatescu & Cummins (2004): study RO Bihor county 2003
TitleSubjective Wellbeing in a Post-Communist Country: Romania's International Wellbeing Index.
SourcePowerPoint presentation at 6th Conference ISQOLS, November 2004, Philadelphia, USA
URLhttp://slideplayer.com/slide/4801500/
Public18+ aged, general public, Bihor County, North-West Romania, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =368

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income in equivalent adults
Page in Source 9
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1st quartile
2nd quartile
3rd quartile
4th quartile

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caD%=+
% very satisfied
1st quartile           67%
2nd quartile           60%
3rd quartile           62%
4th quartile           66%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyGraham (2005): study RU 2000
TitleInsights on Development from the Economics of Happiness.
SourceThe World Bank Research Observer, 2005, Vol. 20, 201 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1093/wbro/lki010
Public14+ aged, general public, Russia, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8911

Correlate
Author's labelLog equivalent income
Page in Source 217
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"And, concluding this part of our conversation, tell 
me, please, what was the monetary income of your entire 
family in the last 30 days? Include here all the money 
received by all members of the family: wages, pensions, 
stipends, and any other money received, including hard 
currency converted into rubles."
Observed distributionN=3887 M=3295.91 sd=4770.57 Min=0 Max=156000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebb=+.39
B controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Years of education
- Membership of minority group
- Current occupation
- Health index
- Household size
- Household composition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyTambyah et al. (2010): study SG 2006
TitleHappiness, Enjoyment, Achievement and Overall Quality of Life.
SourceThe Well-Being of Singaporeans.Values, Lifestyles, Satisfaction and Quality of Life, 2010, World Scientific Press, Singapore, Chapter 4
PublicWorking aged (20-69), Singapore 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 58
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1 Low
2 Middle
3 High

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-pDM=+/-
Low     = 3.83
Middle  = 4.09
High    = 4.02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAndersson (2008): study SE 1991
TitleHappiness and Health: Well-Being among the Self-Employed.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2008, Vol. 37, 213 - 236
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2007.03.003
Public18+aged, working people, Sweden, followed 9 years, 1991-2000
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1998

Correlate
Author's labelLabour Income
Page in Source 224-225
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Self-reported on single question, text not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-er=+.04 ns
Self-employed:   (N=356)
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-er=+.08 p < .1
Wage-earners:    (N=640)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAllardt (1973): study SE 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comparative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Sweden, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Coded in 4 numbers.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.13
Controlled for: housing density, education, social 
status, chronic illness, anxiety, freq. of 
meetings with relatives, opportunities to make 
personal contacts, possibilities to decide on 
matters concerning one's own personal life, no. of 
memberships in clubs and associations, interesting 
life, easyness of life, loneliness, feeling of 
being liked, feeling of being able to use 
knowledge and skills, feeling of chance to suceed, 
gets sufficient attention, satisfaction with 
income, age, gender, no. of communities in which 
lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyKeng & Wu (2014): study TW 1989
TitleLiving Happily Ever After? The Effect of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on the Happiness of the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 583 - 808
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9449-4
PublicElderly, Taiwan, folowed 14 years 1989-2003, before and after change health insurance law in 1995
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response<10%
Respondents N =4049

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 788, 793-798
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
income percentiles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aOPRC=+.00 ns
OPRC=+.001
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.00 ns
OPRC=+.001

OPRC controlled for:
- health insurance history
- Social background
  - age
  - sexe
  - education
  - marital status
  - Origin
    - native
    - mainland
- possessions
  - house
  - Stock
- health history, ever had..
  - asthma
  - stroke
  - heart
  - disbetes
- life style
  - drinks
  - smokes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014): study TR 2008
TitleSocial Capital, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0464-y
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2381

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 1040
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
5 levels (ascending), not specified
Observed distributiongroup 1: 17 % (reference category) group 2: 10 % group 3: 39 % group 4: 22 % group 5: 4 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+ p < .01
probability of being more/less happy (vs income 
group 1)
GROUP 2
- very satisfied          + 5% (ns)
- somewhat satisfied      + 1% (.10)
- medium satisfied        - 2% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 2% (ns)
- very dissatisfied       - 2% (ns)

GROUP 3
- very satisfied          + 7% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied      + 2% (.01)
- medium satisfied        - 2% (.01)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 3% (.01)
- very dissatisfied       - 3% (.01)

GROUP 4
- very satisfied          + 9% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied      + 2% (.01)
- medium satisfied        - 3% (.01)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 4% (.01)
- very dissatisfied       - 4% (.01)

GROUP 5
- very satisfied          +15% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied      + 1% (.05)
- medium satisfied        - 6% (.01)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 6% (.01)
- very dissatisfied       - 5% (.01)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC=+ p < .01
GROUP 2
- very happy              + 5% (ns)
- quite happy             - 1% (ns)
- not very happy          - 2% (ns)
- not at all happy        - 2% (ns)

GROUP 3
- very happy              + 7% (.01)
- quite happy             - 1% (ns)
- not very happy          - 4% (.01)
- not at all happy        - 3% (.01)

GROUP 4
- very happy              + 8% (.01)
- quite happy             - 1% (ns)
- not very happy          - 4% (.01)
- not at all happy        - 3% (.01)

GROUP 5
- very happy              +14% (.01)
- quite happy             - 4% (ns)
- not very happy          - 6% (.01)
- not at all happy        - 4% (.01)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- employment
- age
- gender
- religiosity
- marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014a): study TR 1999
TitleSocial Capital, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1999
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1205

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 1040
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
5 levels (ascending), not specified
Observed distributiongroup1: 15 % (reference category) group 2: 23 % group 3: 20 % group 4: 21 % group 5: 21%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+ p < .01
probability of being more/less happy (vs income 
group 1)
GROUP 2
- very satisfied          + 6% (.05)
- somewhat satisfied      + 5% (.05)
- medium satisfied        + 1% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 3% (.05)
- very dissatisfied       - 8% (.01)

GROUP 3
- very satisfied          +13% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied      + 9% (.01)
- medium satisfied        - 1% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 6% (.01)
- very dissatisfied       -15% (.01)

GROUP 4
- very satisfied          +14% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied      + 9% (.01)
- medium satisfied        - 1% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 7% (.01)
- very dissatisfied       -15% (.01)

GROUP 5
- very satisfied          +26% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied      +12% (.01)
- medium satisfied        - 5% (.05)
- somewhat dissatisfied   -10% (.01)
- very dissatisfied       -23% (.01)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC=+ p < .01
GROUP 2
- very happy              +11% (.01)
- quite happy             + 4% (.01)
- not very happy          - 8% (.01)
- not at all happy        - 8% (.01)

GROUP 3
- very happy              +16% (.01)
- quite happy             + 4% (.01)
- not very happy          -10% (.01)
- not at all happy        -10% (.01)

GROUP 4
- very happy              +16% (.01)
- quite happy             + 5% (.01)
- not very happy          -10% (.01)
- not at all happy        -10% (.01)

GROUP 5
- very happy              +21% (.01)
- quite happy             + 5% (.01)
- not very happy          -13% (.01)
- not at all happy        -13% (.01)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- employment
- age
- gender
- religiosity
- marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudySelim (2008): study TR 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 531 - 562
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9218-z
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =6338

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 547, 553
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Self rated income position on 1 to 8 steps:
1 fisrt step (reference)
2 second step
3 third step
4 fourth step
5 fifth step
6 sixth step
7 seventh step
8 eight step

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.18 p < .05
second step (compared to fisrt step)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.49 p < .01
third step (compared to first step)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.59 p < .01
fourth step (compared to fisrt step)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.94 p < .01
fifth step (compared to first step)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.87 p < .01
sixth step (compare to first step)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.93 p < .01
seventh step (compared to first step)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+1.2 p < .01
eight step (compared to first step)

higher levels of income are associated with higher 
levels of satisfaction
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.14 ns
second step(compared to first step)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.34 p < .01
third step (compared to first step)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.38 p < .01
fourth step (compared to first step)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.52 p < .01
fifth step (compared to first step)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.50 p < .01
fifth step (compared to first step)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.39 p < .05
seventh step (compared to first step)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.43 p < .01
eight step (compared to first step)

OLRC's are controled for:
- year dummies
- gender
- age
- marital status
- number of childeren
- education level
- type of employment
- health status 
- importance of life domains
- political orientations and trust

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Relative values denote that a higher income 
goes with more happiness. Comparison is only 
possible across associations with the same 
happiness measure.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyDanzer & Danzer (2014): study UA 2003 /1
TitleThe Long-Run Consequences of Chernobyl: Evidence on Subjective Well-Being, Mental Health and Welfare.
SourceMunich Discussion Paper, 2014, No. 2014-25, Munich, Germany
URLhttp://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/20969/
Public15-75 aged, Ukraine, followed 4 years, 2003-2007,
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7985

Correlate
Author's labelLog income
Page in Source 16,36
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Observed distributionRange 0 - 9.4; M= 6.5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-rbBeta=+.15 p < .01
Beta controled for 
- personal characteristics
  - gender
  - marital status
- socio-economic status
  - education
  - employement
- physical condition
  - chronic illness
  - height
  - drinking
  - smoking
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelIncome (ln)
Page in Source 14,19,31,45,49
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Log income: household disposable income per OECD adult 
equivalent (extra adults .7; children .5).
7: £250 and more per week
6: Between £200 and £249 per week
5: Between £150 and £199 per week
4: Between £100 and £149 per week
3: Between £50 and £99 per week
2: Between £35 and £49 per week
1: Under £35 per week
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=+.18
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.06
Beta controlled for:
- Education
- Employed
- Good conduct(at age 26)
- Has partner
- Good conduct (at age 16-34)
- Self-perceived health(at age 26)
- Emotional health (at age 26)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.05
Beta additionally controlled for: childhood
- Intellectual performance 
- Good conduct 
- Family economic
- Family psychosocial
- Gender (female)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.03
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.04
Beta additionally controlled for: childhood 
- Intellectual performance (only age 5)
- Good conduct 
- Family economic
- Family psychosocial
- Gender (female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyMentzakis & Moro (2009): study GB 1996
TitleThe Poor, the Rich and the Happy: Exploring the Link between Income and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2009, Vol. 38, 147 - 158
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2008.07.010
Public16+ aged general public, the UK, followed 7 years, 1996-2003
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =50658

Correlate
Author's labelAbsolute income
Page in Source 151=153
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Equivalised annual household income
1 lowest
2
3
4 (refecence groeuip)
5
6
7 highest
Observed distributionMales: 1: 6,5%; 2: 7,9%; 3: 17,8%; 4: 20,5%; 5: 22,8%; 6: 11,9%; 7: 12,5% Females: 1: 8,5%; 2: 9,1%; 3: 18,4; 4: 20,0%; 5: 21,6%; 6: 10,7%; 7: 11,5%
Remarks
Originally 5  categories, the lowest and highest of 
which splitted into two categories because of the large 
variance in those two groups, leading to 7 absolute 
income groups.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=+
Income     males    females  difference
1:         M = 4,0   4,0       0,0
2:         M = 4,0   4,2      -0,2
3:         M = 4,0   4,2      -0,2
4:         M = 4,0   4,3      -0,3
5:         M = 4,0   4,4      -0,4
6:         M = 4,0   4,4      -0,4
7:         M = 4,0   4,5      -0,5
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+/-
Sstronger correlations amnong:
- the least happy: /- pattern
- dissatisfied with income

OPRC's controled for
- self rated health (lagged)
- unemployment (lagged)
- age
- education
- marital status
- children
- household size
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyEvans et al. (2007): study GB 1994
TitleThe Impact of Mental Illness on Quality of Life: A Comparison of Severe Mental Illness, Common Mental Disorder and Healthy Population Samples.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2007, Vol. 16, 17 - 29
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-006-9002-6
PublicMental patients and controls, followed 2 years, UK 1994-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response94%
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 24
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Question not reported
Remarks
Mental patients wih severe disorder had no income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=.28 p < .01
Community residents with Common Mental 
Disorder(CMD)
- 18+ aged community residents
- participants in postal survey
- scoring high on GQH-12 questionnaire
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=+.12 p < .05
Community residente in good mental health
-18+ aged community residents
- participants in postal survey
- scoring low on GQH-12 questionnaire

Control variables not reported.

B means points difference on scale 1-7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAbrams & Hall (1972): study GB 1971
TitleThe Condition of the British People: Report on a Pilot Survey using Self-Rating Scales.
SourceUnpublished Paper, Social Science Research Council, 1972, London, UK
Public15+ aged, middle class, Britain, 1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 4
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Low vs high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-bDMt= +
low income : Mt = 5.25
high income: Mt = 6.70


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAbrams (1973): study GB 1971
TitleSubjective Social Indicators.
SourceSocial Trends, 1973, Vol. 4, 35 - 50
Public16+ aged, general public, urban areas, United Kingdom, 1971
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 38
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1: $2000 and over 
0: below $2000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-bDM=+
$2000 and over M = 6.7
below $2000    M = 5.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCheung & Lucas (2014): study US Oregon 2010
TitleAssessing the Validity of Single-Item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Three Large Samples.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2014, Vol. 23, 2809 - 2818.
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11136-014-0726-4
DOIdoi:10.1007/sll 136-014-0726-4
Public18+ aged, general public, Oregon, U.S.A., 2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2277

Correlate
Author's labelincome
Page in Source 2814
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Selfrated income bracket:
8  ? $75.000
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 ? $10.000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-ddr=+.31 p < .05
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-er=+.30 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCheung & Lucas (2014): study US Washington 2010
TitleAssessing the Validity of Single-Item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Three Large Samples.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2014, Vol. 23, 2809 - 2818.
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11136-014-0726-4
DOIdoi:10.1007/sll 136-014-0726-4
Public18+ aged, general public, Washington, U.S.A., 2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13064

Correlate
Author's labelincome
Page in Source 2814
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Selfrated income bracket:
8  ? $75.000
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 ? $10.000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-ddr=+.27 p < .05
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-er=+.29 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyTaylor (2008): study US 2005
TitleRepublicans: Still Happy Campers.
SourcePEW Research Center, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/taylor_p_2008.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5264

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 4
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question.
Question not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.16 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- party identification
- married
- age over 64
- educaton
- age under 30
- race
- ethnicity
- gender
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.11 p < .05
Additionally controlled for
- health
- church attendance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudySaad (2004): study US 2003 /1
TitleA Nation of Happy People. Most Happy and Satisfied with Their Lives.
SourceGallup Poll News Services, 5 January 2004, Gallup Organization, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://news.gallup.com/poll/10090/nation-happy-people.aspx
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1011

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1. <$30,000
2. $30,000-$49,999
3. $50,000-$75,000
4. >$75,000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dD%=+
                %'very happy':
1. <$30,000           44
2. $30,000-$49,999    59
3. $50,000-$75,000    55
4. >$75,000           60
Set Image size:   

O-SLP-c-sq-v-4-aD%=
     % 'very satisfied' with their lives
1. <$30,000          41
2. $30,000-$49,000   53
3. $50,000-$75,000   62
4. >$75,000          75


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudySaad (2004): study US 2003 /1
TitleA Nation of Happy People. Most Happy and Satisfied with Their Lives.
SourceGallup Poll News Services, 5 January 2004, Gallup Organization, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://news.gallup.com/poll/10090/nation-happy-people.aspx
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1011

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1. <$30,000
2. $30,000-$49,000
3. $50,000-$75,000
4. >$75,000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyChambers (2000): study US 2000
TitleAmericans are Overwhelmingly Happy and Optimistic about the Future of the United States.
SourceGallup Poll News Service, 13 October 2000, The Gallup Organization, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/2434/americans-overwhelmingly-happy-optimistic-about-future.aspx
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1052

Correlate
Author's labelEarnings
Page in Source 3,4,5
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Self reported annual income
1: less than $20.000
2: $20.000 - $29.999
3: $30.000 - $49.999
4: $50.000 - $74.999
5: more than $75.000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-cD%=+
% very happy
1: less than $20.000             42%
2: $20.000 - $29.999             38%
3: $30.000 - $49.999             45%
4: $50.000 - $74.000             53%
5: more than $75.000             51%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyEasterlin (2001): study US 1994
TitleIncome and Happiness: Towards a Unified Theory.
SourceThe Economic Journal, 2001, Vol. 111, 465 - 484
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2667943
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1994
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2627

Correlate
Author's labelLife cycle
Page in Source 469
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Age category

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM= ns
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=ns
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyRohe & Stegman (1994): study US Baltimore, Maryland 1989
TitleThe Effects of Homeownership: on the Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Life Satisfaction of Low-Income People.
SourceJournal of the American Planning Association,1994, Vol. 60, 173 - 184
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944369408975571#.U-ipnIccTDA
DOIDOI:10.1080/01944369408975571
Public18+ aged, heads of low-income households, Baltimore city, United States, followed 18 months, 1989
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 181
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
in dollars
Observed distribution Homeowners Renters M = 17700 15300
Remarks
T1-T2 lag: 18 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-cBeta=+.09 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness, by T1 income.

Beta controlled for:
- Form of tenure
- T1 happiness (to capture change)
- demographic characteristics
  - age
  - marital status
  - education
  - sex
- occupational status
- housing condition
- neighborhood satisfaction
- housing type


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyRohe & Basolo (1997): study US Baltimore, Maryland 1989
TitleLong-Term Effects of Homeownership on the Self-Perceptions and Social Interaction of Low-Income Persons.
SourceEnvironment and Behavior, 1997, Vol. 29, 793 - 819
URLhttp://eab.sagepub.com/content/29/6/793
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0013916597296004
Public18+ aged, heads of low-income households, Baltimore city, United States, followed 36 months, 1989-1991
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 809
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
in dollars
Remarks
T1-T3 lag: 36 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-cBeta=+.08 ns
T3-T1 CHANGE in happiness, by T1 income.

Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (to capture change)
- form of tenure
- demographic characteristics
  - age
  - marital status
  - education
  - sex
- occupational status
- housing condition
- neighborthood satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyPeacock & Poloma (1999): study US 1988
TitleReligiosity and Life Satisfaction Across the Life Course.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 319 - 345
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006928028270
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1988
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 330
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Level of income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-br=.00 ns
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-bBeta=+/-
age 18-25 Beta=-.17 (ns)
age 26-35 Beta=+.16 (05)
age 36-45 Beta=-.09 (ns)
age 46-55 Beta=-.08 (ns)
age 56-65 Beta=+.10 (ns)
age 66-75 Beta=-.13 (ns)
age 76-96 Beta=-.14 (ns)

Beta's controlled for:
- sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyFranklin et al. (1986): study US 1985
TitleAssessing Quality of Life of the Mentally Ill. A Three Dimensional Model.
SourceEvaluation & The Health Professions, 1986, Vol. 9, 376 -388
Public18-65 aged, mentally ill, USA, 1985
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =220

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 383
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aAoV= ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06
Beta controlled for satisfaction with income.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAlvarez-Diaz et al. (2010): study US 1985
TitleThe Politics of Happiness: On the Political Determinants of Quality of Life in the American States.
SourceThe Journal of Politics, 2010, Vol. 72, 894 - 905
DOIDOI: 10.1017/S0022381610000241
Public16+ aged, general public, USA, 1985-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 902
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Self rating of income on 15 step scale (ascending 
order)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=+.02 p < .008
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  - Financial Satisfaction
  - Education
  - Employment status
  - Gender
  - Children
  - Age
  - Age squared
  - Marital status
  - Church attendance
  - Ethnicity
  - Interpersonal Trust
  - Health of respondent
- State characteristics
  - Size
  - Income
  - Racial diversity
  - Social capital
  - Culture

Bs similar when controlled either for:
- Transfer payments
- Government Ideology
- Democratic Party Control
Instead of:
- economic regulation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyLevinson (2011): study US 1984
TitleValuing Air Quality Using Happiness Data: The Case of Air Quality
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 96, 869-880
Public15+ aged, general public, United States, 1984-1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6035

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 873
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
in thousands of dollars per year and has been converted 
to 2008 dollars using the CPI-U.
Observed distributionMeans=3.75; SD=0.97

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=+.07 p < .01
b(0.065) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Age
  - Gender
  - Marital status
  - Children
  - Employment status  
  - Education levels
  - Health status
  - Children
  - Religiosity
-Environment
  - Pollution
  - Rain 
  - Temperature


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyTan & Tan (1986): study US 1984
TitleTelevision Use and Mental Health.
SourceJournalism Quarterly, 1986, Vol. 63, 106 - 113
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1984
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =446

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 113
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
0 lower incomes
1 higher incomes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.19 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- age 
- TV program types viewed (News & Public
     affairs, Game Shows, Soap operas, Sports,
     Action drama, and Situation comedies)
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.21 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- age 
- mass media use (TV, Movies, Newspaper,
     Magazines, and Books)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBoski (1989): study US 1984
TitleCorrelative National Self-Identity of Polish Immigrants in Canada and the United States.
SourcePaper presented at the 2th Regional Conference of IACCP, 1989, Amsterdam, Netherlands
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/boski_p_1989.pdf
PublicPolish migrants, New Jersey USA, 198?
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source figure 5
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-?-*-aBeta=+.31 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBamundo & Kopelman (1980): study US 1977
TitleThe Moderating Effects of Occupation, Age, and Urbanization on the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Vocational Behavior, 1980, Vol. 17, 106 - 123
DOIdoi:10.1016/0001-8791(80)90020-2
PublicHeads of households, USA, 1977
Sample
Non-Response59 %:overrepresentation of high income, high aducated metro-politans
Respondents N =911

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 112
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
< $  4.000
  $  4.000 to $  7.999
  $  8.000 to $ 11.999
  $ 12.000 to $ 14.999
  $ 15.000 to $ 19.999
  $ 20.000 to $ 24.999
  $ 25.000 >

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-cr=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyVeroff et al. (1981): study US 1976
TitleThe Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957 to 1976.
SourceBasic Books, 1981, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976
Sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =2264

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 392
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
< $4,000
$4,000 - 7,999
$8,000 - 9,999
$10,000 - 12,499
$12,500 - 19,999
$20,000 or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.42 p < .01
1957
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.14 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.48 p < .01
1976
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.16 p < .01
% very happy:            1957         1976

- < $4,000                23           25
- $4,000 - 7,999          15           17
- $8,000 - 9,999           7            8
- $10,000 - 12,499         9           11
- $12,500 - 19,999         5            6
- $20,000 or more          5            3

Effect persists after control for sex, age and 
education. Interaction effects with sex, age and 
education.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyGoudy & Goudeau (1981): study US 1975
TitleSocial Ties and Life Satisfaction of Older Persons: Another Evaluation.
SourceJournal of Gerontological Social Work, 1981, Vol. 4, 35 - 50
Public50+ aged, general public, North-Central Iowa, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response11.3%
Respondents N =2321

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 41/43
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Less than $ 3000 (1); $ 25000 and over (7)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dr=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=.13 p < .001
ß controlled for age, education, marital status, 
relatives in community, friends in community, 
local people known, organizational memberships, 
community attachment, quality of life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 141
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1.  under 3.000
2.  3.000-3.999
3.  4.000-4.999
4.  5.000-5.999
5.  6.000-7.499
6.  7.500-9.999
7.  10.000-12.499
8.  12.500-14.999
9.  15.000-24.999
10. 25.000-or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.21
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.15
ß controlled for sociodemographic variables:
- family life-cycle
- age
- family income
- eduaction
- race
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.06
ß additionally controlled for 7 criterion 
satisfactions:
- amount of fun
- physical needs met
- yourself
- how fairly treated
- interesting daily life
- adjust to changes
- financial security
- develop oneself


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAlston et al. (1974): study US 1972
TitleSocioeconomic Correlates for Four Dimensions of Self-Perceived Satisfaction, 1972.
SourceHuman Organization, 1974, Vol. 33, 99 - 102
PublicAdult, general public, USA 1972
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1602

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 100
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
4-point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.21 p < .01
Gammas based on proportions 'very happy'.

Whites : G' =+.19 (01)
Blacks : G' =-.01 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, May 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 139
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1.  under 3.000
2.  3.000-3.999
3.  4.000-4.999
4.  5.000-5.999
5.  6.000-7.499
6.  7.500-9.999
7.  10.000-12.499
8.  12.500-14.999
9.  15.000-24.999
10. 25.000-or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.18
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.16
ß controlled for sociodemographic variables:
- family life-cycle
- age
- sexe
- eduaction
- race
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.05
ß additionmally controlled for: 
- Efficacy
- Family
- Money
- Amount of fun
- House/apartment
- Spare-time activities
- National government
- Things to do with family
- Consumer index
- Time to do things
- Your health
- Job index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyGraham (2005): study US 1972
TitleInsights on Development from the Economics of Happiness.
SourceThe World Bank Research Observer, 2005, Vol. 20, 201 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1093/wbro/lki010
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1972-98
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =24128

Correlate
Author's labelLog income
Page in Source 218
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"In which of these groups did your total family income, 
from all sources, fall last year before taxes, that is?
 1 Under $2,000
 2  $2,000 to  3,999
 3  $4,000 to  5,999
 4. $6,000 to  7,999
 5  $8,000 to  9,999
 6 $10,000 to 12,499
 7 $12,500 to 14,999
 8 $15,000 to 17,499
 9 $17,500 to 19,999
10 $20,000 to 24,999
11 $25,000 to 29,999
12 $30,000 or over"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.16
B controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Years of education
- Race
- Current occupation
- Health index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCameron et al. (1973): study US 1971
TitleThe Life Satisfaction of Non-Normal Persons.
SourceJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1973, Vol. 41, 207 - 214
DOIDOI:10.1037/h0035158
PublicHandicapped and controls Detroit, USA,197?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =295

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 209
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
4-point scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-ar= +
handicapped : r = +.34 (01)
normals     : r = +.11 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCameron et al. (1973): study US 1971 /1
TitleThe Life Satisfaction of Non-Normal Persons.
SourceJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1973, Vol. 41, 207 - 214
DOIDOI:10.1037/h0035158
PublicHandicapped and controls Detroit, USA,197?
Sample
Non-Response2% of the handicapped excluded because matching was impos- sible (lack of data)
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 211
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
4-point scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-aAoV= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyCameron et al. (1971): study US 1969
TitleHappiness or Life Satisfaction of the Malformed.
SourceProceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 1971, Vol. 6, 641 - 642
PublicHandicapped and controls Detroit, USA,197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =295

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 641
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
4-point  scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-cG=+.31 p < .01
Handicapped: G' = +.49 (01)
Normals    : G' = +.09 (ns)

Controlgroup of normals matched for sexe, age and 
situation (outpatient, inpatient or student).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyKeith (1985a): study US 1969
TitleWork, Retirement and Well-Being among Unmarried Men and Women.
SourceGerontologist, 1985, Vol. 25, 410 - 416
Public58-63 aged unmarried, followed 10 years, USA, 1969-1979
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1398

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 414
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Assessed at T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+
Happiness assessed at T2:
Widowed            r= +.21 (ns)   ß= +.17 (05)
Divorced/Separated r= +.17 (ns)   ß= +.05 (ns)
Never married      r= +.21 (ns)   ß= +.14 (05)
ß's controlled for sex, earlier education, age 
earlier occupation, earlier happiness, retirement 
attitudes, health and employment.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyPalmore & Luikart (1972): study US 1968
TitleHealth and Social Factors Related to Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1972, Vol. 13, 68 -80
Public46+ aged, whites, North Carolina, USA, 1968-70
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 70-72
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
Selfestimate: 
"About how much was your (and your spouse's ) total 
income from all sources during the last 12 months?"
0 (under $ 1000) to
.
.

15 (over $ 15000).
Observed distributionM= 8.1 SD=4.4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.10
All
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.14 p < .05
Age group 46-59
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.06 p < .05
Ages 46-59 (N=268) step wise multiple regression:
selfrated health     R= +.46
org. activity        B1=+.51
performance status   B2=+.53
income               B3=+.54
education            B4=+.55
All variables p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyAlexander (1969): study US 1964
TitleSome Sociological Aspects of Psychological Well-Being in a Schizophrenic Population: Social Class, Participation and Work.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1969, USA
PublicSchizophrenic males non-hospitalized, Monroe County, New York, USA, 1964-65
Sample
Non-Response28%, most of them patients'or family member refusal
Respondents N =178

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 97/108
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1: less than $ 3,999
2: 4,000 - 4,999
3: 5,000 - 7,999
4: 8,000 or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.15 p < .01
Those with incomes between $ 5,000 and $ 7,999 
generally are less happy than those with incomes 
of $ 4,000 - 4,999.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 9/23
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
8-point scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.29 p < .01
Stronger among those of lower educational level.
Stronger among older Ss
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eG=+.26 p < .01
Stronger at lower educational levels.
Stronger among older Ss.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyGurin et al. (1960): study US 1957
TitleAmericans View their Mental Health. A Nationwide Interview Survey.
SourceBasic Books, 1960, New York, USA ( Reprint in 1980, Arno Press, New York, USA)
Public21+ aged, general public, USA,1957
Sample
Non-Response13%; 5% not at home, 8% refusals
Respondents N =2460

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 216
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%= + s
Unaffected by educational level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)

StudyManning-Gibbs (1972): study US 1946
TitleRelative Deprivation and Self-Reported Happiness of Blacks: 1946-1966.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Texas, 1972, Austin, USA
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/manning-gibbs_ba_1972.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1946-1966
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25617

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 50
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified)
Operationalization
1: Less than average
2: average
3: greater than average
Remarks
1946: rated by Gallup interviewer according to the 
following scale: on relief/ on Old Age Assistance / 
poor / average / average plus / wealthy.
1966: rated according to reported income category: less 
than $ 5000 /   $ 5000 - $ 7000 / more than $ 7000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-cG=+
G' based on proportion very happy.
Response formats of happiness question very 
slightly over the years.

1946: blacks: G' = +.15 (ns)
      whites: G' = +.24 (01)
1966: blacks: G' = -.32 (05)
      whites: G' = +.26 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyRohe & Stegman (1994): study 1992
TitleThe Effects of Homeownership: on the Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Life Satisfaction of Low-Income People.
SourceJournal of the American Planning Association,1994, Vol. 60, 173 - 184
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944369408975571#.U-ipnIccTDA
DOIDOI:10.1080/01944369408975571
PublicHome buyers and controls, Baltimore, USA, followed 18 months 1992-93
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Wage income before taxes
Remarks
T1-T2 interval= 18 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-faBeta=+.10 ns
T2 happiness by T2 income
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (to capture change in happiness 
after purchase of house)
- Personal characteristics:
  - Age
  - Sex 
  - Marital status 
  - Education
  - Occupational status
 Housing situation:
  - Owner of the house 
  - Housing type 
  - Satisfaction with neighborhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyOishi et al. (2007a): study 1981
TitleThe Optimum Level of Well-Being. Can People Be Too Happy?
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2007, Vol. 2, 346 - 360
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00048.x
Public18+ aged, general public, 96 nations, 1981-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =118519

Correlate
Author's labelSalary, Income
Page in Source 350-351
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Self-reported; respondents indicated their income (in 
deciles from the lowest 10% in the nation to the 
highest 10% of the nation)
Observed distributionRange 3.09-5.58, similar for men and women. M: Males: 4,71; Females:4,44.
Remarks
Data: Pooled World Values Surveys 1981, 1990,1995 and 
2000.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=- p < .001
The most happy (10) earned less than moderately 
happy (9 or 8)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.13 p < .001
The most happy (10) earned less than expected on 
basis of a linear model.

Control variables not reported.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyCummins et al. (2003b): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey, Report 8.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Feeling Connected to Australia.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, November 2003, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response83%
Respondents N =1980

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Income
Page in Source 89+93
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Single question:
I will now give you a number of categories for 
household income. Can you please give me an idea your 
household total annual income before tax? Please stop 
me when I say your household income category

a: <$15000
b:  $15000-30000
c:  $31000-60000
d:  $61000-90000
e:  $91000-120000
f: >$120000
Observed distributionN = a: 316, b: 308, c: 464, d: 297, e: 150, f: 101

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+ p < .006
a Mt = 7,60; SD = 2,08
b Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,87
c Mt = 7,66; SD = 1,60
d Mt = 7,92; SD = 1,41
e Mt = 7,98; SD = 1,36
f Mt = 8,07: SD = 1,19
M-AC-g-sq-n-11-aDMt=+ p < .340
a Mt = 7,60; SD = 1,73
b Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,70
c Mt = 7,57; SD = 1,48
d Mt = 7,73; SD = 1,33
e Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,11
f Mt = 7,76; SD = 1,26
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=+ p < .554
a Mt = 7,79; SD = 1,68
b Mt = 7,93; SD = 1,69
c Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,43
d Mt = 7,92; SD = 1,29 
e Mt = 7,90; SD = 1,12
f Mt = 7,93; SD = 1,13


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyPaul & Guilbert (2013): study AU 2001
TitleIncome-Happiness Paradox in Australia: Testing the Theories of Adaptation and Social Comparison.
SourceEconomic Modeling, 2013, Vol. 30, 900 - 910
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2012.08.034
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8530

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 905
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Financial year disposable personal income, converted 
with 2001 consumper price index (log)
Observed distributionMean: - 2001: $24202 - 2002: $25241 - 2003: $25218 - 2004: $25926 - 2005: $27185
Remarks
Invididuals needed to respond about their income 
sources (both public and private) and afterwards 
disposable income is computed by estimating income 
taxes and transfers.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
CURRENT income by CURRENT happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.00 ns
PAST income by CURRENT happiness
- income 1 year ago
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
- income 2 years ago
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.01 ns
- income 3 years ago
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
- income 4 years ago

OPRC controlled for:
- Reference group income
- Age
- Education level
- Gender
- Employment status
- Health
- Living in/outside city
- Indiginous
- Marital status
- Parents together
- Volunteering
- Care performed
- Working hours
- Commuting


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyNikolaev (2018): study AU 2001
TitleDoes Higher Education Increase Hedonic and Eudaimonic Happiness?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2018, Vol. 19, 483 - 504
URLhttps://doi .org/10.1007 /s10902-016-9833-y
PublicWorking aged (22-65), Australia, followed 12 years, 2001-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =126265

Correlate
Author's labelLabor income (log)
Page in Source 492-494, 500
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Labour income (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-v-6-gBeta=+ p < .01
Positive affect: Beta = +.01 (01)
Negative affect: Beta = -.01 (01)
Correlation with Affect Balance hence positive
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.01 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- age + age squared
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelEarnings
Page in Source 29,57
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Natural log of income from respondents main job.
Remarks
Income levels adjusted to the price levels of the year 
2000 (consumer price index)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.00 p < .05
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=+.05 p < .05
B and beta controlled for:
- Gender
- Migration
- Family of origin:
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings
Current family situation:
  - Marital status:
    - Married (1st,2nd and de facto)
    - Widowed
    - Divorced
  - Family size
- Age
- Religious involvement:
  - Church attendance
  - Denomination
  - Charity work
- Work status:
  - Education
  - Family income
  - Labor force participation
  - Spouse in labor force
  - Hours worked
  - Job security 
  - Current occupational status
  - Unemployment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudySchulz et al. (1997): study AT 1992
TitleThema Kunst: Zur sozialen und ökonomischen Lage der bildenden Künstler und Künstlerinnen in Österreich. (Socio-Economic Situation of Artists in Austria).
SourceFalter Verlag, 1997, Vienna, Austria
PublicArtists, Austria, 199?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response388
Respondents N =1812

Correlate
Author's labelNet income
Page in Source 199/200
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
 1  > 10 000 AS
 2  > 25 000 AS 
 3  < 25 000 AS
Observed distribution N = 1: 315, 2: 462, 3: 202

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BS-c-mq-v-5-aDM=+
1) M = 1,53
2) M = 1,77
3) M = 2,02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyLombardo et al. (2018): study CA 2003
TitleThe Fundamental Association Between Mental Health And Life Satisfaction: Results from Successive Waves of A Canadian National Survey.
SourceBMC Public Health, 2018, Vol. 18, online, 1 - 9
URLhttps://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-018-5235-x
Public12+ aged, general public, Canada, 2003-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response72,9
Respondents N =666574

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income (in CAD)
Page in Source 4-6
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question. Text not specified.

0 No income (reference)
1 <= 19.999 CAD 
2 20.000-39.999 CAD
3 40.000-59.999 CAD
4 60.000-79.999 CAD
5 >= 80.000 CAD
Remarks
CAD= Canadian dollar

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aDM=+ p < .0001
Income level   Mean  Difference    CI95
  0(reference) 4.26      -      [4.25-4.27]
  1            4.13    -0.13    [4.12-4.13]
  2            4.22    -0.04    [4.22-4.23]
  3            4.31    +0.05    [4.30-4.31]
  4            4.37    +0.11    [4.36-4.37]
  5            4.43    +0.17    [4.42-4.43]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1862

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income
Page in Source 212-213
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Log of personal income
Error Estimatess.e.= 0.04

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.22 p < .01
OPRC controlled for:
- Job satisfaction
- Log other family members' income
- Log of avg. household income in census tract
- Self-perceived health
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Education
- Contact w. family members
- Contact w. friends
- Contact w. neighbors
- Number of memberships or extent of activity
- Trust in general
- Trust in neighbors
- Trust in police
- Importance of religion
- Frequency attending religious services
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.19 p < .01
OPRC not controlled for job satisfaction, but 
additionally controlled for job characterisitics:
- Makes own decisions
- Requires skill
- Has enough time
- Free of conflicting demands
- Has variety of tasks
- Trust in management


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2008): study CA 2002
TitleWell-Being and Trust in the Workplace.
SourceNBER Working Paper No 14589, 2008, Cambridge, USA
URLHTTP://www.nber.org/papers/w14589.pdf
PublicWorking population, Canada, 2002 - 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =2523

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Log of personal income
Observed distribution Mean (SD) All: 10,45 (0,70) Male: 10,64 (0,68) Female: 10,27 (0,67) Union member: 10,59 (0,55) Non union member 10,38 (0,76)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+ p < .01
                        OPRC
Whole sample            0.199
Male                    0.238
Female                  0.174
Union member            0.220
Non-union member        0.185

OPRC adjusted for trust in 
management,age,self-perceived health, marital 
status, education, contacts with friends-family 
members - neighbours, memberships, trust in 
general, trust in neighbours, trust in police, 
religion and job characteristics


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyGee (2000a): study CA British Columbia 1996
TitleLiving Arrangements and Quality of Life among Chinese Canadian Elders.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 51, 309 - 329
DOIDoi:10.1023/A:1007036122117
Public65+ aged, Chinese Canadians, Canada, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response28.5%
Respondents N =2158

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income
Page in Source 317, 323-325
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Self report: question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=-.12 ns
Married Men
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=-.08 ns
Married Women
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=+.07 ns
Widowed Women

Beta's controlled for:
-living arrangement
-age
-health
-country of birth
-years in Canada
-English-speaking ability
-have confidante
-number of close friends
-frequency of seeing non-coresident children
-see children as often as want


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyGruber & Mullainathan (2006): study CA 1985
TitleDo Cigarette Taxes Make Smokers Happier?
SourceNg, Y.K.;Ho, S.L.;Eds.: ''Happiness and Public Policy'', Palgrave Macmillan, 2006, UK, 109 - 146
Public+15 aged, general public, Canada, 1985-1998
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100663

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income quartile
Page in Source Table 6.4
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
1: Lowest 25%  (vs not)
2: 2nd 25% (vs not)
3: 3rd 25% (vs not)
4: Top 25% (vs not)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-jb=-/-
                       Happiness (dummies)
                    very   somewhat  unhappy

Lowest 25%          -.02    +.03      +.02
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-jb=-/-
2nd    25%          -.02    +.02      +.02
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-jb=+/+
3rd    25%          +.01    +.01      -.00
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-jb=+/+
Top    25%          +.03    +.01      -.01

b controlled for
- Personal characteristics
  - Marital status
  - Education
  - Household Income Quartile
  - Household size
  - Unemployment rate
  - Church attendance
  - Foreign born
  - Housing type
  - Dwelling ownership
  - Spoken language
  - Age*sex
- Contextual characteristics
  - cigarette tax rate
  - year dummies

Unaffected by propensity to smoke


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyWang et al. (2013): study CN 2008
TitleHappiness and Job Satisfaction in Urban China: A Comparative Study of Two Generations of Migrants and Urban Locals.
SourceDiscussion Paper No. 08-13, 2013, Monash University, Department of Economics, USA
Public19+ aged, general public, China, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5395

Correlate
Author's labelHourly income
Page in Source 7
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Hourly income: exact question not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.00 p < .01
FULL SAMPLE               (N=5395)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.00 p < .05
FIRST-GENERATION MIGRANTS (N=2213)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=-.00 p < .10
NEW-GENERATION MIGRANTS   (N=444)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.00 p < .01
URBAN LOCALS              (N=2738)

B's controlled for:
- age and age squared
- gender
- years of education
- marital status
- health status
- having children
- region of residence
- surface area of house
- number of friends
- perceived recent change in social class
- job satisfaction

Full sample is additionally controlled for migrant 
status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyMonk-Turner & Turner (2010): study CN Yunnan 2003
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Those who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 13 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9568-9
Public18+ aged, Yunnan region, China, 2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response3%
Respondents N =3641

Correlate
Author's labelIncome rank-good
Page in Source 18
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Self-report on question to rank one's income in the 
past year.
1: very poor
2: poor
3: about average
4: good
5: very good

Recoded as:
0: Very poor, poor, or about average.
1: Good or very good.
Observed distributionM = 0.08, SD = 0.28

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=1.57 p < .05
OLRC controlled for:
- years of education
- current drug use
- HIV positive
- marital status
- age
- sex
- feeling part of the community
- job condition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyZhao (2012): study CN 2003
TitleEconomic Inequality, Status Perceptions, and Subjective Well-being in China’s Transitional Economy.
SourceResearch in Social Stratification and Mobility, 2012, Vol. 30, 433 - 450
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rssm.2012.07.001
Public18-60 general public, urban China, 2003
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3431

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Individual's annual income (logged) which includes 
salary, bonus, and earnings from all other sources
Observed distributionMean = 8.07, SD = 2.83

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ir=+.15 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyYang (2001): study CN Hebei 2001
TitleThe Influence of Inequality of Urban Residents Life Satisfaction - A Survey on Wuhan City
SourceWorking Paper, 2001, 1 - 21
Public20+ aged urban population, Wuhan city, China, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =308

Correlate
Author's labelIncome levels
Page in Source 7
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
1: <=  4800
2: 4801 - 9600
3: 9601 - 14400
4: 14401 - 24000
5: >= 24001
Observed distributionnot reported
Remarks
Income unit = RMB Yuan

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-5-dDM=+
1: M = 2.62    
2: M = 3.10
3: M = 3.28
4: M = 3.51
5: M = 3.73

significance of differences not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyChan & Lee (2006): study CN 2000
TitleNetwork Size, Social Support and Happiness in Later Life: A Comparative Study of Beijing and Hong Kong.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2006, Vol. 7, 87 - 112
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-1915-1
Public60+aged, China, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2125

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 98, 100
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Income in US dollars per months 
1: less than 295 US dollars per months
2: higher than 295 US dollars per months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbr=+.19 p < .01
Hong Kong
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbBeta=+.14 ns
Beta controlled for:
- gender 
- education 

Beta unaffected (+.11) by additional control for
- network size
- social support
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbr=+.09 ns
Beijing
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbBeta=+.09 ns
Beta controlled for:
- gender 
- education 

Beta unaffected (+.09) by additional control for
- network size
- social support


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyPrizmic-Larsen et al. (2009): study HR 2005
TitleWhat to Do and not to Do to be Happy and Satisfied? Affect Regulations Strategies and Well-Being in a Representative Sample of Croatia.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.. :"Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisbon, Portugal, 213 - 226
PublicAdults, general public, Croatia, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response31%
Respondents N =900

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 217, 220, 221
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Total income divided by number of persons in family 
1: <€137 
2: €137-€409
3: >€409
Observed distribution1: 16%; 2: 58%; 3: 24%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=+.14 p < .01
Females
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=+.08 ns
Males


Beta's controlled for:
- Age    
- Other coping style
  - Active distraction
  - Cognitive engagement
  - Behavioral engagement
  - Venting and expressing affect
  - Passive distraction and acceptance
  - Rumination and withdraw
  - Waiting

Note:Same tendency for time being unhappy in 
opposite direction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelannual income
Page in Source 82
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Single question:
What was your income before taxes last year? (Income in 
1000 DKK)
1: 0-50 kr
2: 50-100 kr
3: 100-200 kr
4: 200-300 kr
5: 300-400 kr
6: 400-1000 kr
Observed distributionN: all:4514, 1:189, 2:378, 3:1938, 4:1493, 5:362, 6:154

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.14 p < .00
1: Mt=6.63
2: Mt=7.10
3: Mt=7.73
4: Mt=7.80
5: Mt=7.88
6: Mt=8.25
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.14 p < .00
1: Mt=6.41
2: Mt=6.74
3: Mt=7.40
4: Mt=7.68
5: Mt=7.58
6: Mt=8.05
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.10 p < .00
1: Mt=6.56
2: Mt=6.41
3: Mt=7.00
4: Mt=7.23
5: Mt=7.08
6: Mt=7.41


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelannual income
Page in Source 78
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Single question:
"What was your income before taxes last year ?"
Income in 1000DK
1: 0-50
2: 50-100
3: 100-200
4: 200-300
5: 300-400
6: 400-1000
7: > 1000
Observed distributionN: 1:205, 2:220, 3:549, 4:295, 5:95, 6:37, 7:0,
Remarks
1 DK was US $0.18 at 2-1-1996

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.05 ns
1: 0-50     Mt=7.71
2: 50-100   Mt=7.44
3: 100-200  Mt=7.84
4: 200-300  Mt=8.04
5: 300-400  Mt=7.90
6: 400-1000 Mt=7.50
All         Mt=7.79
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.04 ns
1: 0-50     Mt=7.40    
2: 50-100   Mt=7.33
3: 100-200  Mt=7.41
4: 200-300  Mt=7.68
5: 300-400  Mt=7.69
6: 400-1000 Mt=7.36
All         Mt=7.48
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.04 ns
1: 0-50     Mt=6.91
2: 50-100   Mt=6.71
3: 100-200  Mt=6.94
4: 200-300  Mt=7.21
5: 300-400  Mt=7.00
6: 400-1000 Mt=6.83
All         Mt=6.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study FI 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Finland, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =610

Correlate
Author's labelIncome per person
Page in Source 21,29
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Pseudo-metric net income per person in the household 
derived from a list of 14 categories for overall net 
household 
income
Observed distributionUrban: M=€907; SD=€358; Rural: M=€ 651; SD=€310; p<.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - homeownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
  - satisfaction with leisure
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2006): study XZ Germany West 1985 /1
TitleSome Uses of Happiness Data in Economics.
SourceJournal of Economic Perspectives, 2006, Vol. 20, 25 - 46
PublicEmployed females, Germany 1985-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14000

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income
Page in Source 31
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Income in Deutsche Mark per year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.12
Poor half of sample (average income: 40.938 DM)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.01
Rich half of sample (average income: 84.864DM)

B controlled for individual variables (which are 
not reported)

B denotes points difference in happiness on scale 
0-10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyKrause (2013): study DE 2007
TitleDon't Worry, be Happy? Happiness and Reemployment.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013, Vol. 96, 1 - 20
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
Public16+ aged, recently fallen unemployed, Germany, 2007-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2542

Correlate
Author's labelLog of unemployment benefits
Page in Source 7
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Logarithmic function of unemployment benefits. People 
in Germany are approximately 12 months entitled to 
unemployment benefits, but it varies because of age and 
duration of work in the last job. When these benefits 
are over, one falls back in social insurance.
Remarks
These people have most likely no other source of 
income.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 ns
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) age and age squared
  b) disabled
  c) marital status
  d) having a partner
  e) employment status spouse
  f) employment status partner
  g) (number of) children in household
  h) education
  i) migrant status
  j) wage in last job
  k) duration of last job
  l) gender
  m) reason of termination of last job
- Environmental characteristics:
  n) national unemployment rate
  o) region/state in Germany
- Interview-specific characteristics:
  p) interview cohort
  q) time between unemployment entry and


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyKopmann & Rehdanz (2014): study DE 2004
TitleUnderestimated Benefits from Periphery: Internal Migration and Subjective Well-being.
SourceEconstor Working Paper, 2014, No. B14-V1, Kiel, Germany
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/100382
PublicWorking age people, Germany, followed 5 years 2004-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10123

Correlate
Author's labelIncome (log equivalent)
Page in Source 3,8,16-18,30
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Real personal  income assessed from all income sources.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.12 p < .05
b controlled for:
- Gender 
- People (household size))
- Number of children
- Disabled or not
- Health
- Marital status
- Spouse in foreign country
- Years of education
- Working status
- German citizen or not
- Moving within or across municipalities


Additional control for labor market region effects 
did not effect b.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study DE 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Germany, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1

Correlate
Author's labelIncome per person
Page in Source 21,29
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Pseudo-metric net income per person in the household 
derived from a list of 14 categories for overall net 
household income
Observed distributionGermany West: Urban: M=€1003; SD=€448; Rural: M=€ 784; SD=€316; p<.001 Germany West: Urban: M=€929; SD=€261; Rural: M=€719; SD=€221; p<.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Germany West
-urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
-rural areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Germany East
-urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
-rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
  - satisfaction with leisure
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyKnabe & Rätzel (2010): study DE 1999
TitleIncome, Happiness, and the Disutility of Labor.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol. 107, 77 - 79
URLhttp://econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/28101/1/608759643.PDF
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.econlet.2009.12.032
Public18-65 aged working couples, Germany, followed 7 years, 1999-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16937

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Log annual labor income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.31 ns
Women's happiness by own income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.38 ns
Woman's happiness by husbands income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=-.03 ns
Woman's happiness by interaction of own and 
husbands income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.49 ns
Men's happiness by own income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.67 p < .01
Men's happiness by wife's income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=-.05 ns
Men's happiness by interaction between own and 
wife's income

All coefficients based on Probit-adjusted OLS, 
controlled for:
- age
- own health
- spuces health
- individual fixed effects
- time fixed effects

Unaffacted by weekly working hours
(which contradicts theory that gains in happiness 
from higher income are balanced by costs of 
working time)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyPouwels et al. (2008): study DE 1999
TitleIncome, Working Hours, and Happiness.
SourceEconomic Letters, 2008, Vol. 99, 72 - 74
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.econlet.2007.05.032
Public18-65 aged, couples, neither unemployed nor disabled, Germany, 1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =2698

Correlate
Author's labelOwn yearly net labour income
Page in Source 73
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Logarithm of own net yearly income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+ p < .05
WOMEN (+.47)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+ p < .01
MEN (+.41)

OPRC's controled for:
- income of partner
- product of own income and of partner
- age
- self rated health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+ p < .05
Additional control for working hours shows a 
larger effect of income among women (+.53) and 
among men (+.52) compared to the coefficients when 
not controlled for working hours.

OPRC's cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect 
size. Coefficients denote relative differences in 
association, eg. stronger among women than among 
men.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyEriksson et al. (2007): study DE 1995
TitleTemporal Aspects of Life Satisfaction.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 80, 511 - 533
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-0005-z
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1995
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13919

Correlate
Author's labelWage rate
Page in Source 523
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-ab=+.02 ns
B (+.020) controlled for (model 3): 
- log discretionary time
- log spare time
- log household income
- socio-demographic characteristics

B's not different in models without
- discretionary time (model 1)
- spare time (model 2)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyAkay (2012): study DE 1985
TitleHappy Taxpayers? Income Taxation and Well-Being.
SourceDiscussion Paper, 2012, Nr. 6999, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), Bonn
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/67179
Public16-65 aged, taxpayers, Germany, 1985-2010
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =188412

Correlate
Author's labelNet income (log)
Page in Source 8,29
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Log net income
Observed distributionM= 2614,84; SD= 1572,7; min.= 350, max. = 114.856
Error Estimatess.e.= .017
Remarks
In 2010 euro's

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.35 p < .01
Log net income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.30 p < .01
          b     
Singles  +.376(01)
Couples  +.308(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-iv=+.29 p < .01
b and b-iv controlled for:
- log taxes
- working hours
- age squared
- region east germany
- foreigner
- household size
- employment status
- gender
- marital status
- health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.32 p < .01
b controlled for:
- log lagged taxes (t-1) instead of taxes
other controls the same
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.33 p < .01
b controlled for:
- income tax
other controls the same


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyFalco et al. (2012): study GH 2004
TitleHeterogeneity in Subjective Wellbeing. An Application to Occupational Allocation in Africa.
SourcePolicy Research Working Paper 6244, World Bank, 2012, USA
Public15-60 aged, urban population, Ghana, followed 7 years, 2004-2010
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3216

Correlate
Author's labelEarnings
Page in Source 43
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Log of self reported workers' income
Remarks
Pooled data T1 to T+4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aOPRC=+.23 p < .01
OPRC controled for:
- self-employed, with employee
- work conditions
  - hours-squared (log)
  - tenure (log)
  - apprentice
- personal characteristics
  - household assets
  - household head
  - married
  - sexe
  - age
  - age-squared
  - education-squared (log)
- situation
  - ethnicity (dummy)
  - city (dummy)
  - year (dummy)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study HU 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Hungary, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =605

Correlate
Author's labelIncome per person
Page in Source 21,29
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Pseudo-metric net income per person in the household 
derived from a list of 14 categories for overall net 
household income
Observed distributionUrban: M = 133 euros; SD = 59; Rural: M = 110; SD = 34; p<.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
  - satisfaction with leisure
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyBargain & Zeldan (2014a): study ID 2007
TitleStature, Skills and Adult Life Outcomes: Evidence from Indonesia.
SourceAMSE Working Paper Series, 2014, No.29, Aix en Marseille, France.
URLhttps://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01020788
Public25-65 aged males, Indonesia, 2007
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7878

Correlate
Author's labelLog Earnings
Page in Source 23, 32
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Annual earnings
Observed distributionM = 637; SD =1145
Remarks
Expressed in purchasing power parities of US dollars

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cdPRC=01 p < .01
PRC (+.00987) controled for:
- body lenght: absolute lenght and relative lenght
- self rated health
- married
- education
- cognitive skills
- childhood background
- occupation
- job requires physical skills


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyMorawetz (1977): study IL 1976
TitleIncome Distributions and Self-Rated Happiness: Some Empirical Evidence.
SourceThe Economic Journal, 1977, Vol. 87, 511 - 522
PublicAdults, two villages (one equal in incomes, one unequal), Israel, 1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =109

Correlate
Author's labelincome per standard adult
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
income per standard adult in hundreds of Israeli pounds 
per month
Observed distributionM= 12,4
Remarks
in this case number of responses for anisos amounts to 
38

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=-.09 ns
B controlled for:
- years lived in moshav
- religion
- place of birth
- age
- sex
- education
- not married
- children at home
- rooms per house
- rooms per person
- telephone
- no car
- income per standard adult
- Moshav
Strange negative effect in community with unequal 
income:
- equal moshav: B=ns
- unequal moshav: B=-.17 (p<0.05)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=
B controlled for the above variables with income 
left out


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyDiGiacinto et al. (2007): study IT 2004
TitleCreativity and Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at the International Conference ''Policy for Happiness'', June 2007, Siena, Italy
URLhttp://www.unisi.it/eventi/happiness/curriculum/ferrante.pdf
PublicEmployees, Italy, 2004
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =1240

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 22
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Disposable income.
Observed distributionM=16975,81 SD=8224,577

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.00 p < .001
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-ab=+.00 p < .001
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.12 p < .001
Regressions control for:
-age
-schooling*creativity index
-marital status
-gender
-educational level
-province level unemployment rate
-province level per capita disposable income
-area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study IT 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Italy, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =600

Correlate
Author's labelIncome per person
Page in Source 21,29
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Pseudo-metric net income per person in the household 
derived from a list of 14 categories for overall net 
household income
Observed distributionUrban: M=€599; SD=€321; Rural: M=€ 478; SD=€199; p<.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
  - satisfaction with leisure
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyTominaga (1972): study JP Tokyo 1970
TitleAn Approach to the Measurement of the Levels of Welfare in Tokyo.
SourcePaper presented at Post-Industrial Conference of the Japan Society, 1972, New York, USA
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/tominaga_k_1972.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, City of Tokyo, Japan 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10468

Correlate
Author's labelpersonal income
Page in Source 23
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
self reported annual income in ten thousands Yen:
1:  < 60
2: 60-90
3: 90-120
4: 120-150
5: 150-180
6: 180-210
7: 210-240
8: 240-270
9: 27-300
10:  >300
Observed distributionNot reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-3-aDM=+
1: M = 2.16
2: M = 2.18
3: M = 2.27
4: M = 2.39
5: M = 2.40
6: M = 2.48
7: M = 2.50
8: M = 2.51
9: M = 2.58
10:M = 2.61


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyDaukantaite & Zukauskiene (2006): study LT 2001
TitleSwedish and Lithuanian employed women’s subjective well-being.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Welfare, 2006, Vol 15, 23 - 30
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2397.2006.00441.x
PublicMiddle-aged employed Lithuanian women, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response10.5 %
Respondents N =308

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income
Page in Source S25
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Self report on single question. How much do you usually 
earn per month before tax deduction?

Presented in quartiles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dF=+ p < .001
Lowest fourth: M = 0.96
Low fourth:    M = 1.32
High fourth:   M = 1.33
Highest fourth:M = 1.72


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyOECD (2019): study ZZ EU 25 2013
TitleHow’s Life in the Digital Age? Opportunities and Risks of the Digital Transformation for People's Well-being.
SourceOECD Publishing, Paris, France
URLhttps://doi.org/10.1787/9789264311800-en
Public15+ aged, general public, Europe, 2013
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =82000

Correlate
Author's labelLog income
Page in Source 111
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Current personal income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-cb=+.42 p < .01
b controlled for:
- internet access
- age and age squared
- gender
- marital status
- employment status
- education
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-cb=-.07 p < .01
b additionally controlled for:
- financial satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyHaindorfer (2019): study ZZ Eastern Europe 2012
TitleLebenszufriedenheit und Pendelerfolg. Ost-West-Pendelnde aus Tschechien, Slowakei und Ungarn in Österreich
SourceSpringer, 2019, Wiesbaden, Germany
URLhttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-658-26791-9
Public21-65 aged, commuters from Slowakia, Tsjechia and Hungary, 2012-2013
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2687

Correlate
Author's labelGross monthly income in euro's
Page in Source 188,T20
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Selfreport on gross monthly income(euro's):
1 <900
2 900-1.124
3 1.125-1.349
4 1.350-1.649 (reference)
5 1.650-2.249
6 >=2.250
7 Not reported
Remarks
Question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-afb=+
                       b         SE
1 <900                -.31(01)  .18
2 900-1.124           +.14(ns)  .15
3 1.125-1.349         -.27(01)  .14 
4 1.350-1.649         reference   
5 1.650-2.249         +.26(01)  .14  
6 >=2.250             +.37(05)  .19
7 Income not reported -.14(ns)  .15
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-afBeta=+
                       beta      SE
1 <900                -.06(01)  .18
2 900-1.124           +.03(ns)  .15
3 1.125-1.349         -.06(01)  .14 
4 1.350-1.649         reference   
5 1.650-2.249         +.06(01)  .14  
6 >=2.250             +.06(01)  .19
7 Income not reported -.03(ns)  .15

b and beta controlled for:
- Perceived prosperity development
- Perceived job-related health risks
- Perceived job security
- Commuting time in minutes (plus squared)
- Education level
- Knowledge of the German language
- Perceived health
- Perceived identity
- Balanced relation between work and family
- Marital status
- Having children
- Frequency contact w. other commuters/friends
- Frequency contact w. Austrian friends
- Working climate
- Discrimination on the job
- Number of commuters in family/friends
- Enough leisure time
- Possibilities upward mobility
- Possibilities realizing own ideas
- Irregular employment
- Nation of origin
- Gender
- Age  and age squared
- Employment status
- Type of business
- Company size
- Ethnic differentiation on workfloor
- Commuting frequency
- Employment status before current job


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyFlavin et al. (2011): study ZZ Developed nations 2005
TitleState Intervention and Subjective Well-Being in Advanced Industrial Democracies.
SourcePolitics and Policy, 2011, Vol. 39, 251 - 269
Public15+ aged, general public, 15 Industrialized Democracies, 2005-2009.
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10405

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 259
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
self-report on single question:
1 (lowest income decile)
:
10 (highest income decile)
Remarks
Data: World Value Survey

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.07 p < .01
INDIVIDUAL happiness by individual income

B controlled for:
-National characteristics
  -Size of the state
  -GDP
  -Unemployment rate
  -Individualism
-Individual characteristics  
  -Education
  -Health
  -Female
  -Age
  -Married
  -Unemployed
  -Church attendance
  -Trust in others
  -Religion

Controlled for tax revenue as a measure of the 
size of the state, same results if controlled for 
government share of GDP, social wage, or social 
welfare expenditures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyMonk-Turner & Turner (2010): study ZZ East Asia 2005
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Those who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 13 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9568-9
PublicProstitutes and prostitute's clients, Yunnan, China, 2003, Thailand, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =754

Correlate
Author's labelIncome rank-good
Page in Source 19
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Self-report on question to rank one's income in the 
past year.
1: very poor
2: poor
3: about average
4: good
5: very good

Recoded as:
0: Very poor, poor or about average. 
1: Good or very good.
Observed distribution1) Yunnan female sex workers. M = .15, SD = 0.36 2) Yunnan male sex clients. M = 0.09, SD = 0.29 3) Thai female sex workers. M = .19, SD = 0.39

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=1.40 ns
Yunnan female sex workers (N = 188)
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=1.76 ns
Yunnan male sex customers (N = 283)
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=1.93 p < .05
Thai female sex workers (N = 283)

OLRC's controlled for:
- years of education
- current drug use
- HIV positive
- marital status
- age
- feeling part of the community
- job condition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyRose & Ozcan (2007): study ZZ EU 15 2003
TitleFirst European Quality of Life Survey: Quality of Life in Turkey.
SourceEuropean Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2007, Dublin, Ireland
URLhttp://eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef0719.htm
Public18+aged general public, 15 EU member states and Turkey, 2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome quartile
Page in Source 50
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-bBeta=+.15 p < .000
Turkey
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-bBeta=+.07 p < .000
EU15 (EU Member States before 2004)

Beta's controlled for:
- Socio-economic position
  - age
  - gender
  - sufficiency of income (out of money, debts)
  - education
  - health
  - occupational level (manual worker or not)
  - living environment (urban or not)
- Social participation
  - employed
  - church attendance
- Attitudes
  - satisfaction with public services
  - trust in people
  - perceived tensions in society
  - perceived safety in neigbourhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyRodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleCan Policy make us Happier? Individual Characteristics, Socioeconomic Factors and Life Satisfaction in Central and Eastern Europe.
SourceCambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 2011, 1-20
URLhttps://academic.oup.com/cjres/article/5/1/77/326486
DOIdoi: 10.1093/cjres/rsr038
Public15+ aged, general public, 10 Central and Eastern European Nations, 1999, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 8, 9
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Self report on single question
1)<€1800/year 
2)<€3600/year
3)<€6000/year
4)<€12,000/year 
5)<€18,000/year 
6)<€24,000/year
7)<€30,000/year
8)<€36,000/year
9)>€60,000/year (reference)
Remarks
2008 data only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-1.3 p < .001
<€1800/year     (vs >60,000/year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.58 p < .001
<€3600/year     (vs >60,000/year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.30 p < .001
<€6000/year     (vs >60,000/year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.37 p < .01
<€30,000/year   (vs >60,000/year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.04 ns
<€12,000/year (vs >60,000/year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.16 p < .05
<€18,000/year   (vs >60,000/year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.36 p < .001
<€24,000/year   (vs >60,000/year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.35 ns
<€36,000/year   (vs >60,000/year)

B’s controlled for:
-Individual characteristics:
  -Health
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Married
  -No. Of children
  -Unemployed
  -Retired
  -Student
  -Self-employed
  -LT unemployment
  -Secondary education
  -Tertiary education
  -Big city
  -Remote area

Small negative change when additionally controlled 
for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -Interpersonal inequality 
  -Inflation
  -Unemployment 
  -Government expenditure
  -Corruption WB
  -Corruption TI
  -Health benefits	
  -Pension benefits
  -Unemployment benefits


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyRodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleCan Policy make us Happier? Individual Characteristics, Socioeconomic Factors and Life Satisfaction in Central and Eastern Europe.
SourceCambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 2011, 1-20
URLhttps://academic.oup.com/cjres/article/5/1/77/326486
DOIdoi: 10.1093/cjres/rsr038
Public15+ aged, general public, 10 Central and Eastern European Nations, 1999, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 8
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Self report on single question
0  poor
:
10  very rich

a)income
b)income squared
Remarks
1999 data only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.20 p < .001
1999

-Income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
-Income squared 

B’s controlled for:
-Individual characteristics:
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Married
  -No. Of children
  -Unemployed
  -Retired
  -Student
  -Self-employed
  -LT unemployment
  -Secondary education
  -Tertiary education
  -Big city
  -Remote area

No significant change when addtionally controlled 
for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -Interpersonal inequality 
  -Inflation
  -Unemployment 
  -Government expenditure
  -Corruption WB
  -Corruption TI
  -Health benefits	
  -Pension benefits
  -Unemployment benefits


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyBall & Chernova (2008): study ZZ 1995 /1
TitleAbsolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 497 - 529
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9217-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 18 nations, 1995-1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20771

Correlate
Author's labelAbsolute Income
Page in Source 514
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Respondents were presented a card with 10 income 
brackets, that expressed the nations income deciles in 
local currency. 

They self-rated their income category with in answer to 
question: Here is a scale of incomes. We would like to 
know in what group your household is, counting all 
wages, salaries, pensions and other incomes that come 
in. Just give the letter of the group your household 
falls into, before taxes and other deductions.

Absolute income is the midpoint of the bracket 
indicated, transfomed to purchasing power parity 
dollars, using the World Bank conversion factors.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.12 p < .001
Beta controlled for:
-Interaction between relative and absolute income
-Individual variables
  -Marital status
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Children
  -Employment status
  -Health
  -Religion
-Country (dummies)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.04 p < .017
Beta controlled for:
-Interaction between relative and absolute income
-Individual variables
  -Marital status
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Children
  -Employment status
  -Health
  -Religion
-Country variables
  -log of GDP pc
  -Economic growth
  -Hapiness in  the country (dummies for 
below/above average)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyPeiro (2006): study ZZ 1995
TitleHappiness, Satisfaction and Socio- Economic Conditions: Some International Evidence.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 348 - 356
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.042
Public16+ aged, general public, 16 nations, 1995
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =16000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 18
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
1: lowest income quintile (reference)
2: second income quintile (IQ2)
3: third income quintile  (IQ3)
4: fourth income quintile (IQ4)
5: highest quintile       (IQ5)
Observed distributionSelf-rating of income position on 10 step scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Argentina 
IQ2: OLRC= +.45 (05)
IQ3: OLRC= +.50 (05)
IQ4: OLRC= +.38 (05)
IQ5: OLRC= +.44 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Australia 
IQ2: OLRC= +.14 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.50 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.41 (05)
IQ5: OLRC= +.52 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Chile 
IQ2: OLRC= +.34 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.75 (01)
IQ4: OLRC=+1.11 (01)
IQ5: OLRC= +.99 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
China 
IQ2: OLRC= +.71 (01)
IQ3: OLRC=+1.35 (01)
IQ4: OLRC=+1.92 (01)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.70 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Dominican Republic 
IQ2: OLRC= -.30 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= -.39 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= -.26 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.26 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Finland 
IQ2: OLRC= +.24 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.85 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.57 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.19 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Japan 
IQ2: OLRC= +.23 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.60 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.74 (01)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.11 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Nigeria 
IQ2: OLRC= -.11 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= -.04 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= +.22 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.57 (05)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Peru 
IQ2: OLRC= +.24 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= -.00 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= +.12 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.93 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Russia 
IQ2: OLRC= +.37 (01)
IQ3: OLRC= +.42 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.84 (01)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.21 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Spain 
IQ2: OLRC= +.18 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.36 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= +.01 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.63 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Russia 
IQ2: OLRC= +.33 (01)
IQ3: OLRC= +.59 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.90 (01)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.28 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Sweden 
IQ2: OLRC= +.59 (05)
IQ3: OLRC= +.75 (05)
IQ4: OLRC= +.72 (05)
IQ5: OLRC= +.93 (05)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Taiwan 
IQ2: OLRC= +.35 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.37 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= +.46 (05)
IQ5: OLRC= +.68 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
USA 
IQ2: OLRC= -.14 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.33 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= +.29 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.47 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Venezuela 
IQ2: OLRC= +.15 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.17 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= +.14 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.13 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Argentina 
IQ2: OLRC= +.51 (05)
IQ3: OLRC= +.54 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.47 (05)
IQ5: OLRC= +.53 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Australia 
IQ2: OLRC= +.30 (05)
IQ3: OLRC= +.63 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.65 (01)
IQ5: OLRC= +.74 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Chile 
IQ2: OLRC= +.58 (01)
IQ3: OLRC= +.65 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.85 (01)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.27 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
China 
IQ2: OLRC=+1.00 (01)
IQ3: OLRC=+1.63 (01)
IQ4: OLRC=+2.23 (01)
IQ5: OLRC=+2.44 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Dominican Republic 
IQ2: OLRC= -.25 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= -.04 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= +.26 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.42 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Finland 
IQ2: OLRC= +.42 (05)
IQ3: OLRC= +.89 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.42 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.49 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Japan 
IQ2: OLRC= +.33 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC=+1.04 (01)
IQ4: OLRC=+1.02 (01)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.45 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Nigeria 
IQ2: OLRC= +.49 (01)
IQ3: OLRC= +.47 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.81 (01)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.34 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Peru 
IQ2: OLRC= +.39 (01)
IQ3: OLRC= +.23 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= +.69 (05)
IQ5: OLRC= +.59 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Spain 
IQ2: OLRC= +.17 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.42 (05)
IQ4: OLRC= +.39 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.84 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Sweden
IQ2: OLRC= +.10 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.57 (05)
IQ4: OLRC= +.40 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.97 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Taiwan 
IQ2: OLRC= +.44 (05)
IQ3: OLRC= +.53 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.48 (01)
IQ5: OLRC= +.58 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
USA 
IQ2: OLRC= +.16 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.65 (05)
IQ4: OLRC= +.63 (05)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.01 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Venezuela 
IQ2: OLRC= +.16 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.38 (05)
IQ4: OLRC= +.29 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.42 (05)

OLRC controlled for:
-age
-health
-gender
-number of children
-marital status
-size of town
-labour market status
-education

OLRC (Ordered Logit Regression Coefficient) cannot 
be interpreted as an absolute effect-size. The 
coefficients only denote relative differences in 
correlation and whether the correlations are 
negative or positive. E.g.in the USA and Taiwan 
the correlations between income and happiness are 
lower than in China and Japan.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyDuff & Ivlevs (2011): study ZZ World samples 1994
TitleHappiness, Meaning of Life and Income.
SourcePaper provided by University of the West of England, Department of Economics in its series Discussion Papers with number 1108.
URLhttp://carecon.org.uk/DPs/1108.pdf
Public18+ aged, 85 developed and developing countries, 1994-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome Band
Page in Source Table 2, page 9
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Income position in country
10 highest
;
1: lowest
.
.

10. highest income band

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOPRC=+.09 p < .01
Income position
- low income countries           -.029 (ns)
- lower middle income countries  +.109 (01)
- higher middle income countries +.079 (01)
- high income countries          +.125 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOPRC=-.26 p < .01
Income position squared
- low income countries           +.961 (01)
- lower middle income countries  -.325 (10)
- higher middle income countries -.091 (ns)
- high income countries          -.734 (01)

OPRCs controled for:
- thinking about meaning of life
- importance of religion
- attendance of religious services
- age
- gender
- marital status
- time spent thinking about meaning and purpose in 
life 
- number of children
- social class
- health 
- employment status 
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyVeenhoven (1997a): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleProgrès dans la Compréhension du Bonheur. (Progress in Understanding Happiness).
SourceRevue Québécoise de Psychologie, 1997, Vol. 18, 29 - 74
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16324
PublicAdults, general public, 13 nations of varying wealth, around 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelCorrelation happiness - income in nations
Page in Source 53
Our classificationPersonal income
Operationalization
Statistical relationship between personal happiness and 
personal income as assesses in 13 nations using 
comparable measures
Remarks
Correlations taken from this database, section income 
(I1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.55
Individual level CORRELATION of happiness and 
personal income by nation level average income per 
capita
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income

StudyKumar (2017): study NL Rotterdam 2015
TitleImpact of Urban Design Features on Happiness in Rotterdam
SourceThesis, International Institute of Urban management IHS, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URL