Findings on Happiness and MILITARY LIFE

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and main subject: MILITARY LIFE

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Nr of Studieson subject
1 MILITARY LIFE
  Military career
1     Earlier in armed force
    Change in military life
      Recent entering armed force
1       Recent leaving armed force
1     Later in armed force
2   Current involvement in military life
1     Militairs in family
3   Military skill
  Attitudes to military life
    Concern about militairy
    Satisfaction with militairy life
4     Perceived effects of change in militairy life

Appendices
Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
Appendix 2: Statistics used
Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 4: Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 5: Related Subjects

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and MILITARY LIFE
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=0102
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2021, Netherlands


Correlational finding on Happiness and MILITARY LIFE

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 25
Our classificationMILITARY LIFE
Operationalization
0 employed(reference group)
1 a self-employed
  b unemployed
  c some work
  d non-working
  e maternity leave
  f military service
  g in education
  h retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.26 p < .01
a: Self-employed
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.10
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1.0 p < .01
b: Unemployed
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.67
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.24 p < .01
c: Some work
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.12
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.12 p < .01
d: Non-working
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.08
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.14 p < .01
e: Maternity leave 
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.03
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.36 p < .01
f: Military service
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.46
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.00 ns
g: In education
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.00
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.09 p < .01
h: Retired
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.01

B's controled for:
- age
- education
- household income
- position in the household
- country of origin
- time (dummy for wave of panel)
and additionally for:
- trait-happiness (average over all 14 waves)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier in armed force

StudyMyers & Liu (2013): study US 2012
TitleIn U.S.women Veterans rate Lives better than Men.
SourceThe Gallup Organization, april 2013
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/162035/women-veterans-rate-lives-better-men.aspx
PublicVeterans, United States, 2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =48690

Correlate
Author's labelVeterans
Page in Source 2
Our classificationEarlier in armed force
Operationalization
1 veterans
0 non veteran general population
Remarks
Veterans selected from general population survey. 
Either retired from military service or honorably 
discharged from the US military.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=-
        veteran   non veteran difference
Male    M = 6.8   M = 6.8      0
Female  M = 6.9   M = 7.1     -0.2
difference -0.1      -0.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent leaving armed force

StudyBiersner et al. (1976): study US 1971
TitleMood Scales as Predictors of Discharge and Sick Call Visits during Basic Military Training.
SourceMilitary Medecine, 1976, Vol. 141, 859 - 861
PublicNavy recruits, USA, 1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1220

Correlate
Author's labelDischarge after basic training
Page in Source 860
Our classificationRecent leaving armed force
Operationalization
Registery data 
1 dismissed
0 stayed
Observed distribution1: 6%
Remarks
Reasons for dismissal: disciplinary action, poor 
academic performance, problems with mental or physical 
health.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.07 ns
Sample A, happiness at first assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.11 p < .05
Sample A, happiness at second assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.18 p < .01
Sample B, happiness at first assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.16 p < .01
Sample B, happiness at second assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Beta's controled for
- activity
- anger
- depression
- fear
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-a
The total sample was split in subsamples A 
(validation) and B (crossvalidation) equaled for 
discharge rates and sick call.

First assessment at first day of training, second 
assessment 3 days later.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later in armed force

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's label(Later) military service
Our classificationLater in armed force
Operationalization
Single direct question at T5: are you now or have you 
ever been a member of the Armed Forces? 0 = no; 1 = yes 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
T1 happiness:        tau = -.07  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.04  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.00  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.00  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current involvement in military life

StudyBartolini et al. (2013a): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelMilitary/civil service
Page in Source 20, 26, 34, 35
Our classificationCurrent involvement in military life
Operationalization
1 being in military of civil service
0 other
Observed distributionN=338757 M=0.00 sd=0.05

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.27 p < .05
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.24 p < .10
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current involvement in military life

StudyBowen & Orthner (1986): study US 1981
TitleSingle Parents in the U.S. Airforce.
SourceFamily Relations, 1986, Vol. 35, 45 - 52
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/584281
PublicSingle parents, Airforce, USA, 1981
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelmilitary rank
Page in Source 47
Our classificationCurrent involvement in military life
Operationalization
1 enlisted (soldier)
2 officer
Observed distributionenlisted: 80% officers: 20%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-cD%=+
% very satisfied:
1 enlisted 9
2 officers 30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Militairs in family

StudyFararouei et al. (2013): study IR 2008
TitleHappiness and Health Behaviour in Iranian adolescent Girls.
SourceJournal of Adolescence, 2013, Vol. 36, 1187-1192
Public11-19 aged highschool girls, Iran, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9867

Correlate
Author's labelFather's job
Page in Source 1190
Our classificationMilitairs in family
Operationalization
Participants were asked bout the father's job
a: Unemployed (reference)
b: Private
c: Army
d: Technology
e: Clerk
f: Teacher
g: Retired
Observed distributionN = a: 220, b: 4282, c: 222, d: 53, e: 1453, f: 673, g: 551

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bDM=+/- p < .001
Job of father  Happiness of child  
               Mean  SD  
- Unemployed   6,37  3,52
- Private      6,55  3,32
- Technology   6,74  3,21  
- Army         6,97  3,31
- Clerk        7,20  3,15
- Teacher      7,52  3,08
- Retired      7,02  3.02
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bF=+/- p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.09 p < .75
Private        (vs unemployed)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.12 p < .76
Army           (vs unemployed)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.27 p < .64
Technology     (vs unemployed)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+37 p < .24
Clerk          (vs umemployed)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+31 p < .38
Teaching       (vs unemployed)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+12 p < .73
Retired        (vs unemployed)

b controled for:
- age
- orher physical chartacteristics
  - height
  - weight
  - ill at the moment
- family characteristics
  - mothers job and education
  - number of sibblings
- school situation
  - grade average
- health behavior
  - physical activity
  - daily vegetable and fruit consumption
  - being exp[osed to smoking
- urban/rural residency


Correlational finding on Happiness and Military skill

StudyBiersner et al. (1976): study US 1971
TitleMood Scales as Predictors of Discharge and Sick Call Visits during Basic Military Training.
SourceMilitary Medecine, 1976, Vol. 141, 859 - 861
PublicNavy recruits, USA, 1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1220

Correlate
Author's labelDischarge after basic training
Page in Source 860
Our classificationMilitary skill
Operationalization
Registery data 
1 dismissed
0 stayed
Observed distribution1: 6%
Remarks
Reasons for dismissal: disciplinary action, poor 
academic performance, problems with mental or physical 
health.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.07 ns
Sample A, happiness at first assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.11 p < .05
Sample A, happiness at second assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.18 p < .01
Sample B, happiness at first assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.16 p < .01
Sample B, happiness at second assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Beta's controled for
- activity
- anger
- depression
- fear
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-a
The total sample was split in subsamples A 
(validation) and B (crossvalidation) equaled for 
discharge rates and sick call.

First assessment at first day of training, second 
assessment 3 days later.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Military skill

StudyRahe et al. (1976): study US 1971
TitleSerum Uric Acids, Cholesterol and Psychological Moods throughout Stressfull Naval Training.
SourceNaval Health Research Center, Report nr. 76-18, 1976, San Diego, California, USA
PublicNavy recruits, followed 4 weeks, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =117

Correlate
Author's labelSucces in military training
Page in Source 883, 884, 886
Our classificationMilitary skill
Operationalization
51 volunteers had completed 5 weeks of basic recruit 
training and spent next 4 weeks in special 
pre-Underwater Demolition Team training program; on the 
basis of test results at the end of week 4 of the 
training men were divided into pass and fail groups. 66 
volunteers had also completed 5 weeks of basic recruit 
training and spent next 4 weeks in the Recruit Training 
Center choir program (control group).

Groups:
a. Pass
b. Fail
c. Control
Observed distributionN= a:27, b:24, c:66
Remarks
Underwater demolition team (UDT) training is a 4 month 
program with attrition rate of trainees between 30% and 
70%. A pre-UDT program was designed to select and 
pretrain volunteer naval recruits during their last 4 
weeks of a 9 week basic recruit training program.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-m-mqr-v-3-aDM=-
a: M = 15,1
b: M = 13,2
c: M = 12,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Military skill

StudyRyman et al. (1974): study US 1970
TitleReliabilities and Validities of the Mood Questionnaire.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1974, Vol. 35, 479 - 484
PublicNavy recruits, USA, 1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1140

Correlate
Author's labelAquanaut performance
Page in Source 481
Our classificationMilitary skill
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.74 p < .01
Negative correlation!


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived effects of change in militairy life

StudyGarber (1971): study US California 1970
TitleRetired Soldiers in Second Careers: Self-Assessed Change, Reference Group Salience, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1971, USA
PublicMiddle-aged, presently employed army retirees, California, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response63% of which 21% no return of questionnaire, 13% incomplete and 29% refusal
Respondents N =362

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-perceived amount of change in occupational role
Our classificationPerceived effects of change in militairy life
Operationalization
5-item index of closed questions on amount of change in 
present occupation, compared with former military 
occupation, rated on 4-point scales ranging from 'the 
same' to 'very different'.
Items used: actual work performed, knowledge and skill 
used, amount of time spent working, type of 
organization, kind of people one works with.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=-.15
Positive Affects: G= -.17
Negative Affects: G= +.12

Increased occupational prestige:
-affect balance : G= -.29
-positive affect: G= -.25
-negative affect: G= +.20

Same occupational prestige:
-affect balance : G= +.17
-positive affect: G= +.05
-negative affect: G= -.12

Decreased occupational prestige:
-affect balance : G= -.19
-positive affect: G= -.17
-negative affect: G= +.19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived effects of change in militairy life

StudyGarber (1971): study US California 1970
TitleRetired Soldiers in Second Careers: Self-Assessed Change, Reference Group Salience, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1971, USA
PublicMiddle-aged, presently employed army retirees, California, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response63% of which 21% no return of questionnaire, 13% incomplete and 29% refusal
Respondents N =362

Correlate
Author's labelCivilian reference group salience aftermilitary retirement
Page in Source 196
Our classificationPerceived effects of change in militairy life
Operationalization
8-item index of statements indicating orientation 
towards and identification with civilian life and 
current civilian career.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+
Positive Affects only: G= +.28


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived effects of change in militairy life

StudyGarber (1971): study US California 1970
TitleRetired Soldiers in Second Careers: Self-Assessed Change, Reference Group Salience, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1971, USA
PublicMiddle-aged, presently employed army retirees, California, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response63% of which 21% no return of questionnaire, 13% incomplete and 29% refusal
Respondents N =362

Correlate
Author's labelMilitary reference group salience aftermilitary retirement
Page in Source 208
Our classificationPerceived effects of change in militairy life
Operationalization
8-item index of statements indicating orientation 
towards and identification with the army and former 
military career.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+
Positive Affects only: G= +.10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived effects of change in militairy life

StudyGarber (1971): study US California 1970
TitleRetired Soldiers in Second Careers: Self-Assessed Change, Reference Group Salience, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1971, USA
PublicMiddle-aged, presently employed army retirees, California, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response63% of which 21% no return of questionnaire, 13% incomplete and 29% refusal
Respondents N =362

Correlate
Author's labelIncrease in occupat-ional prestige aftermilitary retirement
Page in Source 181
Our classificationPerceived effects of change in militairy life
Operationalization
3-item index of closed question on present job in 
comparison with former military job, with respect to: 
its general importance, level of skill and knowledge 
required, authority over other people.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+.22
Positive Affects: G= +.30
Negative Affects: G= -.01


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 7 questions:

Below is a list of words describing moods and feelings. Indicate how each of these words applies to how you feel now.
A Contented
B Calm
C Happy
D Pleased
E Satisfied
F Cheerful
G Good

Rating options (same for all items):
1 not at all
2 somewhat or slightly
3 mostly or generally

Name: Happiness subscale of Ryman et al (1974) Mood Questionnaire (MQ)
A-ASA-m-mqr-v-3-aSelfreport on 7 questions, repeated 15 times during 2 month (experience sampling)

Below is a list of words describing moods and feelings. Indicate how each of these words applies to how you feel now.
A Contented
B Calm
C Happy
D Pleased
E Satisfied
F Cheerful
G Good

Rating options (same for all items):
1 not at all
2 somewhat or slightly
3 mostly or generally


Summation: average over 2 months.

Name: Happiness subscale of Ryman et al (1974) Mood Questionnaire (MQ)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly excited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how happy are you with your life these days?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- cannot choose
- skipped
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

".....satisfaction with life in general....."
( Full question not reported )
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 mixed feelings
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general? Indicate your satisfaction by giving a number between 0 and 10, where 0 means 'completely dissatisfied' and 10 'completely satisfied'. So, the more satisfied you are the higher the number.
0 completely unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness


A new version of this website is available since 2020 August 1 at the old address worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl
This old website is renamed as worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl and is still maintained.
The new website links to some parts of this old website for the time being.


Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
14971 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 7730 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1354 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12851 distributional findings in the general public, of which 9280 in 173 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3571 findings in 2299 regions and cities in nations.
3068 studies with findings in 175 specific publics.
20128 correlational findings observed in 2592 studies, excerpted from 1898 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Number of Studies
ACTIVITY (how much one does)3
ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)374
AFFECTIVE LIFE81
AGE857
AGGRESSION15
ANOMY35
APPEARANCE (good looks)28
ATTITUDES17
AUTHORITARIANISM4
BIRTH CONTROL2
BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)201
BODY113
CHILDREN13
CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)349
CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN40
CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN19
CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)36
COMMUNAL LIVING16
COMPETENCES21
CONCERNS50
CONSUMPTION174
COPING71
CREATIVENESS8
CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR3
CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)51
DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
DISASTER3
EDUCATION724
EMPLOYMENT 1078
ERA (temporal period)163
ETHNICITY231
EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
EVENTS2
FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)528
FAMILY OF PROCREATION154
FAMILY OF RELATIVES270
FARMING68
FREEDOM59
FRIENDSHIP375
GENDER840
GRIEF1
HABITS2
HANDICAP55
HAPPINESS: BEHAVIOR4
HAPPINESS: CAREER302
HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS20
HAPPINESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS3
HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES397
HAPPINESS: OF OTHERS23
HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS27
HAPPINESS: SEQUALE1
HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS164
HEALTH: BEHAVIOR67
HEALTH: MENTAL308
HEALTH: PHYSICAL966
HEALTH: PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS71
HEALTH: PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT548
HEALTH: TREATMENT MEDICAL201
HELPING19
HOPE38
HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION336
HOUSEHOLD: WORK48
HOUSING389
INCOME1385
INSTITUTIONAL LIVING64
INTELLIGENCE92
INTERNET205
INTERESTS29
INTERVIEW 104
INTIMACY220
LANGUAGE51
LEADERSHIP15
LEISURE470
LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS527
LIFE CHANGE72
LIFE EVENTS149
LIFE GOALS131
LIFE HISTORY12
LIFE STYLE 76
LOCAL: CULTURE11
LOCAL: DEMOGRAPHY38
LOCAL: ECONOMY238
LOCAL: GEOGRAPHY303
LOCAL: LIVABILITY (fit with human needs/capacities)8
LOCAL: POLITICS14
LOCAL: RESIDENCE89
LOCAL: SOCIETY263
LOTTERY13
LOVE-LIFE46
MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER120
MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS1050
MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP197
MARRIAGE: PARTNER84
MEANING35
MEDITATION8
MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY125
MIGRATION: TO OTHER REGION1
MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)54
MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN REGION0
MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
MILITARY LIFE14
MINORITY STATUS0
MODERNITY62
MOOD408
MOTIVATION25
MOBILITY (travel)0
NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONE'S NATION80
NATION: CULTURE191
NATION: DEMOGRAPHY40
NATION: ECONOMY498
NATION: GEOGRAPHY90
NATION: HISTORY7
NATION: JUSTICE61
NATION: LIFESTYLE12
NATION: LIVABILITY (fit with human needs/capacities)70
NATION: NATIONALITY82
NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)88
NATION: POLITICS234
NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION23
NATION: SOCIETY315
NUTRITION184
OCCUPATION262
PERFORMANCE149
PERSONALITY: HISTORY57
PERSONALITY: CHANGE15
PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS864
PERSONALITY: LATER22
PETS4
PLANNING12
POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR320
POPULARITY33
PREFERENCES6
POSSESSIONS274
PRISON3
PROBLEMS40
REGION OF RESIDENCE112
REGION: CULTURE11
REGION: DEMOGRAPHY9
REGION: ECONOMY48
REGION: GEOGRAPHY34
REGION: HISTORY0
REGION: LIVABILITY. Fit environment - human needs/capacities6
REGION: PERSONALITY0
REGION: POLITICS11
REGION: POSITION1
REGION: SOCIETY7
RELIGION548
RESOURCES37
RETIREMENT170
ROLES31
SCHOOL1429
SELF-IMAGE355
SEX-LIFE88
SLEEP19
SOCIAL MOBILITY27
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS114
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS162
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)61
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS211
SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED148
SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED25
SPORTS226
STIMULANTS104
SUICIDE10
SUMMED DETERMINANTS217
SUSTAINABLE BEHAVIOR0
TIME 239
TOLERANCE40
TRAVEL30
TREATMENT0
TRUST71
VALUE DEVELOPMENT8
VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)172
VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)14
VALUES: LIVING UP TO20
VICTIM 47
WAR9
WISDOM1
WORK: CAREER2
WORK: CONDITIONS152
WORK: ATTITUDES466
WORK: PERFORMANCE42
WORRIES60
UNCLASSIFIED31
X0


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
MILITARY LIFEAttitudes to one's envirionment
MILITARY LIFEWAR
Military careerOccupational career
Change in military lifePerceived effects of change in militairy life
Recent leaving armed forceRETIREMENT
Current involvement in military lifeKind of occupation (profession)
Militairs in familyCharacteristics of family-members (earlier for adults)
Military skillOccupational competences
Attitudes to military lifeAttitudes to one's occupation

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings