Findings on Happiness and REGION OF RESIDENCE

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and main subject: REGION OF RESIDENCE

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Nr of Studieson subject
5 REGION OF RESIDENCE
  Development in region of residence
1     Earlier region of residence
6   Current area of residence
1     Region in Albania
1     Region in Argentina
7     Region in Australia
1     Region in Bangladesh
1     Region in Belgium
6     Region in Canada
6     Region in China
1     Region in Cuba
4     Region in Denmark
26     Region in Germany
1     Region in Hugary
1     Region in India
    Region in Indonesia
1     Region in Iraq
1     Region in Irerland
2     Region in Israel
3     Region in Italy
6     Region in Netherlands
2     Region in New Zealand
2     Region in Nigeria
3     Region in Norway
2     Region in South Africa
1     Region in Sweden
1     Region in Taiwan
1     Region in Thailand
1     Region in Ukraine
5     Region in UK
11     Region in USA
2   Attitudes to region of residence

Appendices
Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
Appendix 2: Statistics used
Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 4: Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 5: Related Subjects

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and REGION OF RESIDENCE
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=0138
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2021, Netherlands


Correlational finding on Happiness and REGION OF RESIDENCE

StudyBonikowska et al. (2013): study CA 2009 /2
TitleAn Assessment of Life Satisfaction Responses on Recent Statistics Canada Surveys.
SourceAnalytical Studies Research Papers Series, 2013, No. 351, Ontario, Canada
URLhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/2013351/part-partie1-eng.htm
Public15+aged, general public, Canada, 2009-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =63000

Correlate
Author's labelGeographic region
Page in Source 24-26
Our classificationREGION OF RESIDENCE
Operationalization
1 Ontario (reference)
2 Atlantic region
3 Quebec
4 Prairie provinces
5 British Columbia

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebb=+ p < .01
Atlantic region  (vs. Ontario)

       b      p<
2009  +.20    .001
2010  +.12    .01
2011  +.20    .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebb=+ p < .001
Quebec  (vs. Ontario)

       b      p<
2009  +.20    .001
2010  +.16    .001
2011  +.15    .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebb=- ns
Prairie provinces  (vs. Ontario)

       b      p<
2009  -.06    ns
2010  -.04    ns
2011  -.03    ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebb=+/- ns
British Columbia  (vs. Ontario)

       b      p<
2009  +.02    ns
2010  -.04    ns
2011  +.06    ns

b's controlled for:
- sex
- age
- marital status
- number of children
- education
- immigrant
- employment status
- household income
- household size
- homeownership
- selfreported health
- urban/rural area


Correlational finding on Happiness and REGION OF RESIDENCE

StudyBonikowska et al. (2013): study CA 2003
TitleAn Assessment of Life Satisfaction Responses on Recent Statistics Canada Surveys.
SourceAnalytical Studies Research Papers Series, 2013, No. 351, Ontario, Canada
URLhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/2013351/part-partie1-eng.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =24951

Correlate
Author's labelGeographic region
Page in Source 24-26
Our classificationREGION OF RESIDENCE
Operationalization
1 Ontario (reference)
2 Atlantic region
3 Quebec
4 Prairie provinces
5 British Columbia

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=+.15 p < .01
Atlantic region   (vs. Ontario)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=+.09 p < .05
Quebec            (vs. Ontario)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=-.06 ns
Prairie provinces (vs. Ontario)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=+.02 ns
British Columbia  (vs. Ontario)

b controlled for:
- sex
- age
- marital status
- education
- immigration
- employment status
- household income
- household size
- selfreported health
- urban/rural area


Correlational finding on Happiness and REGION OF RESIDENCE

StudyBonikowska et al. (2013): study CA 2003 /1
TitleAn Assessment of Life Satisfaction Responses on Recent Statistics Canada Surveys.
SourceAnalytical Studies Research Papers Series, 2013, No. 351, Ontario, Canada
URLhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/2013351/part-partie1-eng.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, Canada, 2003-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =20000

Correlate
Author's labelGeographic region
Page in Source 24-26
Our classificationREGION OF RESIDENCE
Operationalization
1 Ontario (reference)
2 Atlantic region
3 Quebec
4 Prairie provinces
5 British Columbia

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=+
Atlantic region (vs. Ontario)

       b      p<
2003  +.15   .001
2005  +.21   .001
2006  +.13   .001
2008  +.09   .01
2009  +.16   .001
2010  +.07    ns
2011  +.10   .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=+
Quebec            (vs. Ontario)

       b      p<
2003  +.09   .05
2005  +.22   .001
2006  +.11   .01
2008  +.16   .01
2009  +.16   .01
2010  +.23   .001
2011  +.07    ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=-
Prairie provinces (vs. Ontario)

       b      p<
2003  -.06    ns
2005  -.03    ns
2006  -.04    ns
2008  -.10   .05
2009  -.02    ns
2010  -.10    ns
2011  -.03    ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=+/-
British Columbia  (vs. Ontario)

       b      p<
2003  +.02    ns
2005  +.06    ns
2006  +.05    ns
2008  -.04    ns
2009  -.10    ns
2010  -.08    ns
2011  +.05    ns

b's controlled for:
- sex
- age
- marital status
- number of children
- education
- immigrant
- employment status
- household income
- household size
- homeownership
- selfreported health
- urban/rural area


Correlational finding on Happiness and REGION OF RESIDENCE

StudyBartlett et al. (2010): study MK 2008
TitleThe Quality of Life and Regional Development in FYR Macedonia
SourceCroatian Economic Survey, 2010, Vol. 12, 121-162
URLhttps://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=80214
Public18+ aged, FYR Macedonie, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response73 %
Respondents N =2797

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with life by region
Our classificationREGION OF RESIDENCE
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-bDM=+/-
East          M = 5,8
NorthEast     M = 5,0
Pelagonia     M = 5,7
Polog         M = 6,1
Skopje region M = 5,55
Southeast     M = 4,8
Southwest     M = 5,5
Vardar        M = 4,9
Set Image size:   

O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bDM=+/-
East          M = 6,8
NorthEast     M = 5,2
Pelagonia     M = 6,6
Polog         M = 6,2
Skopje region M = 6,0
Southeast     M = 6,75
Sothwest      M = 6,25
Vardar        M = 5,4
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and REGION OF RESIDENCE

StudyMitchell (1972): study ZZ 1967
TitleLevels of Emotional Strain in East Asian Cities.
SourceAsian Folklore & Social Life Monographs, The Orient Cultural Service, 1972, Taipei, Formosa
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/mitchell_re_1972.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 4 big cities South East Asia, 1967-1968
Sample
Non-Responseranges from 7.6% to 44%
Respondents N =6827

Correlate
Author's labelCountry and city
Page in Source 24
Our classificationREGION OF RESIDENCE
Operationalization
Taipei/Malaysia/Singapore/Bangkok

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aD%=
% 'quite'or 'very' happy                     
Taipei                  85
Malaysia                89
Singapore               92
Bangkok                 92


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier region of residence

StudyStillman et al. (2015): study NZ 2005
TitleMiserable Migrants? Natural Experiment Evidence on International Migration and Objective and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceWorld Development, 2015, Vol. 65, 79 - 93
URLhttps://ac.els-cdn.com/S0305750X13001654/1-s2.0-S0305750X13001654-main.pdf?_tid=1672d7b0-e89a-4840-a3a3-b08370747bd2&acdnat=1527490302_d59c78b55bf04d474c5a52a89408060a
Public18-45 aged immigrants from Tonga, followed 3 years after migrattion, New-Zealand, 2005-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelBorn Tongatapu
Page in Source 5, 10
Our classificationEarlier region of residence
Operationalization
Born in Tongatapu (largest Tongan Island)
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution1: 75%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.01 ns
B controlled for:
- marital status
- age
- years of education
- gender
- religion
- visited New Zealand before 2000
- employment status 
- personal income
- relative income
- survey wave
- time period of the year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current area of residence

StudyBonikowska et al. (2013): study CA 2009 /2
TitleAn Assessment of Life Satisfaction Responses on Recent Statistics Canada Surveys.
SourceAnalytical Studies Research Papers Series, 2013, No. 351, Ontario, Canada
URLhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/2013351/part-partie1-eng.htm
Public15+aged, general public, Canada, 2009-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =63000

Correlate
Author's labelRural/urban area
Page in Source 24-26
Our classificationCurrent area of residence
Operationalization
a Toroonto
b Montreal
c Vancouver
d Other metropolitan area
e Other urban area
f  Rural area

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebb=-/+ ns
Montreal (vs. Toronto)

       b      p<
2009  -.05    ns
2010  +.06    ns
2011  +.04    ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebb=-/+ ns
Vancouver (vs. Toronto)

       b      p<
2009  -.05    ns
2010  +.08    ns
2011  -.01    ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebb=+
Other metropolitan area (vs. Toronto)

       b      p<
2009  +.04    ns
2010  +.12   .01
2011  +.13   .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebb=+ p < .05
Other urban area (vs. Toronto)

       b      p<
2009  +.12   .05
2010  +.21   .001
2011  +.20   .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebb=+ p < .001
Rural area (vs. Toronto)

       b      p<
2009  +.17   .001
2010  +.27   .001
2011  +.23   .001

b's controlled for:
- sex
- age
- marital status
- number of children
- education
- immigrant
- employment status
- household income
- household size
- homeownership
- selfreported health
- geographical region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current area of residence

StudyBonikowska et al. (2013): study CA 2003
TitleAn Assessment of Life Satisfaction Responses on Recent Statistics Canada Surveys.
SourceAnalytical Studies Research Papers Series, 2013, No. 351, Ontario, Canada
URLhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/2013351/part-partie1-eng.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =24951

Correlate
Author's labelUrban/rural area
Page in Source 24-26
Our classificationCurrent area of residence
Operationalization
a Toronto (reference)
b Montreal
c Vancouver
d Other metropolitan area
e Other urban area
f Rural area

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=+.05 ns
Montreal                (vs. Toronto)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=-.06 ns
Vancouver               (vs. Toronto)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=+.10 p < .05
Other metropolitan area (vs. Toronto)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=+.20 p < .01
Other urban area        (vs. Toronto)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=+.26 p < .01
Rural area              (vs. Toronto)

b controlled for:
- sex
- age
- marital status
- education
- immigration
- employment status
- household income
- household size
- selfreported health
- geographic region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current area of residence

StudyBonikowska et al. (2013): study CA 2003 /1
TitleAn Assessment of Life Satisfaction Responses on Recent Statistics Canada Surveys.
SourceAnalytical Studies Research Papers Series, 2013, No. 351, Ontario, Canada
URLhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/2013351/part-partie1-eng.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, Canada, 2003-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =20000

Correlate
Author's labelUrban/rural area
Page in Source 24-26
Our classificationCurrent area of residence
Operationalization
a Toronto (refrence)
b Montreal
c Vancouver
d Other metropolitan area
e Other urban area
f   Rural area

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=+
Montreal (vs. Toronto)

       b      p<
2003  +.05    ns
2005  +.10    ns
2006  +.19   .01
2008  +.07    ns
2009  +.08    ns
2010  +.07    ns
2011  +.03    ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=+/-
Vancouver (vs. Toronto)

       b      p<
2003  -.06    ns
2005  +.04    ns
2006  +.10    ns
2008  +.11    ns
2009  +.16    ns
2010  +.08    ns
2011  +.06    ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=+
Other metropolitan area (vs. Toronto)

       b      p<
2003  +.10   .05
2005  +.12   .05
2006  +.21   .001
2008  +.08    ns
2009  +.11   .05
2010  +.16   .01
2011  +.12   .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=+
Other urban area (vs. Toronto)

       b      p<
2003  +.20   .001
2005  +.17   .01
2006  +.27   .001
2008  +.17   .01
2009  +.26   .001
2010  +.29   .001
2011  +.14   .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jb=+
Rural area (vs. Toronto)

       b      p<
2003  +.26   .001
2005  +.20   .001
2006  +.36   .001
2008  +.22   .001
2009  +.30   .001
2010  +.28   .001
2011  +.22   .001

b's controlled for:
- sex
- age
- marital status
- number of children
- education
- immigrant
- employment status
- household income
- household size
- homeownership
- selfreported health
- geographical region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current area of residence

StudyDiener et al. (1995a): study ZZ East-West pairs 1991 /1
TitleNational Differences in Reported Subjective Well-Being: Why do They Occur?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 34, 7 - 32
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078966
PublicCollege students, South Korea, China, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =208

Correlate
Author's labelNational differences
Page in Source 21
Our classificationCurrent area of residence
Operationalization
a China
b South Korea
c USA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sqt-v-7-cDM=
a China         M = 4,5
b South Korea   M = 4,6
c USA           M = 5,2

a
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-bDM=
a China         M = 2,1
b South Korea   M = 0,8
c USA           M = 2,5

a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current area of residence

StudyYeh et al. (2015): study TW 2009
TitleSelf-Evaluation Affects Subjectve Well-Being: The Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Personality in Taiwan
SourceFilomena Maggino, Ed.: "Social Indicators Research Series 57, A New Research Agenda for Impovements in Quality of Life", Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, Swiss, 2015, 109 - 134
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15904-1_6
PublicWorking age public, Taiwan, 2009
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1311

Correlate
Author's labelResidence
Page in Source 116
Our classificationCurrent area of residence
Operationalization
0: urban (reference) 
1: rural

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-iOPRC=+.09 ns
controlled for:
- personal characteristics
   - age
   - gender
   - education
   - employment status
   - marital status
   - health
   - residence 
   - religion
- absolute income
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-iOPRC=+.15 p < .05
additionally controlled for:
- relative income
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-iOPRC=+.20 p < .01
additionally controlled for:
- objective class position
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-iOPRC=+.24 p < .001
additionally controlled for:
- subjective class position

Beta similar when additionally controlled for:
- personality
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-oOPRC=+.10 ns
controlled for:
- personal characteristics
- absolute income
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-oOPRC=+.13 p < .05
additionally controlled for:
- relative income
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-oOPRC=+.16 p < .05
additionally controlled for:
- objective class position
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-oOPRC=+.19 p < .01
additionally controlled for:
- subjective class position

OPRC similar when additionally controled for:
- personality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current area of residence

StudyNoble (2009): study UA Kharkiv oblast 2007
TitleSubjective Well-Being: A Ukrainian Case Study.
SourceThesis, 2009, University College London, UK
Public18-85 aged, general public, 2 districts in city Kyiv, Ukraine, 2007
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =136

Correlate
Author's labelCity district
Page in Source 143
Our classificationCurrent area of residence
Operationalization
District in city of Kyev
a: Borshegovka
b: Perchersk
Observed distributionN= a: 86, b: 50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-v-4-aDM=
a: Borshegovka M = 2.76 SD = 0.49
b: Perchersk   M = 2.92 SD = 0.72
- difference       0.16
O-HL-m-sq-v-4-aLRCD=
Happiness remains higher in Prerchrsk after 
control for
- age
- gender
- perceived health
- material welfare

Perceived health explains most of


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Albania

StudyLitchfield et al. (2012): study AL 2005
TitleAn Analysis of Life Satisfaction in Albania: An Heteroscedastic Ordered Probit Model Approach.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2012, Vol. 81, 731 - 741
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2010.12.020
PublicWorking aged (15-65), Albania, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2923

Correlate
Author's labelLocation
Page in Source 27, 29
Our classificationRegion in Albania
Operationalization
1: urban
2: coastal
3: central
4: mountain
Observed distributionM = 1: 0.56; 2: 0.29; 3: 0.26: 4: 0.27

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-iOPRC=-.16 p < .01
urban
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-iOPRC=-.00 ns
coastal
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-iOPRC=+.10 ns
central
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-iOPRC=+.03 ns
mountain

OPRC contolled for:
- employment
- education
- illness
- religion
- marital status
- household status
- age
- gender
- lnprcons (2002 leks)
- nchildr
- nfriends
- pyramid
- livealone
- dwelling size
- land dispute
- thefts
- pop_increase
- comm_org


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Argentina

StudyBecchetti & Conzo (2010): study AR Buenos Aires 2009
TitleMicrofinance and Happiness.
SourceUniverstiy of Rome ''tor Vergata'', Working Paper, 2010, No. 69
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/ris/aiccon/2010_069.html
Public18+ aged, low income households, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =360

Correlate
Author's labelVillage
Page in Source 23,24
Our classificationRegion in Argentina
Operationalization
A: Villa de Mayo district
B: S. Brigida district
Remarks
A and B: two poor neighborhoods in Buenos Aires.

The sample was composed of:
150 clients of a microfinance organization
150 eligible, but non clients
60 dropouts (past clients of microfinance organization)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=-.38 ns
VILLA DE MAYO

B controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - education
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size

No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present)
- microfinance loan (present or past)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.21 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - village
  - education
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size

Positive when OPRC additionally controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present)
- microfinance loan (present or past)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=-.02 ns
S. BRIGIDA

B controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - education
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size

No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present)
- credit cycle

Positive when B additionally controlled for:
microfinance loan (present or past)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.02 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - village
  - education
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size

No significant change when OPRC controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present)
- credit cycle

Positive when OPRC additionally controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present or past)
- credit cycle (included dropouts)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Australia

StudyShyy et al. (2007): study AU Queensland 2003
TitleMapping Quality of Life in the South East Queensland Region with a Web-Based Application.
SourceJournal of Spatial Science, 2007, Vol. 52, 13 - 22
DOIDOI:10.1080/14498596.2007.9635110
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, Brisbane-South East Queensland (SEQ), 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1612

Correlate
Author's labellocal area
Page in Source 20
Our classificationRegion in Australia
Operationalization
Respondents street adress was given a geo-code. Next 
responses were plotted on a map using GIS software

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-5-aDM=
Map shows differences in average happiness across 
areas
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Australia

StudyCummins et al. (2004d): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Special Report on Cities.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelCapital city
Page in Source 6
Our classificationRegion in Australia
Operationalization
a: Canberra
b: Darwin
c: Sydney
d: Melbourne
e: Brisbane
f: Adelaide
g: Perth
h: Hobart
Observed distributionN = a: 175, b: 31, c: 1107, d: 983, e: 572, f: 393, g: 4127 h: 70

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,71; SD = 1,51
b Mt = 7,97; SD = 1,45
c Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,69
d Mt = 7,66; SD = 1,73
e Mt = 7,85; SD = 1,51
f Mt = 7,80; SD = 1,72
g Mt = 7,78; SD = 1,63
h Mt = 7,83; SD = 1,53
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT= ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caF=1,51 p < .158


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Australia

StudyCummins et al. (2004d): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Special Report on Cities.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelCities
Page in Source 10
Our classificationRegion in Australia
Operationalization
a: Metropolitan(Capital City)
b: Non-Metropolitan(Non-Capital City)
Observed distributionN = a: 5014; b: 4853

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+ p < .242
a Mt = 7,00; SD = 1,64
b Mt = 7,80; SD = 1,75


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Australia

StudyCummins et al. (2001b): study AU 2001
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 2, Report 2. Special Report on Income and Geographic Location.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2001, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response90%
Respondents N =2004

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 36
Our classificationRegion in Australia
Operationalization
0: female
1: male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
Victoria
0 Mt = 7,86, SD = 1,91, N = 104
1 Mt = 7,79, SD = 1,89, N =  58
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
New South Wales
0 Mt = 7,80, SD = 1,99, N = 130
1 Mt = 7,53, SD = 1,99, N = 100
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
Queensland
0 Mt = 7,76, SD = 2,13, N = 123
1 Mt = 7,69, SD = 2,20, N = 61
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
South Australia
0 Mt = 7,86, SD = 1,90, N = 109
1 Mt = 7,57, SD = 1,84, N = 58
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
West Australia
0 Mt = 7,86, SD = 1,74, N = 112
1 Mt = 7,24, SD = 3,37, N =  71


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Australia

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in Australia
Page in Source 427, 436, 438, 441
Our classificationRegion in Australia
Operationalization
States and territories in Australia:
a) New South Wales
b) Victoria
c) Queensland
d) South Australia
e) Western Australia
f) Tasmania
g) Northern territory
h) ACT (Canberra)
Observed distributiona) 31%, b) 26%, c) 19%, d) 10%, e) 9%, f) 3%, g) 2%, h) 1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=
                  Males   Females   Total
New South Wales   7.89    8.03      7.96
Victoria          7.96    8.00      7.98
Queensland        7.84    7.96      7.90
South Australia   7.98    8.15      8.07
Western Australia 7.82    7.99      7.91
Tasmania          8.03    8.22      8.13
Northern Territory7.90    7.84      7.87
ACT (Canberra)    7.84    7.64      7.74
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=
                  Males       Females  
New South Wales   -------------(reference)     
Victoria          +.04(ns)    +.02(ns)      
Queensland        -.07(.1)    -.08(.05)      
South Australia   +.02(ns)    +.06(ns)      
Western Australia -.06(ns)    -.10(.05)     
Tasmania          +.07(ns)    +.13(ns)      
Northern Territory-.08(ns)    -.32(.05)      
ACT (Canberra)    -.04(ns)    -.20(.05)

OPRC's controlled for:
- remoteness of place of residence
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) unemployment rate
  b) rate of single parents
  c) rate of immigrants from non-English 
     speaking countries
  d) rate of home owners
  e) rate of employees working in a 
     professional occupation
  f) aged 65 years and over
- age and age squared
- marital status
- number of children
- number of adults in household
- being an Aborginal/Torres Strait Islander
- being an immigrant
- English speaking ability
- health
- education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=
                  Males       Females  
New South Wales   -------------(reference)     
Victoria          +.06(ns)    +.02(ns)      
Queensland        -.06(ns)    -.08(.1)      
South Australia   +.06(ns)    +.07(ns)      
Western Australia -.04(ns)    -.10(.05)     
Tasmania          +.10(ns)    +.14(.1)      
Northern Territory-.00(ns)    -.29(.1)     
ACT (Canberra)    +.02(ns)    -.19(.05)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- 3 additional neighbourhood characteristics
  g) social interaction and social support
  h) local disamenity
  i) insecurity in the neighbourhood
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=
                  Males       Females  
New South Wales   -------------(reference)     
Victoria          +.05(ns)    +.02(ns)      
Queensland        -.05(ns)    -.07(.1)      
South Australia   +.06(ns)    +.07(ns)      
Western Australia -.04(ns)    -.10(.05)     
Tasmania          +.08(ns)    +.14(.1)      
Northern Territory-.00(ns)    -.29(.1)     
ACT (Canberra)    +.01(ns)    -.19(.05)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- duration of living in residence
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=
                  Males       Females   
New South Wales   -------------(reference)     
Victoria          +.05(ns)    +.04(ns)      
Queensland        -.04(ns)    -.08(.1)      
South Australia   +.01(ns)    +.02(ns)      
Western Australia -.09(ns)    -.09(.1)     
Tasmania          +.10(ns)    +.12(ns)      
Northern Territory-.22(ns)    -.40(.01)     
ACT (Canberra)    -.08(ns)    -.21(.05)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- relative income
instead of:
- duration of living in residence


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Australia

StudyCummins et al. (2005): study AU 2001
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Report 12.1. Special report on City and Country Living.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2005, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =24000

Correlate
Author's labelCapital City
Page in Source 33+44
Our classificationRegion in Australia
Operationalization
a: Darwin
b: Sydney
c: Canberra
d: Melbourne
e: Brisbane
f: Adelaide
g: Perth
h: Hobart

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,59; N =  100
b Mt = 7,69; SD = 1,71; N = 3271
c Mt = 7,63; SD = 1,61; N =  388
d Mt = 7,74; SD = 1,70; N = 2719
e Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,69; N = 1349
f Mt = 7,68; SD = 1,81; N = 1015
g Mt = 7,74; SD = 1,63; N = 1193
h Mt = 7,85; SD = 1,65; N =  240
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caE²=.001
partial eta² controled for
- income
- age
- gender
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Australia

StudyCummins et al. (2005): study AU 2001
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Report 12.1. Special report on City and Country Living.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2005, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =24000

Correlate
Author's labelState Regional Areas
Page in Source 50
Our classificationRegion in Australia
Operationalization
a: Northern Territory
b: New South Wales
c: Victoria
d: Queensland
e: South Australia
f: Western Australia
g: Tasmania

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 8,13; SD = 1,58; N =   72
b Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,79; N = 3206
c Mt = 7,90; SD = 1,72; N = 1035
d Mt = 7,80; SD = 1,83; N = 2419
e Mt = 7,89; SD = 1,69; N =  547
f Mt = 7,89; SD = 1,72; N =  562
g Mt = 7,89; SD = 1,69; N =  355
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
all differences n.s.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Bangladesh

StudyCamfield et al. (2009): study BD 2004
TitleWell-Being, Happiness and why Relationships Matter: Evidence from Bangladesh.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 71 - 91
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9062-5
Public18+ aged, general public,rural and urban areas, Bangladesh, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelUrbanization
Page in Source 80, 81, table 4
Our classificationRegion in Bangladesh
Operationalization
8 locations with different degrees of connectedness to 
the capital city Dhaka: 4 locations in a district far 
from Dhaka, and 4 locations closer to Dhaka. In each 
district 2 urban and 2 rural sites were chosen. Of the 
2  rural sites one was further from the urban site than 
the other:
A District Dinajpur (far from Dhaka)(reference)
    A1 Baniknagar (urban)
    A2 Shantipur (rural)
    A3 Telkupigaon (rural)
B District Manikganj (close to Dhaka)
    B1 Aloknagar (urban)
    B2 Bichitropur (rural)
    B3 Achingaon (rural)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-oq-v-3-aDM=+
District/City       Mean     DM     N    
MANIKGANJ(district) 1,99   +0,13   750
Aloknagar(urban)    2,09   +0,21   250
Bichitropur(rural)  1,88   +0,01   250
Achingaon(rural)    2,01   +0,14   250

DINAJPUR(district)  1,87           750
Baniknagar(urban)   2,10   +0,23   250
Shantipur(rural)    1,73   -0,14   250
Telkupigaon(rural)  1,78   -0.09   250

Happiness means and DM computed by WDH-team


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Belgium

StudySenik (2011): study BE 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4831

Correlate
Author's labelRegions
Page in Source 42
Our classificationRegion in Belgium
Operationalization
Residing in:
a) Brussels
b) Wallonia
c) Flanders (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.47 p < .001
BRUSSELS (vs Flanders)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.22 p < .001
WALLONIA (vs Flanders)

B's controlled for:
- Household income
- Age and age squared
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Gender
- Survey year
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.24 p < .05
BRUSSELS (vs Flanders)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.02 ns
WALLONIA (vs Flanders)

B's when additionally controlled for:
- Language spoken at home


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Canada

StudyLombardo et al. (2018): study CA 2003
TitleThe Fundamental Association Between Mental Health And Life Satisfaction: Results from Successive Waves of A Canadian National Survey.
SourceBMC Public Health, 2018, Vol. 18, online, 1 - 9
URLhttps://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-018-5235-x
Public12+ aged, general public, Canada, 2003-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response72,9
Respondents N =666574

Correlate
Author's labelProvince
Page in Source 5
Our classificationRegion in Canada
Operationalization
1 British Columbia (reference)
2 Prince Edward Island

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aDM=+
                     Mean happiness   CI95
British Columbia       4.23         [4.22-4.23]
Prince Edward Island   4.32         [4.30-4.33]
difference             +.09


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Canada

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2003
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
PublicWorkers, Canada, ,2003
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =9949

Correlate
Author's labelLiving in non-tracted area
Page in Source 216
Our classificationRegion in Canada
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jOPRC=+.01 ns
OPRC controled for:
- mastery scale with income effect subtracted
- job satisfaction with income effect subtracted
- log of total household income
- log average household income in census tract
- self-percieved health status
- gender
- age
- marital status
- education
- contacts with
  - family members outside household
  - friends
  - neighbors
- number of memberships
- trust in
  - general
  - neighbors
  - police
- religion
  - importance
  - frequency of attending religious services
- immigrant
- ethnic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Canada

StudyJones (2002a): study CA 1998
TitleHappiness and Optimism among Canada's 12 to 15 Years Old.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02-12, 2002, Christian Commitment Research Institute, Canada
Public12-15 aged, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =31194

Correlate
Author's labelRegional variation
Page in Source 5, 10,11
Our classificationRegion in Canada
Operationalization
Regional variation
a. Atlantic provinces
b. Quebec
c. Ontario
d. Prairie provinces
e. British Columbia

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nD%= ns
% most happy:
a: Atlantic Provinces 26% 
b: Quebec             33% 
c: Ontario            28% 
d: Prairie Provinces  27% 

Girls N=1680, boys N= 1690
e: British Columbia   27%
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.04 p < .485
boys, Atlantic Canada
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.10 p < .110
girls, Atlantic Canada
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.03 p < .565
girls, Ontario
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.10 p < .037
boys, Ontario
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.10 p < .079
girls, Prairie provences
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.08 p < .183
boys, Prairie provences
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.07 p < .288
girls, British Columbia
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.00 p < .958
boys, British Columbia
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.16 p < .040
Children with religious affiliation only: (Boys 
N=1178, girls N=1192)

girls, Atlantic Canada

girls
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.11 p < .169
boys, Atlantic Canada
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.12 p < .052
girls, Ontario
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.10 p < .088
boys, Ontario
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.10 p < .140
girls, Prairie Provinces
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.03 p < .625
boys, Prairie Provinces
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.05 p < .568
girls, British Columbia
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.12 p < .162
boys, British Columbia

B controlled for:
- child's age
- religion
- worship frequency, child
- public school attendee or not
- family composition 
- education of the mother 
- working mother or not
- smoking and drinking by the mother
- household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Canada

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1977
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1977
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =3289

Correlate
Author's labelGeographic region
Our classificationRegion in Canada
Operationalization
0 All
1 Specific region

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-br=+.01 ns
Maritimes
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-brpc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-br=+.07 p < .05
Quebec
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-brpc=+.07 p < .05
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-br=-.02 ns
Ontario
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-brpc=.00 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-br=+.02 ns
Prairies
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-br=-.07 p < .05
British Columbia
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-brpc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-brpc=-.07 p < .05


rpc's controled for income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Canada

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1974
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1974
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1234

Correlate
Author's labelGeographic region
Our classificationRegion in Canada
Operationalization
0 All
1 Specific region

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dr=-.09 p < .01
Maritimes
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-drpc=-.07 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dr=-.05 ns
Quebec
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-drpc=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dr=+.10 p < .01
Ontario
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-drpc=+.07 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dr=-.01 ns
Prairies
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dr=+.01 ns
British Columbia
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-drpc=.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-drpc=+.11 p < .01

rpc's controled for: Income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Canada

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1968
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1968
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2734

Correlate
Author's labelGeographic region
Our classificationRegion in Canada
Operationalization
0: All
1: Specific region

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-ar=.00 ns
Maritimes
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-arpc=+.04 ns
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-ar=-.09 p < .01
Quebec
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-arpc=-.07 p < .05
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns
Ontario
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-arpc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
Prairies
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-ar=+.04 ns
Britis Columbia
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-arpc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-arpc=+.03 ns

rpc's controled for income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in China

StudyZhang & Yang (2009): study CN 2009
TitleMeasuring Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of China and the USA.
SourceAsian Journal of Social Psychology, 2009,, Vol. 12, 221 - 225
URLhttp://blogs-journal.ccpn-global.org/2014/07/958/
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1467-839X.2009.01287.x
PublicUniverities students, China, 2009
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =348

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in China
Page in Source 224
Our classificationRegion in China
Operationalization
a  Beijing
b  Xi'an

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-g-mq-v-5-gDM=.75
Beijing:    M=1.23
Xi'an:      M=0.48
-difference M=0.75


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in China

StudyWang et al. (2013): study CN 2008
TitleHappiness and Job Satisfaction in Urban China: A Comparative Study of Two Generations of Migrants and Urban Locals.
SourceDiscussion Paper No. 08-13, 2013, Monash University, Department of Economics, USA
Public19+ aged, general public, China, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5395

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in China
Page in Source 7. 8
Our classificationRegion in China
Operationalization
Region in China:
- Eastern
- Central
- Western (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.03 p < .01
EASTERN (vs western)
Full sample               (N=5395)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.02 ns
First-generation migrants (N=2213)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.08 p < .05
New-generation migrants   (N=444)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.03 p < .05
Urban locals              (N=2738)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.01 ns
CENTRAL (vs western)
Full sample
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=-.01 ns
First-generation migrants (N=2213)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.06 ns
New-generation migrants   (N=444)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.03 ns
Urban locals              (N=2738)

B's controlled for:
- age and age squared
- gender
- years of education
- marital status
- health status
- having children
- hourly income
- surface area of house
- number of friends
- perceived recent change in social class
- job satisfaction

Full sample is additionally controlled for migrant 
status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in China

StudyGuo & Shu (2009): study CN 2006 /1
TitleThe Perception of Well-Being and Social Harmony in China.
SourceInoguchi, T.; Ed.: "Human Beliefs and Values in East and Southeast Asia in Transition", Akashi Shoten, 2009, Japan, 35 - 54
Public20-69 aged general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelRegion
Page in Source 42
Our classificationRegion in China
Operationalization
a: Eastern
b: Central
c: Western
Observed distributionN = a: 840, b: 760, c: 400

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mDM=
a: M = 3.75, SD = 0.84
b: M = 3.68, SD = 0.92
c: M = 3.61, SD = 0.93

Residents in eastern China are usually happier 
than those living in the western part
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mChi²=20.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in China

StudyAppleton & Song (2008): study CN 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction in Urban China: Components and Determinants.
SourceWorld Development, 2008, Vol. 36, 2325 - 2340
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.04.009
PublicAdults, general public, urban areas, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6977

Correlate
Author's labelHukou location
Page in Source 2335
Our classificationRegion in China
Operationalization
Question not reported.
a) Hukou in local urban area (reference)
b) Hukou in local suburban rural
c) Hukou in outside urban
d) Hukou in outside rural (rural-urban migrants)
Observed distributiona) 98%, b) 1%, c) .4%, d) .3%
Remarks
A hukou is a record in the system of household 
registration required by law in China. A household 
registration record officially identifies a person as a 
resident of an area and includes identifying 
information such as name, parents, spouse, residency 
status, and date of birth.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nOPRC=+.17 ns
LOCAL SUBURBAN RURAL (vs hukou in local urban 
area)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nOPRC=+.30 ns
OUTSIDE URBAN        (vs hukou in local urban 
area)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nOPRC=-.54 p < .01
OUTSIDE RURAL        (vs hukou in local urban 
area)

OPRC's controlled for:
- Fall in household income
- Household income
- Age (squared)
- Gender
- Unemployed
- Sociability
- Marital status
- Belief in religious tolerance
- Dependent relatives
- Health
- Political factors
- Occupation type
- Political factors
- Province


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in China

StudyJiang et al. (2012): study CN 2002
TitleIdentity, Inequality, and Happiness: Evidence from Urban China.
SourceWorld Development, 2012, Vol. 40, 1190 - 1200
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.11.002
Public16+ aged general public, 26 cities, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5630

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in China
Page in Source 1193, 1195
Our classificationRegion in China
Operationalization
Region in China:
a) Middle of China
b) West of China
c) South or East of China (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=+.04 ns
MIDDLE OF CHINA (vs South or East of China)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.05 ns
WEST OF CHINA   (vs South or East of China)

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) Rural/urban (Hukou) status
  b) Interaction Rural/urban (Hukou) status* 
  c) Age
  d) Gender
  e) Education
  f) Health
  g) Communist Party Member
  h) Unemployed
  i) Household income
  j) Future income expectations
  k) Marital status
  l) Housing area
- City characteristics
  m) Population growth
  n) City size
  o) GDP per capita
  p) Gini-coefficient
- Rural migrants vs urbans differences
  q) Between-group inequality
  r) Education difference between urbans and 
     migrants


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in China

StudyChan & Lee (2006): study CN 2000
TitleNetwork Size, Social Support and Happiness in Later Life: A Comparative Study of Beijing and Hong Kong.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2006, Vol. 7, 87 - 112
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-1915-1
Public60+aged, China, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2125

Correlate
Author's labelCity of residence
Page in Source 96
Our classificationRegion in China
Operationalization
a: Beijng
b: Hong Kong
Observed distributionN = a; 1004, b: 1121

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbDM=+ p < .001
Beijng     M = 4.01
Hong Kong  M = 3.51
- difference  +0.50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Cuba

StudyCantril (1965): study CU 1960
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged, general public, urban areas, Cuba, 1960
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =992

Correlate
Author's labelCommunity size
Page in Source 366
Our classificationRegion in Cuba
Operationalization
1: -5,000
2: 5,000-10,000
3: 10,000-20,000
4: 20,000-50,000
5: 50,000+ 
6: Havana

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=
-5,000          : Mt = 5.3
 5,000 - 10,000 : Mt = 6.3
10,000 - 20,000 : Mt = 6.0
20,000 - 50,000 : Mt = 7.6
50,000+         : Mt = 6.3
Havana          : Mt = 6.0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Denmark

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelcounty of residence
Page in Source 76,78
Our classificationRegion in Denmark
Operationalization
counties in Denmark
a: Kobenhavns Amt
b: Frederiksborg Amt
c: Roskilde Amt
d: Vetsjaellands Amt
e: Storstroms Amt
f: Fyns Amt
g: Bornholms Amt
h: Sonderjyllands Amt
i: Ribe Amt
j: Vejle Amt
k: Ringkobing Amt
l: Viborg Amt
m: Arhus Amt
n: Nordjyllands Amt
Observed distributionN: all:4095, a:2312; b:485; c:3411; d:61; e:145; f: 162; g:19; h:37; i:39; j:107; k:55; l:61; m:158; n:113

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
a: Mt=7.76
b: Mt=7.80
c: Mt=7.94
d: Mt=7.83
e: Mt=7.93
f: Mt=7.71
g: Mt=7.10
h: Mt=7.98
i: Mt=7.63
j: Mt=7.43
k: Mt=7.78
l: Mt=7.83
m: Mt=7.49
n: Mt=7.39
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
a: Mt=7.40
b: Mt=7.61
c: Mt=7.56
d: Mt=7.63
e: Mt=7.63
f: Mt=7.38
g: Mt=7.24
h: Mt=7.64
i: Mt=7.11
j: Mt=7.13
k: Mt=7.86
l: Mt=7.63
m: Mt=7.15
n: Mt=7.10
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
a: Mt=7.01
b: Mt=7.11
c: Mt=7.36
d: Mt=6.80
e: Mt=7.21
f: Mt=6.94
g: Mt=6.98
h: Mt=7.16
i: Mt=7.05
j: Mt=6.75
k: Mt=7.64
l: Mt=6.80
m: Mt=6.71
n: Mt=6.69


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Denmark

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelresidence (country/town)
Page in Source 74
Our classificationRegion in Denmark
Operationalization
Single question: Where do you live ?
1: In the country
2: In a small town
3: In a large town or suburb
4: In Copenhagen
Observed distributionN: all:4538, 1:323 2:565, 3:1919, 4:1731,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.03 p < .09
1: Mt=7.91
2: Mt=7.73
3: Mt=7.79
4: Mt=7.68
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.05 p < .00
1: Mt=7.68
2: Mt=7.51
3: Mt=7.48
4: Mt=7.29
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.05 p < .00
1: Mt=7.26
2: Mt=7.08
3: Mt=7.08
4: Mt=6.91


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Denmark

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelcounty of residence
Page in Source 72, 74
Our classificationRegion in Denmark
Operationalization
counties in Denmark
a: Kobenhavns Amt
b: Frederiksborg Amt
c: Roskilde Amt
d: Vetsjaellands Amt
e: Storstroms Amt
f: Fyns Amt
g: Bornholms Amt
h: Sonderjyllands Amt
i: Ribe Amt
j: Vejle Amt
k: Ringkobing Amt
l: Viborg Amt
m: Arhus Amt
n: Nordjyllandsmt
Observed distributionN: a:333, b:107, c:65, d:104, e:69, f:118, g:11, h:59, i:48, j;88, k:69, l:104, m:150, n:111,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
a: Kobenhavns Amt      Mt=7.66    
b: Frederiksborg Amt   Mt=7.74
c: Roskilde Amt        Mt=7.58
d: Vetsjaellands Amt   Mt=7.84
e: Storstroms Amt      Mt=8.26 
f: Fyns Amt            Mt=7.81
g: Bornholms Amt       Mt=6.59
h: Sonderjyllands Amt  Mt=7.63
i: Ribe Amt            Mt=7.98  
j: Vejle Amt           Mt=7.61
k: Ringkobing Amt      Mt=8.19 
l: Viborg Amt          Mt=7.84 
m: Arhus Amt           Mt=7.74
n: Nordjyllandsmt      Mt=7.86 
All                    Mt=7.77
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
a: Kobenhavns Amt      Mt=7.23
b: Frederiksborg Amt   Mt=7.45 
c: Roskilde Amt        Mt=7.35
d: Vetsjaellands Amt   Mt=7.26
e: Storstroms Amt      Mt=7.61
f: Fyns Amt            Mt=7.44  
g: Bornholms Amt       Mt=6.14
h: Sonderjyllands Amt  Mt=7.46
i: Ribe Amt            Mt=7.40
j: Vejle Amt           Mt=7.35
k: Ringkobing Amt      Mt=8.11
l: Viborg Amt          Mt=7.26
m: Arhus Amt           Mt=7.45
n: Nordjyllandsmt      Mt=7.56
All                    Mt=7,40
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
a: Kobenhavns Amt      Mt=6.78
b: Frederiksborg Amt   Mt=7.05
c: Roskilde Amt        Mt=6.65
d: Vetsjaellands Amt   Mt=6.85
e: Storstroms Amt      Mt=7.25
f: Fyns Amt            Mt=6.91
g: Bornholms Amt       Mt=5.45
h: Sonderjyllands Amt  Mt=6.86
i: Ribe Amt            Mt=7.19
j: Vejle Amt           Mt=6.94
k: Ringkobing Amt      Mt=7.54 
l: Viborg Amt          Mt=6.85
m: Arhus Amt           Mt=6.78
n: Nordjyllandsmt      Mt=7.16 
All                    Mt=6,93


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Denmark

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelresidence(country/town)
Page in Source 70
Our classificationRegion in Denmark
Operationalization
Single question:"Where do you live?"
1:In the country
2:In a small town 
3:In a large town or suburb         
4:In Copenhagen
Observed distributionN: 1:260, 2:703, 3:330, 4:173

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
 1: Mt=7.98
 2: Mt=7.81
 3: Mt=7.79
 4: Mt=7.48
All Mt=7.76
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.06 p < .02
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
  1:Ms=7.59
  2:Ms=7.48
  3:Ms=7.55
  4:Ms=6.99
All Mt:7.44
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.07 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
  a:Ms=7.13
  b:Ms=6.94
  c:Ms=7.01 
  d:Ms=6.61
All Mt=6.94
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.06 p < .03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyWinkelmann (2009): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleUnemployment, Social Capital, and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 421 - 430
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10902-008-9097-2#page-1
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9097-2
PublicEmployed, who fell unemployed, West-Germany 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5536

Correlate
Author's labelEast Germany
Page in Source 20
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
1 East Germany
0 West Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.62
males
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.57
females

B's conrolled for
-Umenployment
-Age (three dummies)
-German nationality
-Marital Status
-Univeristy graduate
-Reported activities (Attending culural event, 
entertainment, sport, voluntary work, church 
service, visiting friends and family)

B denotes points difference in happiness on scale 
0-10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyHabich & Noll (2004): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleObjektive Lebensbedingungen und subjektives Wohlbefinden im vereinten Deutschland. (Objective Living Conditions and Subjective Wellbeing in United Germany).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Ed.: "Datenreport 2004", Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2004, Bonn, Gemany, 457 - 575
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 1984-2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16698

Correlate
Author's labelpopulation group
Page in Source 561
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
A people from western part of Germany (former BRD)
B people from eastern part of Germany (former GDR)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=-
1991             %unsatisfied   %satisfied
- West Germany      6             89
- East Germany     14             67
Difference        + 8            -22
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=-
1995             
- West Germany     6              85
- East Germany     8              79
Difference        +2             - 6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=-
1999             
- West Germany     6              88
- East Germany     6              84
Difference        ±0             - 4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=-
2002             
- West Germany     4              85
- East Germany     7              80
Difference        +3             - 5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelEastern- western Germany
Page in Source 25n
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
0 Western Germany
1 Eastern Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.75 p < .01
Eastern Germany less happier than Western Germany
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.50


B's controled for:
- age
- education
- household income
- position in the household
- employment
- country of origin
- time (dummy for wave of panel)
and additionally for:
- trait-happiness (average over all 14 waves)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyNoll & Weick (2015): study DE 2010
TitleConsumption Expenditures and Subjective Well-Being: Emperical Evidence from Germany
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 101 - 119
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0219-3
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =30000

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in Germany
Page in Source Table 4, 5
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
0: West Germany (reference)
1: East Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.37 p < .001
EAST GERMANY (vs West Germany)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.30 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures(ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.28 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.27 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures(ln)
-Household net income(ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.27 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures on 11 categories

All the above B's controlled for
-Age
-Marital status
-Education
-Employment status
-Self-rated health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyKnies (2012): study DE 2004
TitleIncome Comparisons among Neighbours and Satisfaction in East and West Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 106, 471 - 489
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Delivery.cfm/SSRN_ID1611632_code940076.pdf?abstractid=1611632&mirid=1
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s11205-011-9818-5
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004+2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22000

Correlate
Author's labelWest and East Germany
Page in Source 21,22
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
a West Germany
b East  Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
West Germany M = 6.91
East Germany M = 6.26
- difference     0.65


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyDelken (2008): study DE 2004
TitleHappiness in Shrinking Cities in Germany.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2008, Vol. 9, 213 - 218
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9046-5
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22000

Correlate
Author's labelparts of Germany
Page in Source 34
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
a: East-Germany (former German Democratic Republic)
b: West-Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
a: former East-Germany   6.5 CI95[6.42-6.52]
b: former West-Germany   7.1 CI95[7.10-7.15]
- difference             0.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyKoch et al. (2005): study DE 2002
TitleWorkfare: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen. (Workfare: Possibilities and Limitations).
SourceIAB Discusdsion Paper no. 17/2005, Nürnberg, Germany
URLhttps://www.econstor.eu/dspace/bitstream/10419/31924/1/498010902.PDF
Public18-65 aged, on low wage or on social security, Germany, 2002-2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2568

Correlate
Author's labelRegion
Page in Source 29
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
a West Germany
b East Germany (former communist DDR)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.62 p < .00
East (vs West)

B controlled for: 
- Employment status, social assistence
- Net household income
- Net household income per head
- Nationality (German, not German)
- Age
- Age squared
- Years of education in school and occupation
- Living together with a partner
- Satisfaction with health
- Level of being unfit for work activity
- Year (2002, 2003)

Robust OLS. Ordered Probit analysis yiels similar 
result


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyHabich & Noll (2002): study DE 2001
TitleSoziale Schichtung und soziale Lagen. (Social Stratification and Social Situation).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Ed.: "Daten Report 2002", Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2002, Bonn, Germany, 570 - 579
URLhttp://www.destatis.de
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2739

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in Germany
Page in Source 575+ 432
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
0: Western Germany
1: Former communist Eastern Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
West: M=7,6
East: M=6,9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyTrzcinski & Holst (2006): study DE 2001
TitleSetting the Set Point. Initial Predictors of Life Satisfaction in Early Adulthood.
SourceDiscussion paper 558, DIW (German Institute for Economic Research), 2006, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/44083/dp558.pdf
Public17 aged, Germany, 2001-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1202

Correlate
Author's labelLiving in West-Germany
Page in Source 15,24,25
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
0 East German (reference category)
1 West German
Observed distribution0 = 29 %, 1 = 64 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.11 ns
b controlled for:
- personal control  
- satisfaction with grades
- perceived of probability of success in education 
and work
- nationality
- gender 
- household composition
- income
- education  
- number of important relationships
- relationship with mother 
- relationship with father
- mother worked part-time or full-time entire year 
(vs not)
- months of unemployment of mother in the previous 
year
- mother’s  worries about financial situation 
- life satisfaction of mother 

b = +.11 means that being West German 
correspondents with 0.11 points more happiness  on 
the 0-10 point scale compared to being East German


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyTrzcinski & Holst (2006): study DE 2001 /1
TitleSetting the Set Point. Initial Predictors of Life Satisfaction in Early Adulthood.
SourceDiscussion paper 558, DIW (German Institute for Economic Research), 2006, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/44083/dp558.pdf
PublicMothers of 17 aged, Germany, 2001-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1202

Correlate
Author's labelRegion
Page in Source 15,25,26
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
0 East German (reference category)
1 West German
Observed distributionEast German = 29 %, West German = 64 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.23 p < .05
B controlled for:
- income
- condition of apartment
- months of unemployment of mother in the previous 
year
- mother’s  worries about financial situation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyWinkelmann (2006): study DE 2000
TitleParental Separation and Well-Being of Youths. Evidence from Germany.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 197 - 208
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.008
Public16-18 aged, Germany, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelTerritory of former West Germany
Page in Source 5,17,18
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
Living in the territory of former West Germany
Observed distributionM =0,0.684 (68%), SD = 0,465

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
also controlled for:
- non-intact family
- household income 
- having an own room
- being a single child
- gender
- German nationality
- Being in school
- Engaged in vocational training
- work
- lives at home
- region of childhood (mid-sized city,small-city, 
rural area)	
probit result= 0,213
CI95=[ 0.03  0,40]
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
additionally controlled for
- type of school(hauptschule, realschule, 
gymnasium)
- good student
- repeat a grade
- education of parents(father gymnasium, mother 
gymnasium)
- log number of books in the household
probit result= 0,285
CI95=[ 0,09  0,48]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyMollenkopf & Kaspar (2005): study DE 2000
TitleAgeing in Rural Areas of East and West Germany: Increasing Similarities and Remaining Differences.
SourceEuropean Journal of Aging, 2005, Vol. 2, 120 - 130
DOIdoi:10.1007/s10433-005-0029-2
Public55+ aged, general public, rural areas, East and West Germany, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response41,6%
Respondents N =762

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in Germany
Page in Source 124
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
0: West Germany
1: East Germany
Observed distributionA: N=725; B: N=721

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-fDM=+
0:West Germany    M = +1,0
1:East Germany    M = +1,1
Difference:           +0,1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baDM=- p < .001
0: West Germany    M= 7,7; SD=1,9
1: East Germany    M= 7,0; SD=2,3
Difference           -0,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyLang (1999): study DE 1997
TitleOstdeutsche Befindlichkeiten ein Jahrzehnt nach der Wende - Ambivalente Spuren des Umbruchs. (Attitudes in East Germany 10 Years after Reunification).
SourceWirtschaft im Wandel, 1999, Vol. 16, 4 - 9
URLhttp://www.iwh-halle.de/d/publik/wiwa/16-99-3.pdf
Public20-24 and 40-44 aged, Germany, 1997
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1639

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 9
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
0 all
1 unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=-
           Happiness in West Germany   
            %low    %middle  %high
age 20-24:
- all          3     45       52
- unemployed  14     47       39 
age 40-44:   
- all          6      52      42
- unemployed  19      58      23
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=-
            Happiness in East Germany   
            %low    %middle  %high
age 20-24:
- all          3     60       37
- unemployed  10     73       17 
age 40-44:   
- all         12      68      20
- unemployed  32      57      11


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyWeick (1997): study DE 1995
TitleLebensbedingungen und Bewertungen. (Living Conditions and Evaluations).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Ed.: "Datenreport 1997", Verlag Bonn Aktuell, 1997, Germany, 468 - 480
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/weick_s_1997.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1995
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelEast and West Germany
Page in Source 477
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
a. West Germany
b. East Germany
Remarks
East-Germany is the former communist German Democratic 
Republic (DDR), which was reunited with West-Germany in 
1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
West-Germany   7,0
East-Germany   6,4
difference    -0,6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyBerger (2009): study DE 1994
TitleMaternal Employment and Happiness: The Effect of Non-Particpation and Part-time Employment on Mothers' Life Satisfaction.
SourceSOEP paper No. 178, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.98011.de/diw_sp0178.pdf
PublicMothers aged 20-65, Germany, followed 14 years, 1994-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5706

Correlate
Author's labelLiving in East Germany
Page in Source 7,8,21
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
0 West Germany
1 East Germany
Observed distributionM = 0,22

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.58 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Employment status
- Age
- Migration background
- Residual Household Income
- Education
- Person in need of care in househild
- Disabled
- Self rated health
- Size of the municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Partner status
- Number of children
- Age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.03 ns
Fixed effects.
B same controls as OLS except for age and 
migration background.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyObucina (2013): study DE 1994
TitleThe Patterns of Satisfaction Among Immigrants in Germany
Source Social Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 113, 1105 - 1127.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-012-0130-9
Public18-65 aged general public, Germany, followed 16 years, 1994-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =209989

Correlate
Author's labelWest/East Germany
Page in Source 1116
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
Place of residence:
1: West-Germany
0: East-Germany
Remarks
East-Germany entails the area of the former Deutsche 
Demokratische Republik (DDR). West-Germany entails the 
former Bundes Republik Deutschland (BDR). They were 
reunited in 1990 into Germany.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.19 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Relative deprivation
- Household income
- Household composition
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Education
- Country of birth
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Savings
- Health
- Year controls


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyWeick (1994a): study DE 1993
TitleFamilie. (Family).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Eds.: "Datenreport 1994", Bundeszentrale für politische Bilding, 1994, Germany, 508 - 520
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/weick_s_1994A.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1993
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelEast and West
Page in Source 513
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
a. West Germany
b. East Germany
Remarks
East-Germany is the former communist German Democratic 
Republic (DDR), which was reunited with West-Germany in 
1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-fDM=1,0
West M = 7,9
East M = 6,9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyD'Ambrosio & Frick (2012): study DE 1992
TitleIndividual Wellbeing in a Dynamic Perspective.
SourceEconomica, 2012, Vol. 79, 284 - 302
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x/full
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x
Public18+ aged general public, followed 15 years, 1992-2007, Germany
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184000

Correlate
Author's labelEast germany
Page in Source 295
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
1) East-Germany
0) West-Germany
Observed distributionM=0.248; SD=0.432

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.22 p < .01
b controlled for:
- age
- years of education
- number of children in household
- homeownership
- unemployment index
- marital status
- disablity
- unemployment status
- household member in need of care
- community size
- dummy for learning effect
- household income
- past household income
- social reference income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyFrijters et al. (2004a): study DE 1991 /1
TitleMoney does Matter! Evidence from Increasing Real Income and Life Satisfaction in East Germany following Reunification.
SourceThe American Economic Review, 2004, Vol. 94, 730 - 740
DOIDOI:10.1257/0002828041464551
Public21-64 aged general public, East Germany, 1991-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3086

Correlate
Author's labelLiving on the border of East/West Germany
Page in Source 735
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
Living near the east/west border of Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.57
Men only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.11
Women only

Beta's controlled for:
- marital status
- number of children
- disability
- employment status
- household income
- year dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyIsengard & Schneider (2002): study DE 1991
TitleDie Lebenssituation von Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen in Deutschland. (The Living Conditions of Youngsters and Young Adults in Germany).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt; Eds.: "Data Report 2002", 2002, Bonn, Germany, 541 - 550
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 1991,1995,1999
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13000

Correlate
Author's labelOrigin of youngsters
Page in Source 548
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
A: West German youngsters
B: East German youngsters
C: Foreign youngsters (Western Germany)
Remarks
17-25 aged West Germany only

Happiness assessed at:
T1: 1991
T2: 1995
T3: 1999

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=
                     1991     1995     1999
% happy
A: West German        89       84       89
B: East German        66       81       84
C: Foreign            85       80       84

% unhappy
A: West German         6        6        5
B: East German        15        7        6
C: Foreign             4        9        7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyBartolini et al. (2013a): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelLiving in West Germany
Page in Source 20, 34, 35
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no
Observed distributionN=338757 M=0.78 sd=0.41

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.16 ns
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelMoved to West/East Germany following reunification
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
      Males      Females
East: Beta=+.44  Beta=+.40
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
West: Beta=-.20  Beta=-.26

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelMoved home within East/West Germany in last year
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
      Males      Females
East: Beta=-.08  Beta=-.06
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
West: Beta=-.04  Beta=-.07

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelLive on the border of East and West Germany
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
      Males      Females
East: Beta=+.05  Beta=+.26
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=±
West: Beta=-.01  Beta=+.01

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyPohl (2006): study DE 1984
TitleEmployment Status, Income and the Subjective Well-Being of Immigrants.
SourcePrinceton University, Working Paper, 2006, No. 71087
URLhttp://paa2007.princeton.edu/papers/71087
Public25-65 aged immigrants, Germany, followed yearly 1984-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15790

Correlate
Author's labelWest-Germany
Page in Source 16
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
0: East-Germany; 1: West-Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+1.1 p < .01
West-Germany

OPRC controlled for:
- Sexe
- Age
- Number of children
- Marital status
- Education level
- Immigration background
- Employment status
- Income
- Worries
- Health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Germany

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE 1984
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16-65 aged general public, Germany, followed 1-21 years, 1984-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =294528

Correlate
Author's labelEast- vs. West-Germany
Page in Source Appendix A (p.35), 435
Our classificationRegion in Germany
Operationalization
a) West-Germany
b) East-Germany
Remarks
East-Germany entails the area of the former Deutsche 
Demokratische Republik (DDR). West-Germany entails the 
former Bundes Republik Deutschland (BDR). They were 
reunited in 1990 into Germany.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dF=+ p < .01
West-Germany: M=7.08
East-Germany: M=6.32
Difference:     0.76


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Hugary

StudyLelkes (2002): study HU 1992
TitleTasting Freedom: Happiness, Religion and Economic Transition.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2006, Vol. 59, 173 - 194
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2004.03.016
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1992-1998
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =9167

Correlate
Author's labelBudapest dummy
Page in Source 183
Our classificationRegion in Hugary
Operationalization
1: Lives in Budapest
0: Otherwise

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=-.07 ns
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=-.19 p < .10
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.01 ns
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.03 p < .10
1998

b and Beta control for:
-religious involvement
-employment status
-income
-education level
-age
-gender
-Gypsy ethnicity 
-living in Budapest
-marital status
-number of children

Analysis incorporates sampling weights for the 
correction of sampling design (1992) and sample 
fit (1998).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in India

StudyVanLandeghem & Vandeplas (2017): study IN 2008
TitleThe Relationship between Status and Happiness: Evidence from the Caste System in Rural India.
SourceWorking Paper, 2017, Nr IZA DP 11099, Institute of Labor Economics, Bonn, Germany
URLhttps://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3056637
PublicHouseholds, Rural regions, India, 2008-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in India: Punjab vs AP
Page in Source 21
Our classificationRegion in India
Operationalization
Rural areas in
a  Punjab: state in Northern India 
b Andhra Pradesh: state in Southers India

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-IDM=-0,4
Punjab  Mean =  3,5  SD = 0,89
AP      Mean =  3,9  SD = 0,70
- difference = -0,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Iraq

StudyYounis et al. (2003): study IQ 2001
TitleQuality of Life among College Students in Iraq.
SourceQuality of Life Newsletter, 2003, Vol. 30, 3 - 4
PublicUniversity students, Iraq, 2001
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =579

Correlate
Author's labelGeographic regions of Iraq
Page in Source 3
Our classificationRegion in Iraq
Operationalization
a Baghdad
b Diala
c Thi-Qar
Observed distributionN = a: 181, b: 198, c: 200

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-cw-sq-v-5-bChi²=+25 p < .01
     M     Mt     CI95
a:   3.12  5.30   4.90-5.71
b:   3.23  5.33   5.47-6.17
c:   2.86  4.63   4.27-5.05
Multiple comparison shows b>c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Irerland

StudyHealy (2005): study IE 2002
TitleIn Each Other's Shadow. What Has Been the Impact of Human and Social Capital on Life Satisfaction in Ireland?
SourceThesis, National University of Ireland, 2005, Dublin, Ireland
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/healy_t_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelresidential location
Page in Source 164
Our classificationRegion in Irerland
Operationalization
a: Dublin/large town (10,000 inhabitants+); 
b: all other areas

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebDM=-
large town:      M = 7.72
all other areas: M = 7.75
- difference        -0,03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Israel

StudyCantril (1965): study IL 1961
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, Israel, 1961-62
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1170

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in Israel
Page in Source 369
Our classificationRegion in Israel
Operationalization
Coop. settlement / new urban / long settled urban / Tel 
Aviv, Haifa / Jerusalem

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=
Coop. settlement    : Mt = 5.3
New urban           : Mt = 4.5
Long settled urban  : Mt = 5.5
Tel-Aviv, Haifa     : Mt = 5.5
Jerusalem           : Mt = 5.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Israel

StudyCantril (1965): study IL 1961
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, Israel, 1961-62
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1170

Correlate
Author's labelRegion
Page in Source 369
Our classificationRegion in Israel
Operationalization
a: Coop. settlement
b: new urban
c:  long settled urban
d: Tel Aviv, Haifa
e: Jerusalem

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=
Coop. settlement    : Mt = 5.3
New urban           : Mt = 4.5
Long settled urban  : Mt = 5.5
Tel-Aviv, Haifa     : Mt = 5.5
Jerusalem           : Mt = 5.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Italy

StudyBecchetti & Pisani (2014): study IT 2010
TitleFamily Economic Well-Being, and (Class) Relative Wealth: An Emperical Analysis of Life Satisfaction of Secundary School Students in Three Italian Cities.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 503 -525
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9433-z
Public17-18 aged , secondary school students, Italy, 2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2124

Correlate
Author's labelResidence
Page in Source Table 1 - Table 5
Our classificationRegion in Italy
Operationalization
a. Rome
b. Genoa
c. Milan (reference)
Observed distributiona. M = .32; SD = .01; b. M = .18; SD = .01; c. M = .49; SD = .01

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.61 p < .01
TYPE OF SCHOOL FIXED EFFECT

Living in Rome  (vs living in Milan)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.31 p < .01
Living in Genoa (vs living in Milan)

OLRC's controlled for:
-single parent
-repeated at least one school year
-gender

Similar results when additionally controlled for:
-Household economic condition
 -houseownership
 -mortgage
 -current account
-School performance
 -final grade in Italian
 -final grade in maths
 -final grade at middle school
-Parental jobs
-Relationship
 -trust in family
 -friends
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.93 p < .01
SCHOOL FIXED EFFECT

Living in Rome  (vs living in Milan)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+1.3 p < .01
Living in Genoa (vs living in Milan)

OLRC's controlled for:
-single parent
-repeated at least one school year
-gender

Different results when additionally controlled 
for:
-Household economic condition
 -houseownership
 -mortgage
 -current account
-School performance
 -final grade in Italian
 -final grade in maths
 -final grade at middle school
-Parental jobs
-Relationship
 -trust in family
 -friends
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.90 p < .01
CLASS FIXED EFFECTS

Living in Rome  (vs living in Milan)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.89 p < .01
Living in Genoa (vs living in Milan)

OLRC's controlled for:
-single parent
-repeated at least one school year
-gender

Similar results when additionally controlled for:
-Household economic condition
 -houseownership
 -mortgage
 -current account
-School performance
 -final grade in Italian
 -final grade in maths
 -final grade at middle school
-Parental jobs
-Relationship
 -trust in family
 -friends


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Italy

StudyDiGiacinto et al. (2007): study IT 2004
TitleCreativity and Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at teh International Conference ''Policy for Happiness'', June 2007, Siena, Italy
URLhttp://www.unisi.it/eventi/happiness/curriculum/ferrante.pdf
PublicEmployees, Italy, 2004
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =1240

Correlate
Author's labelArea
Page in Source 22
Our classificationRegion in Italy
Operationalization
a: Centre
b: North
c: South and Islands
Observed distributionNot reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.22 p < .019
Centre (versus South and Islands)
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-ab=+.30 p < .035
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.08 p < .035
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.23 p < .004
North (versus South and Islands)
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-ab=+.33 p < .006
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.10 p < .006
Regressions control for:
-age
-income
-schooling*creativity index
-marital status
-gender
-educational level
-province level unemployment rate
-province level per capita disposable income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Italy

StudyNuvolati (2004): study IT 1996
TitleCommuting and Quality of Life. The Italian Case.
SourcePaper 6the Congress ISQOLS, 2004, Philadelphia, USA
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/nuvolati_g_2004.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Italy, 1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response1,7%
Respondents N =3561

Correlate
Author's labelArea
Page in Source 7
Our classificationRegion in Italy
Operationalization
1: North-West
2: North-East
3: Centre
4: South

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=
% satisfied
1: 86,1 
2: 85,5 
3: 84,3 
4: 77,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Netherlands

StudyVanDongen & De Graaf (2012): study NL 2012 /1
TitleDe Gelukkige Dokter (The happy doctor)
SourceNederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 2012, 1 - 15
URLhttps://www.ntvg.nl/artikelen/de-gelukkige-dokter/icmje
PublicMedical doctors and students, The Netherlands, 2012
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =401

Correlate
Author's labelregion
Our classificationRegion in Netherlands
Operationalization
a midden nederland, zuid-holland, noorden
b Noord-brabant, noord limburg
c Oosten van nederland en deel noord holland

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=
a Midden Nederland,Zuid-holland,noorden M =7.8
b Noord-Brabant, Noord-Limburg          M =7.3
c Oosten en deel Noord-Holland       M 7.1/7.22
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Netherlands

StudyBoelhouwer (2007a): study NL 2004
TitleWaarom zijn Drenthenaren Gelukkiger dan Hollanders? ( Why Happier in Drenthe than in Holland?)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 141 - 146
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelProvinces
Page in Source 144
Our classificationRegion in Netherlands
Operationalization
a. Flevoland
b. Z. Holland
c. Zeeland 
d. Friesland
e. N. Holland
f. Gelderland
g. Groningen
h. Limburg
i. N. Brabant
j. Utrecht
k. Overijssel
l. Drenthe
Observed distributionAantal respondenten per provincie: a. Flevoland 52 b. Z. Holland 449 c. Zeeland 70 d. Friesland 52 e. N. Holland 352 f. Gelderland 227 g. Groningen 76 h. Limburg 102 i. N. Brabant 342 j. Utrecht 153 k. Overijssel 130 l. Drenthe 61

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-a
a. Flevoland     7,3
b. Z. Holland    7,4
c. Zeeland       7,4
d. Friesland     7,6
e. N. Holland    7,7
f. Gelderland    7,7
g. Groningen     7,7
h. Limburg       7,7
i. N. Brabant    7,8
j. Utrecht       7,8
k. Overijssel    7,8
l. Drenthe       8,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Netherlands

StudyKromhout (2004): study NL 2004
TitleHet Verdriet van Den Haag. (The Sorrow of The Hague).
SourceHaags Straatnieuws, 2004, December, 3
PublicHomeless in cities, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =66

Correlate
Author's labelDwelling
Page in Source 1
Our classificationRegion in Netherlands
Operationalization
A: Arnhem
B: Apeldoorn
C: Nijmegen
D: Tilburg
E: Utrecht
F: Den Haag
Remarks
Ordered by size of the population (from low to high)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-aDM=-
Small: A Arnhem          M=6,1
       B Apeldoorn       M=6,3
       C Nijmegen        M=6,1
       D Tilburg         M=5,2
       E Utrecht         M=6,0
Big:   F Den Haag        M=5,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Netherlands

StudyOuweneel & Veenhoven (2018): study NL 2003
TitleHappiness in Rotterdam an Analysis of 7 City Surveys
SourceInternational Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 2018, Vol. 6, 82-100
URLhttp://www.researchpublish.com/download.php?file=Happiness in Rotterdam-5587.pdf&act=book
PublicAdult, general public, Netherlands, 1997-2009.
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =12000

Correlate
Author's labelMean happiness different cities and the Netherlands
Page in Source 85
Our classificationRegion in Netherlands
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-abDM=-
                       Difference with  
                       average in the 
                       Netherlands.
Rotterdam   M = 3.92   -0.18
Amsterdam   M = 3.93   -0.17
The Hague   M = 3.98   -0.12
Utrecht     M = 4.05   -0.05
Netherlands M = 4.10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Netherlands

StudyOuweneel & Veenhoven (2018): study NL Rotterdam 1997
TitleHappiness in Rotterdam an Analysis of 7 City Surveys
SourceInternational Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 2018, Vol. 6, 82-100
URLhttp://www.researchpublish.com/download.php?file=Happiness in Rotterdam-5587.pdf&act=book
Public13+ aged, general public, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 1997-2009.
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response67%
Respondents N =21091

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness in districts of Rotterdam
Page in Source 87
Our classificationRegion in Netherlands
Operationalization
1. Darkest: Oud Crooswijk, Tussendijke, Bospolder M = 
2.95
2  Not so dark
3. Not so light
4. Lightest:  Nesselande, Kralingen-Ost, Terbregge M = 
3.35

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-abDM=+
Darkest             least happy M < 3.0
Not so dark                     M 3.05 < 3.10
Not so light                    M 3.10 < 3.15
Lightest            most happy  M >= 3.15
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Netherlands

StudyBoelhouwer (2010): study NL 1977
TitleWellbeing in the Netherlands.The SCP Life Situation Index since 1974.
SourceSocial Cultural Planning Office (SCP), 2010, the Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.scp.nl/english/Publications/Publications_by_year/Publications_2010/Wellbeing_in_the_Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1977-2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54299

Correlate
Author's labelSize of city
Page in Source 134
Our classificationRegion in Netherlands
Operationalization
1: four largest cities 
2: 21 smaller towns/ cities 
3: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab= ns
B controlled for:
-Life situation:
 -Housing
 -Health
 -Purchasing power/ consumer durables
 -Leisure activities
 -Mobility
 -Social participation
 -Sport activity
 -Vacation
-Background features:
 -Gender
 -Education
 -Employment
 -Age
 -Household composition
 -Ethnicity
 -Income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in New Zealand

StudyFleming et al. (2016): study NZ 2008
TitleCrime, Greenspace and Life Satisfaction: An Evaluation of the New Zealand Experience.
SourceLandscape and Urban Planning, 2016, Vol. 149, 1 - 10
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.12.014
Public15+ aged, general public, New Zealand, 2008 - 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response3006
Respondents N =22727

Correlate
Author's labelAir pollution
Page in Source 5,7
Our classificationRegion in New Zealand
Operationalization
0: No experience of air pollution problems
1: Experience of air pollution
Observed distribution1: 3,5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-gOLRC=-.09 ns
OLRC controlled for:
- individual characteristics
  - experienced violent or non-violent crime
  - demographic characteristics
  - variables related to civic life
    and social connectedness
- neighbourhood characteristics
  - greenspace access and quality
  - other neighbourhood characteristics


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in New Zealand

StudyMorrison (2011): study NZ 2004
TitleLocal Expressions of Subjective Well-Being: The New Zealand Experience.
SourceRegional Studies, 2011, Vol. 45, 1039 - 1058
DOIDOI:10.1080/00343401003792476
Public15+ aged, urban areas, New Zealand, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6308

Correlate
Author's labelCity's New Zealand
Page in Source 1047-52
Our classificationRegion in New Zealand
Operationalization
a: Auckland (reference category)
b: Christchurch
c: Manukau 
d: North Shore
e: Waitakere
f: Wellington
g: Hamilton
h: Dunedin
i: Tauranga
j: Hutt
k: Rodney
l: Porirua
Observed distributiona: 386196; b: 332329; c: 306082; d: 195213; e: 177597; f: 171646; g: 122085; h: 116512; i: 97269; j: 96588; k: 82870; l: 47958

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ccb=
Raw:              Controlled:
b: +0.13 (01)     b: +0.11 (05)
c: +0.03 (ns)     c: +0.05 (ns)
d: +0.12 (05)     d: +0.05 (ns)
e: +0.27 (01)     e: +0.26 (01)
f: +0.23 (01)     f: +0.12 (ns)
g: +0.12 (ns)     g: +0.16 (05)
h: +0.16 (05)     h: +0.07 (ns)
i: +0.27 (01)     i: +0.20 (01)
j: +0.11 (ns)     j: +0.00 (ns)
k: +0.41 (01)     k: +0.36 (01)
l: +0.17 (ns)     l: +0.07 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ncb=
b: +0.09 (ns)     b: +0.09 (ns)
c: +0.01 (ns)     c: +0.04 (ns)
d: +0.17 (01)     d: +0.09 (ns)
e: +0.15 (05)     e: +0.15 (05)
f: +0.15 (01)     f: +0.04 (ns)
g: +0.11 (ns)     g: +0.14 (05)
h: +0.12 (ns)     h: +0.01 (ns)
i: +0.24 (01)     i: +0.17 (01)
j: +0.17 (05)     j: +0.07 (ns)
k: +0.30 (01)     k: +0.18 (05)
l: +0.15 (ns)     l: +0.09 (ns)
O-QOL-u-sq-v-5-cb=
b: -0.06 (ns)     b: -0.04 (ns)
c: -0.10 (ns)     c: -0.05 (ns)
d: +0.08 (ns)     d: -0.03 (ns)
e: +0.02 (ns)     e: +0.02 (ns)
f: +0.15 (05)     f: -0.02 (ns)
g: -0.03 (ns)     g: +0.01 (ns)
h: +0.16 (05)     h: +0.09 (ns)
i: +0.16 (05)     i: +0.12 (ns)
j: +0.07 (ns)     j: +0.01 (ns)
k: +0.19 (05)     k: +0.10 (ns) 
l: +0.10 (ns)     l: +0.06 (ns)

B's controlled for:
-gender
-age
-ethnicity
-health
-education
-work status
-income
-household type
-tenure
-accessibility
-social capital


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Nigeria

StudyPeil (1988): study NG 1984
TitlePersonal Communication.
SourceLetter 18 - 4 - 1988, University of Birmingham, UK
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/peil_m_1988.pdf
Public60+ aged, towns, Nigeria, 1984
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =436

Correlate
Author's labelTown in Nigeria
Page in Source 1
Our classificationRegion in Nigeria
Operationalization
A: Port Harcourt: capital of Rivers State.Ethnically 
heterogenous, industrial city, +- 900.000 inhabitants.

B: Abeakuta, capital of Ogun stase, ethnically 
homogenous Yoruba, little industry, low opportunity for 
educated people, +- 500.000 inhabitants.

C: Ijebu Ode, ethnically homogenous Yoruba, center of 
marketing and education, +- 250.000 inhabitants.
Observed distributionN = a: 53: b: 191, c:192

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-l-7-aDM=
Port Harcourt   M = 4,6
Abeokuta        M = 6,4
Ijebu Ode       M = 4,5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Nigeria

StudyCantril (1965): study NG 1963
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1962-63
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1200

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in Nigeria
Page in Source 371
Our classificationRegion in Nigeria
Operationalization
West, East, North

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=
West    : Mt = 4.1
East    : Mt = 3.6
North   : Mt = 5.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Norway

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1982
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
Public18-79 aged, general public, Norway, 1982
Sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =972

Correlate
Author's labelCounty in Norway
Page in Source 406/407
Our classificationRegion in Norway
Operationalization
All Norwegian counties represented as a dummy variable.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dR²=+.02 ns
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aR²=+.03 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dR²=002 ns
0,2% increase in variance explained when entered 
in a regression equation in addition to nine 
individual variables (education, income, age, sex, 
household size, occupational prestige, 
occupationally active, marital status, degree of 
urbanization).
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aR²=003 ns
0,3% increase in variance explained when entered 
in a regression equation in addition to nine 
individual variables (education, income, age, sex, 
household size, occupational prestige, 
occupationally active, marital status, degree of 
urbanization).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Norway

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1981
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
PublicAdults, general public, Norway, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelCounty in Norway
Page in Source 406/407
Our classificationRegion in Norway
Operationalization
All Norwegian counties represented as a dummy variable.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aR²=002 ns
0,2% increment in explaned variance when entered 
in a regression equation in addition to nine 
individual variables (education, income, age, sex, 
household size, number of friends, occupational 
active, marital status and size oftown).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Norway

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1971
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
Public15-64 aged, general public, Norway, 1971
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =854

Correlate
Author's labelCounty (region) in Norway
Page in Source 406/407
Our classificationRegion in Norway
Operationalization
All Norwegian counties represented as a dummy variable.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dR²=007 ns
0,7% increment in variance explained when entered 
in a regression equation in addition to nine 
individual variables (age, sex, income, education, 
household size, occupational prestige, 
occupationally active, number of friends and 
marital status). 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in South Africa

StudyBaldry et al. (2019): study ZA Mpumalanga 2014
TitleA Comparative Case Study of Well-Being in a Rural versus an Urban Coal Mining Community in Mpumalanga, South Africa
SourceInternational Journal of Happiness and Development, 2019, Vol. 5, 95 - 114
URLhttps://www.inderscienceonline.com/doi/abs/10.1504/IJHD.2019.099348
Public18+ General public, mining communities, South Africa, 2014/2015
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response2
Respondents N =258

Correlate
Author's labelMining communities
Our classificationRegion in South Africa
Operationalization
1. Rural: Chief Albert Luthuli
0. Urban: Mhluzi
Observed distributionN =a: 98, b:160
Remarks
Mining communities in the province of Mpumalanga.
Chief Albert Luthuli is a sparsely populated rural area 
and the population is largely located on the numerous 
farms that are found in the area, in informal
settlements or in rural settlements.
Mhluzi is an urban township just west of the farming 
and industrial town of Middelburg.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-uDM=-
Chief Albert Luthuli M = 6,6
Mhluzi               M = 6,8
- difference            -0,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in South Africa

StudyMoller (2007a): study ZA 2002
TitleSatisfied and Dissatisfied South Africans: Results From The General Household Survey in the International Comparison.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 81, 389 - 415
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9004-3
PublicAdults, general public, South Africa, 2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26000

Correlate
Author's labelResident of KwaZulu -Natal
Page in Source 400-2
Our classificationRegion in South Africa
Operationalization
Resident of KwaZulu-Natal (vs not)
Observed distribution21%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cD%=
% happy   39  (sample mean 52%)
% unhappy 48  (sample mean 36%)

Happiness of Ss not Resident of KwaZulu-Natal not 
reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Sweden

StudyZeluf et al. (2016): study SE 2014
TitleHealth, disability and quality of life among trans people in Sweden-a web-based survey
SourceBMC Public Health, 16:903
DOIDOI:10.1186/s12889-016-3560-5
PublicTransgender people, Sweden, 2014
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =776

Correlate
Author's labelCounty
Our classificationRegion in Sweden
Operationalization
1 Large county (>1.000.000 inhabitants)
0 Small county (<500.000 inhabitants)
Observed distribution1: N = 493, 0: N = 263

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-n-11-aD%=-
                % happy
Small county    51%
Large county    58%
- difference    -7%
O-QOL-c-sq-n-11-aOR=- ns
Odds ratio for high happiness

               OR        CI95
Large county   1.00      Reference
Small county   0.76(ns)  [0.56-1.03]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Taiwan

StudyChang & Nayga Jr. (2010): study TW 2001
TitleChildhood Obesity and Unhappiness: the Influence of Soft Drinks and Fast Food Consumption.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2010, Vol. 11, 261 - 275
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-009-9139-4
PublicUnder 12 aged, children, Taiwan, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2366

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold regional location
Page in Source Table 2 & Table 3
Our classificationRegion in Taiwan
Operationalization
Interviewers coding:
a. Center
b. South
c. East
d. North (reference)

1: yes
0: no
Observed distributiona: M = .39; SD = .49; b: M = .25; SD = .43; c: M = .04; SD = .20
Remarks
Order reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-rdf-v-3-br=+.05 ns
Center(vs North)
A-AOL-g-rdf-v-3-br=+.00 ns
r = +.003
South (vs North)
A-AOL-g-rdf-v-3-br=+.23 ns
East  (vs North)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Thailand

StudyPholphirul (2014): study TH 2013
TitleHealthier and Happier? The Urban-Rural Divide in Thailand.
SourceJournal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 2014, Vol. 24, 973 - 985
URLhttps://doi.org/10.1080/10911359.2014.945064
Public15+ aged, general public, Thailand, 2013
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2402

Correlate
Author's labelRegion
Page in Source 975-977
Our classificationRegion in Thailand
Operationalization
a Central region (reference)
b Northern regin
c Eastern region
d Northeastern region
f Southern region

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-lOPRC=-.04 ns
NORTHERN REGION (vs. CENTRAL REGION)
O-H?-?-sq-fv-7-aOPRC=+.27 p < .01
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-lOPRC=-.04 ns
EASTERN REGION vs. CENTRAL REGION
O-H?-?-sq-fv-7-aOPRC=-.19 p < .05
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-lOPRC=-.09 p < .05
NORTHEASTERN REGION (vs. CENTRAL REGION)
O-H?-?-sq-fv-7-aOPRC=+.13 ns
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-lOPRC=-.07 p < .05
SOUTHERN REGION (vs. CENTRAL REGION)
O-H?-?-sq-fv-7-aOPRC=-.02 ns
OPRC's controlled for:
- urban/rural
- gender
- income
- age
- marital status
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in Ukraine

StudyCoupe & Obrizan (2016): study UA 2013
TitleThe Impact of War on Happiness: The Case of Ukraine.
SourceKSE, 2016, Discussion Paper Series, No. 58, 1 - 13
URLhttp://econpapers.repec.org/paper/ksedpaper/58.htm
Public18+ aged general public Ukraine 2014-2015,
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelyear of war
Page in Source 1
Our classificationRegion in Ukraine
Operationalization
0  years before war
   2013
   2014
1 year of war 2015

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-mMPE=-.00 ns
2015   (vs 2013)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-mMPE=+.02 ns
2015   (vs 2014)

PEs controled for
- demographic characteristics
- self-identification ofas Ukrainian or Russian
- occupation 

Significantly negative in the war afflicted region 
of Donbas, where were 15 to 22% of the people had 
been happier before the outbreak of the war
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in UK

StudyKnies (2011): study GB 2008
TitleLife Satisfaction and Material Well-Being of Young People in the UK.
SourceMcFall, S.L.;et al;Eds.; ''Understanding Society'', Institute for Social,and Economic Research, 2011, University of Essex, 2011, UK, 16 - 22
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/271133276_LIFE_SATISFACTION_AND_MATERIAL_WELL-BEING_OF_YOUNG_PEOPLE_IN_THE_UK
PublicYoung people, aged 10-15, UK, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response158
Respondents N =2163

Correlate
Author's labelLives in England
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationRegion in UK
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Where do you live?
1: lives in England
0: elsewhere
  a in Wales
  b in Scotland
  c in Northern Ireland

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-f-7-ab=-.23 p < .05
B controlled for:
-Basic socio-demographics
 -age
 -gender
 -British/Irish White
-Family conposition
 -number of biological parents in household
 -number of children in household
 -household income
-Standard of living
 -Household material deprivation index
 -Child material deprivation index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in UK

StudyBlanchflower et al. (2013): study GB Wales 2007
TitleIs Psychological Well-Being Linked to the Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 114, 785 - 801
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0173-y
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-012-0173-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Wales, UK, 2007-2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49972

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold location
Page in Source Table 6
Our classificationRegion in UK
Operationalization
Interviewers coding:
a. SE Wales
b. Mid and West Wales
c. North Wales (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.04 p < .01
SE Wales           (vs North Wales)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.07 p < .01
Mid and West Wales (vs North Wales)

B's controlled for:
-Consumption of fruit and vegetables
-Demographic characteristics
 -age
 -gender
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -education
 -occupation
-Health
 -disability
 -exercise
 -smoking
 -body mass index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in UK

StudyBBC (2006): study GB 2005
TitleThe Happiness Formula: Opinion Poll.
SourceGfK-NOP poll 421059, commisioned by BBC, 2006, London, UK
URLhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/happiness_formula/4771908.stm
Public15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2005
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1001

Correlate
Author's labelRegion
Page in Source 2
Our classificationRegion in UK
Operationalization
a: North
b: Midlands
c: South
Observed distributiona: N=369; b: N=300; c: N=331

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gDM=
a: M=3,21 CI95=3,13-3,28
b: M=3,31 CI95=3,24-3,39
c: M=3,22 CI95=3,15-3,30
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gBMCT= ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abDM=
a: M=7,28 CI95=7,11-7,46
b: M=7,43 CI95=7,24-7,62
c: M=7,31 CI95=7,11-7,51
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abBMCT= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in UK

StudyLiu et al. (2015a): study GB 1996
TitleDoes Happiness Itself directly affect Mortality? The prospective UK Million Women Study.
SourceThe Lancet, 2015
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/287372772_Does_happiness_itself_directly_affect_mortality_The_prospective_UK_Million_Women_Study
DOIdoi: 10.1016/50140-6736(15)01222-2
PublicFemale, aged 50-69, United Kingdom, 1996-2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1300000

Correlate
Author's labelRegion of residence
Page in Source 2
Our classificationRegion in UK
Operationalization
a: South England (reference)
b: Midlands
c: North England
d: Scotland

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dOR=+/- p < .01
Midlands (vs. South):     OR= 0.9 
CI99[0.905-0.935] 
North England (vs. South):OR= 0.9 
CI99[0.920-0.949] 
Scotland (vs. South):     OR= 1.2 
CI99[1.116-1.185] 

OR's controlled for various factors (not reported)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in UK

StudyAngeles (2008): study GB 1991
TitleAdaptation or Social Comparison? The Effects of Income and Happiness.
SourcePaper University of Glasgow, Department of Economics, 2008, UK
URLhttp://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_110443_en.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, UK, 1991-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelRegions
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationRegion in UK
Operationalization
Region within the UK:
a) London
b) Scotland
c) Wales
d) Northern Ireland
e) England, excluding London (reference category)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.04 ns
London (vs. England excluding London)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.06 ns
Scotland (vs. England excluding London)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.09 ns
Wales (vs. England excluding London)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.08 ns
Northern Ireland (vs. England excluding London)

b controlled for:
- absolute income
- sex
- age
- marital status
- education
- unemployed
- number of children
- religious participation
- health

Based upon fixed effects analysis; similar results 
for pooled OLS, Ordered Probit and Ordered Logit


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in USA

StudyTaylor et al. (2006): study US 2005
TitleAre We Happy Yet?
SourcePEW Research Center, A Social Trends Report, 2006, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://pewresearch.org/pubs/301/are-we-happy-yet
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3014

Correlate
Author's labelArea of Residence
Page in Source 37
Our classificationRegion in USA
Operationalization
a. Sunbelt Resident
b. Not Sunbelt Resident

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caD%=+ p < .05
% Very Happy
-Sunbelt        37%
-Not Sunbelt    32%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in USA

StudyChambers (2000): study US 2000
TitleAmericans are Overwhelmingly Happy and Optimistic about the Future of the United States.
SourceGallup Poll News Service, 13 October 2000, The Gallup Organization, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/2434/americans-overwhelmingly-happy-optimistic-about-future.aspx
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1052

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in the United States
Page in Source 3
Our classificationRegion in USA
Operationalization
a: Southern
b: Western
c: Mid-Western
d: Eastern

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-cD%=+
% very happy
a: Southern      52%
b: Western       49%
c: Mid-Western   45%
d: Eastern       41%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in USA

StudySander (2011): study US 2000 /1
TitleLocation and Happiness in the United States.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2011, Vol. 112, 277 - 279
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.econlet.2011.05.015
Public25+ aged general public, United States, 2000-2006
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6563

Correlate
Author's labelRegion
Page in Source 278
Our classificationRegion in USA
Operationalization
Interviewer's assessment:
a) West
b) North
c) East
d) South (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=-.07 ns
WEST  (vs south)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=-.12 p < .01
NORTH (vs south)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=-.05 ns
EAST  (vs south)


OPRC's controlled for:
- health
- living in a metropol
- age and age squared
- income
- gender
- country of birth
- religion
- race
- working full-time
- marital status
- former education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in USA

StudySullivan et al. (1991): study US 1988
TitleQuality of Life of Seriously Mentally Ill Persons in Mississippi.
SourceHospital and Community Psychiatry, 1991, Vol. 42, 752 -755
PublicFormer inpatients of mental hospital, Mississipi, 1988
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =130

Correlate
Author's labelLiving area
Page in Source 753
Our classificationRegion in USA
Operationalization
a Missisippi
b Los Angeles
c Maryland
Observed distributionN: a=101, b=278, c=66
Remarks
samples b and c from Lehman(1983,1986)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aDM=
Missisippi   M=5.3
Los Angeles  M=4.4
Maryland     M=5.2
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aT²= ns
a>c
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aT²= ns
a>b


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in USA

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelSouthern
Page in Source 701
Our classificationRegion in USA
Operationalization
0 = non Southern [including: Northeast, North Central, 
and West]
1 = Southern
Observed distributionT1: M = 0,54, SD = 0,50 T2: M = 0,56, SD = 0,50
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.13 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.06 ns
T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.10 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.01 ns
T2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in USA

StudyVeroff et al. (1981): study US 1976
TitleThe Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957 to 1976.
SourceBasic Books, 1981, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976
Sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =2264

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in USA
Page in Source 420
Our classificationRegion in USA
Operationalization
New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
Solid South
Border South
Mountains
Pacific

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSNR= ns
Controlled for sex, age and education.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in USA

StudyCampbell et al. (1976): study US 1971
TitleThe Quality of American Life. Perceptions, Evaluations, and Satisfactions.
SourceRussel Sage Foundation, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2164

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in USA
Page in Source 450/451
Our classificationRegion in USA
Operationalization
0 North 
1 South

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in USA

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelGeographic region
Our classificationRegion in USA
Operationalization
Geographic region of respondent at T1: west, north 
central, northeast, or south region

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
Region: west 1, other 0
T1 happiness:    tau = -.00 (ns)   
T2 happiness:    tau = +.01 (ns)   
T3 happiness:    tau = +.02 (ns)   
T4 happiness:    tau = +.01 (ns)   
      
Rgion:north central 1, other 0
T1 happiness:    tau = -.04 (ns)
T2 happiness:    tau = -.02 (ns)
T3 happiness:    tau = -.05 (ns)
T4 happiness:    tau = -.04 (ns)

Region: north east 1, other 0
T1 happiness:    tau = -.02 (ns)
T2 happiness:    tau = -.05 (ns)
T3 happiness:    tau = -.01 (ns)
T4 happiness:    tau = -.01 (ns)

Region: south 1, other 0
T1 happiness:    tau = +.07 (ns)
T2 happiness:    tau = +.05 (ns)
T3 happiness:    tau = +.05 (ns)
T4 happiness:    tau = +.04 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in USA

StudyCantril & Roll (1971): study US 1964
TitleHopes and Fears of the American People.
SourceUniverse Books, 1971, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1964-1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1588

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in USA
Page in Source 71
Our classificationRegion in USA
Operationalization
East
Midwest
South
West

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=
East    Mt = 5.9 (1964)  5.8 (1971)
Midwest Mt = 6.1 (1964)  5.8 (1971)
South   Mt = 6.0 (1964)  5.7 (1971)
West    Mt = 5.7 (1964)  6.0 (1971)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in USA

StudyGurin et al. (1960): study US 1957
TitleAmericans View their Mental Health. A Nationwide Interview Survey.
SourceBasic Books, 1960, New York, USA ( Reprint in 1980, Arno Press, New York, USA)
Public21+ aged, general public, USA,1957
Sample
Non-Response13%; 5% not at home, 8% refusals
Respondents N =2460

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in USA
Page in Source 207/230
Our classificationRegion in USA
Operationalization
South, Northest, Midwest, or Far West

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Region in USA

StudyManning-Gibbs (1972): study US 1946
TitleRelative Deprivation and Self-Reported Happiness of Blacks: 1946-1966.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Texas, 1972, Austin, USA
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/manning-gibbs_ba_1972.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1946-1966
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25617

Correlate
Author's labelRegion in USA
Page in Source 53
Our classificationRegion in USA
Operationalization
0 Non-south 
1 South

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-cG=±
G' based on proportion very happy.
Response formats of happiness question very 
slightly over the years.

1946: blacks: G' = -.01 (ns)
      whites: G' = +.00 (ns)
1956: blacks: G' = +.14 (ns)
      whites: G' = -.02 (ns)
1966: blacks: G' = +.13 (ns)
      whites: G' = -.06 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to region of residence

StudyMollenkopf (2002): study DE 1995
TitleMobilität und Lebensqualität im Alter. Objektive Voraussetzungen und subjektive Bedeutung in der mobilen Gesellschaft. (Mobility and Quality of Life in Old Age).
SourceGlatzer,W.; et al; Eds.: "Sozialen Wandel und gesellschaftliche Dauerbeobachtung", Leske & Budrich, 2002, Germany, 255 - 271
Public55+ aged, East and West Germany, 1995 and 1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1216

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with local environment
Page in Source 268
Our classificationAttitudes to region of residence
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question 
Rated on 11-point numerical scale
Observed distributionA: N=400; B:N=404; C: N=205; D:N=207

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=-.05 ns
Mannheim (big city West Germany)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=+.03 ns
Chemnitz (big city East Germany)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=-.01 ns
Hunsrück (rural area West Germany)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=+.07 ns
Lausitz (rural area East Germany)

Beta's controlled for satisfaction with:
- financial situation
- housing
- health
- living area
- leisure possibilities
- travelling possibilities
- mobility possibilities


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to region of residence

StudyMacRae & Carlson (1980): study US NorthCarolina 1971
TitleCollective Preferences as Predictors of Interstate Migration.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1980, Vol. 8, 15 - 32
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00364599
Public18+ aged, general public, North Carolina, USA, 1977
Sample
Non-ResponseAbout 25%
Respondents N =1081

Correlate
Author's labelPreference to live in own state
Page in Source 22
Our classificationAttitudes to region of residence
Operationalization
Single direct question: "If you could live anywhere in 
the United States that you wanted to, what state would 
you choose?"
0 other state
1 own state

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adD%=+
%  very happy:
other state          22%  
own state            31%


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-g-rdf-v-3-bRating by mother in response to single question:

How often does your child feel unhappy, sad or depressed?
1 often
2 selden
3 never
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-bSelfreport on 8 questions:

Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time during the PAST MONTH have you felt each emotion?
A affectionate
B joyful
C sad
D worried
E irritable
F guilty
G happy
H proud

1 never
2 slight amount (rare)
3 some of the time
4 about half the time
5 much of the time
6 almost always
7 always

Computation: (A+B+G+H)-(C+D+E+F)/8

Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance'
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-fSelfreport on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you felt this way during the past year?
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exiled
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('past year' version)
A-BW-g-mq-v-5-gSelfreport on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you generally feel this way, that is, how you feel on average?
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exiled
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 very much

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('in general' version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-daSelf-report on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy do you feel?
4 very happy
3 happy
2 so-so
1 not happy
0 not happy at all
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How much of the time during the past 4 weeks have you felt happy?
5 all the time
4 most of the time
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
- don't remember

Part of 9 item ODIN Affect Balance Scale (A-AB/cm/mq/v/5/..)
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel happy?
4 most of the time
3 usually
2 sometimes
1 rarely/never
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-H?-?-sq-fv-7-aSelfreport on single question

.. Happy .. (lead question not reported)
7 extremely happy
6 very happy
5 happy
4 neutral
3 sad
2 very sad
1 extremely sad
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:


"overall happiness.."(full question not reported
10 my life is very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 my life is very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

On a scale from 0 to 10, where would you put your current happiness?
0 completely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days? Would you say you are..........?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking; how would you say, you are these days.....?
1 very happy
2 pretty happy
3 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-oSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days?
1 unhappy
2 happy
3 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel your life at present is.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 quite unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel that your life at present is.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nSelfreport on single question:

In general, I am happy with how things are in my life right now
1 disagree strongly
2 disagree
3 agree
4 strongly agree
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 somewhat happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 not happy at all
- DK
- NA
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mSelfreport on single question

All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy
- Don't know
O-HL-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate the last month of your life. Was it a happy or an unhappy time for you......?
5 very happy time
4 fairly happy time
3 happy nor unhappy
2 rather unhappy time
1 very unhappy time
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-cSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gSelfreport on single question:

If you were to consider your life in general, how happy or unhappy would you say you are on the whole?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ccSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy or unhappy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 neutral
4 happy
5 very happy
O-HL-m-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all into account, right now would you say that you are:
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
O-HL-u-oq-v-3-aSelfreport on open question

How happy are you with your life as a whole?
3 very happy
2 happy
1 not too happy

Ratings made by the interviewer
O-HL-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which of these faces describe best how you feel about your life as a whole?
7 completely happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 not at all happy
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

Are you happy or unhappy?
1 unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 happy
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together on a scale of one to 10, how happy would you say you are? Here one means you are very unhappy and 10 means you are very happy
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- don't know
- no answer
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking everything into consideration: do you consider your self happy or unhappy?
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Verbal labels not reported
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-abSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how happy would you say you are?
1 not happy at all
2 not too happy
3 happy
4 very happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hSelfreport on single question

Generally speaking, how do you personally feel about your life?
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 so-so
4 happy
5 very happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-ISelfreport on single question:

How happy are you?
7 very happy
6 happy
5 more or less happy
4 not happy/not unhappy
3 more or less unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-mSelfreport on single question

Do you consider yourself a happy person?
5 yes
4 rather yes than no
3 both yes and no
2 rather no than yes
1 no
- difficult to say
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aSelf report on single question:

.. Your overall quality of life (full text not reported)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
O-QOL-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Thinking in general about your quality of life and using the scale where 0 = very unhappy and 10 = very unhappy, how happy are you with your quality of life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy
O-QOL-cw-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

The following questions ask about how satisfied you have felt about various aspects of your life over the last 2 weeks..

How would you rate your overall quality of life?
1 very poor
2 poor
3 neither poor nor good
4 good
5 very good

Item 81 (G1) in WHOQOL-100. Item 1 in WHOQOL-Bref

In Bref variant not preceded with timeframe ''past 2 weeks'
O-QOL-u-sq-v-5-cselfreport on single question:

Would you say that your overall quality of life is..
1 extremely poor
2 poor
3 neutral
4 good
5 extremely good
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aSelfreport on single question:

Ss were asked to rate themselves on an 1 - 10 rating ladder in terms of their self-perceived life satisfaction.
(Full question not reported).
[ 10 ] +
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] --

(labels of scale extremes not reported)
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-lSelfreport on single question:

.. Satisfaction with life .. (lead question not reported)
1 not at all satisfied
2 a little satisfied
3 very satisfied
4 extremely satisfied
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aSelf report on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life so far, the course of your life?
0 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 fully satisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question

'Taken all together, how satisfied are you with the life you currently lead? Please indicate on this scale. 10 means that you are completely satisfied and 1 means that you are completely dissatisfied.'
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-iSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
1 unsatisfied
2 slightly unsatisfied
3 slightly satisfied
4 satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-cSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how happy would you say you are....."?

Response options not reported
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general? Indicate your satisfaction by giving a number between 0 and 10, where 0 means 'completely dissatisfied' and 10 'completely satisfied'. So, the more satisfied you are the higher the number.
0 completely unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life.....?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 average
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, to what extend are you satisfied with your life?
0 the minimum
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 the maximum
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

".......satisfaction with life-as-a-whole......"
(Full question not reported.)
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 very satisfied
4 extremely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days? Please tell me on a scale of 1 to 10, where one means very dissatisfied and 10 means very satisfied
10 very satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-jSelf rating on single question:

Please rate your feelings about .. Using this 1 to 10 scale
.. Your life as a whole right now
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 completely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 very dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-fSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are very unsatisfied, please tick '0'. When you are partly satisfied, tick '5', and when you are very satisfied please tick '10'.
0 very unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5 partly satisfied
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Would you way that you are....?
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

Let's think about your life as a whole: would you say that you are with your life right now
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 a little dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-iSelf report on single question

By bearing in mind the last 12 months, are you on the wholer satisfied or dissatisfied with your present life?
4 fully satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 less than satisfied
1 not satisfied at all
- no answer
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-gSelfreport on single question:

Taken all things together, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days? On the whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ncSelfreport on single question:
Taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life in general these days?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neutral
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sqt-v-7-cSelfreport on single question asked twice:

"Considering how you feel these days, are you generally satisfied with your life or are you generally dissatisfied?"
7 extremely satisfied
6 very satisfied
5 quite satisfied
4 both satisfied and dissatisfied
3 quite dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 extremely dissatisfied
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question

Would you say that in general you are .. with your life so far
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 a little dissatisfied
1 quite dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-l-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole?
Rated on a seven step quality of life ladder was marked with a smiling face and marked ''GOOD'. The bottom marked with a frowning face and the word 'BAD'
[ 7 ] Good, picture of smiling face
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] Bad, picture of frowning face
(Pictures not reproduced here)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Please look at this satisfaction scale and tell me how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your life as a whole
10 satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 Dissatisfied

Numbers were presented in different order (1 satisfied… 10 dissatisfied).
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used until 2005)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-uHow would you rate your sense of well-being
with respect to the following: Life overall.
10 very satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how satisfied are you with your life-as-a-whole? Please mark a number below.
5 very satisfied
4
3
2
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport on single question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nSelfreport on single question

Considering all aspects of your life, how satisfied are you?
1 very dissatisfied
2 not satisfied
3 not so satisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how do you judge your quality of life?
4 very satisfactory
3 sufficiently satisfactory
2 not too satisfactory
1 unsatisfactory
- don't know


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
Beta-fREGRESSION COEFICIENT (standardized) in fixed effects analysis
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
LRCDLRCD: Regression coefficient in binary logistic regression.
Only the sign of the computed coefficient is informative.

Happiness is a binary or dichotomous variable with Happy =1 and Unhappy=0.

LRCD < 0 indicates that the odds of being happy-to-being unhappy
decreases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

LRCD > 0 indicates an increase in the odds for both the above cases.
MPEMPE: Marginal probability effect in binary probit analysis.

Happiness is a binary or dichotomous variable with Happy =1 and Unhappy=0

The effect describes the influence of a correlate on the probability of being happy given set of values for the correlates in the model.

MPE<0 indicates that the probability of being happy decreases by MPE units when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases with one unit
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

MPE>0 indicates that the probability of being happy increases by MPE units when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases with one unit
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.
OLRCOLRC: Regression coefficient in ordered categorical logistic regression.
Only the sign of the computed coefficient is informative.

Happiness is an ordered categorical variable. Higher categories correspond to being happier.

OLRC < 0 indicates that the odds of being beyond a chosen happiness category-to- be-ing at or below that category decreases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OLRC > 0 indicates an increase in the odds for both the above cases.
OPRCOPRC: Regression coefficient in ordered categorical probit regression.
Only the sign of the computed coefficient is informative.

Happiness is an ordered categorical variable. Higher categories correspond to being more happy.

OPRC < 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category decreases and the probability of being at or below that category increases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OLRC > 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category
increases and the probablity of being at or below that category decreases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.
OROR: Odds ratio in binary logistic regression.

Happiness is a binary or dichotomous variable with Happy =1 and Unhappy=0.

OR < 1 indicates that the odds of being happy-to-being unhappy
decreases by a factor OR when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases by one unit
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OR > 1 indicates an increase by a factor OR for both the above cases.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
HOTELLING's T² statistic is the MANOVA equivalent of an F-statistic in an ANOVA situation.
Type: asymmetric test statistic
(one or more correlates; two or more happiness measures at the interval level of measurement)


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness


A new version of this website is available since 2020 August 1 at the old address worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl
This old website is renamed as worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl and is still maintained.
The new website links to some parts of this old website for the time being.


Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
14971 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 7730 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1354 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12851 distributional findings in the general public, of which 9280 in 173 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3571 findings in 2299 regions and cities in nations.
3068 studies with findings in 175 specific publics.
20128 correlational findings observed in 2592 studies, excerpted from 1898 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Number of Studies
ACTIVITY (how much one does)3
ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)374
AFFECTIVE LIFE81
AGE857
AGGRESSION15
ANOMY35
APPEARANCE (good looks)28
ATTITUDES17
AUTHORITARIANISM4
BIRTH CONTROL2
BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)201
BODY113
CHILDREN13
CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)349
CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN40
CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN19
CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)36
COMMUNAL LIVING16
COMPETENCES21
CONCERNS50
CONSUMPTION174
COPING71
CREATIVENESS8
CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR3
CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)51
DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
DISASTER3
EDUCATION724
EMPLOYMENT 1078
ERA (temporal period)163
ETHNICITY231
EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
EVENTS2
FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)528
FAMILY OF PROCREATION154
FAMILY OF RELATIVES270
FARMING68
FREEDOM59
FRIENDSHIP375
GENDER840
GRIEF1
HABITS2
HANDICAP55
HAPPINESS: BEHAVIOR4
HAPPINESS: CAREER302
HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS20
HAPPINESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS3
HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES397
HAPPINESS: OF OTHERS23
HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS27
HAPPINESS: SEQUALE1
HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS164
HEALTH: BEHAVIOR67
HEALTH: MENTAL308
HEALTH: PHYSICAL966
HEALTH: PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS71
HEALTH: PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT548
HEALTH: TREATMENT MEDICAL201
HELPING19
HOPE38
HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION336
HOUSEHOLD: WORK48
HOUSING389
INCOME1385
INSTITUTIONAL LIVING64
INTELLIGENCE92
INTERNET205
INTERESTS29
INTERVIEW 104
INTIMACY220
LANGUAGE51
LEADERSHIP15
LEISURE470
LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS527
LIFE CHANGE72
LIFE EVENTS149
LIFE GOALS131
LIFE HISTORY12
LIFE STYLE 76
LOCAL: CULTURE11
LOCAL: DEMOGRAPHY38
LOCAL: ECONOMY238
LOCAL: GEOGRAPHY303
LOCAL: LIVABILITY (fit with human needs/capacities)8
LOCAL: POLITICS14
LOCAL: RESIDENCE89
LOCAL: SOCIETY263
LOTTERY13
LOVE-LIFE46
MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER120
MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS1050
MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP197
MARRIAGE: PARTNER84
MEANING35
MEDITATION8
MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY125
MIGRATION: TO OTHER REGION1
MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)54
MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN REGION0
MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
MILITARY LIFE14
MINORITY STATUS0
MODERNITY62
MOOD408
MOTIVATION25
MOBILITY (travel)0
NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONE'S NATION80
NATION: CULTURE191
NATION: DEMOGRAPHY40
NATION: ECONOMY498
NATION: GEOGRAPHY90
NATION: HISTORY7
NATION: JUSTICE61
NATION: LIFESTYLE12
NATION: LIVABILITY (fit with human needs/capacities)70
NATION: NATIONALITY82
NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)88
NATION: POLITICS234
NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION23
NATION: SOCIETY315
NUTRITION184
OCCUPATION262
PERFORMANCE149
PERSONALITY: HISTORY57
PERSONALITY: CHANGE15
PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS864
PERSONALITY: LATER22
PETS4
PLANNING12
POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR320
POPULARITY33
PREFERENCES6
POSSESSIONS274
PRISON3
PROBLEMS40
REGION OF RESIDENCE112
REGION: CULTURE11
REGION: DEMOGRAPHY9
REGION: ECONOMY48
REGION: GEOGRAPHY34
REGION: HISTORY0
REGION: LIVABILITY. Fit environment - human needs/capacities6
REGION: PERSONALITY0
REGION: POLITICS11
REGION: POSITION1
REGION: SOCIETY7
RELIGION548
RESOURCES37
RETIREMENT170
ROLES31
SCHOOL1429
SELF-IMAGE355
SEX-LIFE88
SLEEP19
SOCIAL MOBILITY27
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS114
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS162
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)61
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS211
SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED148
SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED25
SPORTS226
STIMULANTS104
SUICIDE10
SUMMED DETERMINANTS217
SUSTAINABLE BEHAVIOR0
TIME 239
TOLERANCE40
TRAVEL30
TREATMENT0
TRUST71
VALUE DEVELOPMENT8
VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)172
VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)14
VALUES: LIVING UP TO20
VICTIM 47
WAR9
WISDOM1
WORK: CAREER2
WORK: CONDITIONS152
WORK: ATTITUDES466
WORK: PERFORMANCE42
WORRIES60
UNCLASSIFIED31
X0


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
REGION OF RESIDENCEAttitudes to one's envirionment
REGION OF RESIDENCEEthnic status in specific nations
REGION OF RESIDENCELOCAL: RESIDENCE
REGION OF RESIDENCECurrent nation of residence
Development in region of residenceMIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)
Development in region of residenceEarlier residential mobility
Region in UkraineEthnic status in Ukraine

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings