Findings on Happiness and NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and main subject: NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Nr of Studieson subject
3 NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)
  Development of modal personality innation
  Current modal personality in one's nation
1     Agreableness in nation
    Agression, anger in nation
1     Agreableness in nation
    Agreeing, yea-saying in nation
2     Ambitiousness in nation
1     Anxiety in nation
    Competitiveness in nation
    Conformism in nation
2     Conscientiousness in nation
1     Cynism in nation
1     Emotional stability in nation
    Empathy in nation
4     Extraversion in nation
1     Extremety in nation
3     Hedonism in nation
4     Individualism/collectivism in nation
4     Control belief: internal/external in nation
    Independence in nation
1     Interest in life in nation
    Intelligence in nation
3     Intrinsec/extrinsic motivation in nation
5     Honesty in nation
    Masculinity (vs femininity) in nation
6     Neuroticism in nation
1     Openness in nation
1     Optimism in nation
4     Psychoticism in nation
1     Self confidence in nation
    Tightness in nation
7     Tolerance in nation
2     Trust in nation
21       Trust in fellow-man in nation
7       Trust in institutions in nation
1     Psychological freedom in nation
  Attitudes to modal personality ination

Appendices
Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
Appendix 2: Statistics used
Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 4: Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 5: Related Subjects

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=0118
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2021, Netherlands


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)

StudyBond et al. (0): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleReligion and the Life Satisfaction of Young Persons around the World: Personal Values and Societal Context
SourceTrommsdorff, G., Xinyin, C.: "Values. Religion, and Culture in Adolescent Development", Cambridge, 2011, Cambridge, UK, Chap. 5
Public15-24 aged, 43 nations, 2005-2008
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =9618

Correlate
Author's labelSecularism
Our classificationNATION: PERSONALITY (modal)
Operationalization
Index of: 
a: 'It is important for a child to learn independence 
and determination than obedience and religious faith'
b: 'God is not important in respondent's life'
c: 'Respondent favors less respect for authority'
d: 'Respondent has weak sense of national pride' 
e: 'Respondent gives no priority to self-expression and 
quality-of-life over economic and psychical security'.
Remarks
A person high in secularism endorsed the importance of 
God, national pride and respect of authority less, but 
endorsed the post-materialistic values of 
self-expression and independence, as well as autonomy, 
more. The opposite would be true for a person high in 
traditionalism.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.26 ns
Macrolevel: AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE 
secularism in 43 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=-
Microlevel:INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL 
secularism
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Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelEPQ
Page in Source 776
Our classificationNATION: PERSONALITY (modal)
Operationalization
Items Eysenck Personality Questionnaire: Average scores 
on:
-Neuroticism
-Extraversion
-Psychotism
-Lie Scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-aRa²=.63 p < .01
Average Affect in nations explained by average 
scores on Eysenck Personality Questionnaire;
only Neuroticsm and the Lie Scale (self-deception) 
contribute to unique variance 
(p< 0.05).
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-aRa²=.56 p < .01
Average Overall SWB in nations explained by 
average scores for neuroticism and the Lie Scale 
(self-deception) on Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire; both scores contribute to unique 
variance (p< 0.01).


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelNEO-PI-R
Page in Source 776
Our classificationNATION: PERSONALITY (modal)
Operationalization
Items of NEO-PI-R Questionnaire, average score on:
-Neuroticism
-Extraversion

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-aRa²=.79 p < .01
Average Affect in nations explained by average 
scores for Neuroticism and Extraversion on 
NEO-PI-R Questionnaire, only Extraversion 
contributes to unique variance (p<0,01).
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-aRa²=,64 p < .05
Average Overall SWB in nations explained by
Neuroticism and Extraversion on NEO-PI-R 
Questionnaire; only Neuroticism contributes to 
unique variance (p< 0,05).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreableness in nation

StudyLönnqvist & Itkonen (2014): study FI 2012
TitleIt’s all about Extraversion: Why Facebook Friend Count doesn’t Count towards Well-being.
SourceJournal of Research in Personality, 2014, Vol. 53, 64 - 67
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092656614000968
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jrp.2014.08.009
Public18+ aged, students, Finland
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4701

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived agreeableness of compatriots
Page in Source 65-66
Our classificationAgreableness in nation
Operationalization
Perception of agreeableness of fellow countrymen 
reported in 6 bi-polar items:
a 'Trusting, gullible, naïve' vs. 'Suspicious, 
skeptical, cynical'
b 'Craftly, sly, manipulitive' vs. 'Frank, sincere, 
straightforward'
c 'Generous, giving, considerate' vs. 'Selfish, stingy, 
greedy'
d 'Aggressive, competetive, stubborn' vs. Compliant, 
cooperative, docile'
e 'Modest, humble, self-effacing' vs. 'Arrogrant, 
conceited'
f 'Ruthless, hard-headed, unsentimental' vs. 
'Sympathetic, humanitarian'
5-point ratings thwards one or the other end of the 
scale.
Remarks
Items from the Nati0nal Character Test (Terraciano 
2005)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.03 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 p < .05
Beta's controlled for:
- age
- gender
- number of Facebook friends
- extraversion
- emotional stability
- openness to experience
- conscientiousness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreableness in nation

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelAgreeableness
Page in Source 775
Our classificationAgreableness in nation
Operationalization
Agreeableness as measured by the
NEO-PI-R five factor model
Observed distributionM=51,11 SD=3,05
Remarks
Assessed in the years 1992-2000 in various subgroups 
(e.g. college students) most of them not representative 
for the general population.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=+.09 ns
AVERAGE Agreeableness by AVERAGE happiness 
(Affect) in 13 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=+.08 ns
AVERAGE Agreeableness by AVERAGE happiness (Life 
Satisfaction) in 16 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=-.17 ns
AVERAGE Agreeableness by AVERAGE happiness 
(Happiness in Life) in 15 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=+.14 ns
AVERAGE Agreeableness by AVERAGE happiness 
(Overall Appraisal) in 16 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ambitiousness in nation

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002a): study ZZ 1986 /1
TitleCompetive Societies are Happy if the Women are Less Compitive than the Men.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2002, Vol. 36, 321 - 337
DOIDOI:10.1177/106939702237305
PublicGeneral public and students, 42 nations, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelOverall competitiveness
Page in Source 326, 331
Our classificationAmbitiousness in nation
Operationalization
Attitude of university students:
Average of the summed mean female responses and male 
responses to the following 5 items:
-I try harder when I am in competition with other 
people
-It is important to me to perform better than others to 
a task
-I enjoy working in situations involving competition 
with others
-I feel that winning is important in both work and 
games
-It annoys me when other people perform better than I 
do
Assessed on a 5 point scale: 0=strongly disagree to 4= 
strongly agree
Observed distributionAll: M= 12,10, SD=1,73 Women: M = 11,76 SD= 1.85, Men M=12,44 SD= 1,6.
Error Estimatesr=+.90 between female and male responses, r=+.73 p<.01 (between responses in 21 more and 21 less developed countries)
Remarks
Data: International student survey (Lynn 1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=-.55 p < .001
Nations as unit of analysis: Average happiness by 
average compititiveness
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=-.31 p < .10
B controlled for societal development as measured 
with the Human Development Index
(8% additional variance in happiness explained)
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=+.28 p < .10
B controled for gender gap in competition
(5% additional variance in happiness explained 
after societal development and and overall 
competitiveness)
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=+.26 p < .10
Interaction effect with gender gap.
No less happiness in nations were men are 
competitive, but women less so (large gender gap)
Much less happiness in nations were both men and 
women are competitive (small gender gap)
(6% additional variance in happiness explained)

PICTURE INVOEGEN
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Correlational finding on Happiness and Ambitiousness in nation

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002a): study ZZ 1986 /1
TitleCompetive Societies are Happy if the Women are Less Compitive than the Men.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2002, Vol. 36, 321 - 337
DOIDOI:10.1177/106939702237305
PublicGeneral public and students, 42 nations, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelGender gap in competitiveness
Page in Source 327,331
Our classificationAmbitiousness in nation
Operationalization
Difference in attitude of female and male university 
students.
Competitiveness was assessed with responses to the 
following 5 items:
-I try harder when I am in competition with other 
people
-It is important to me to perform better than others to 
a task
-I enjoy working in situations involving competition 
with others
-I feel that winning is important in both work and 
games
-It annoys me when other people perform better than I 
do
Assessed on a 5 point scale: 0=strongly disagree to 4= 
strongly agree
Observed distributionM = 0.68, SD = 0.80 8 countries with a negative gender gap (women more competitive then men): range -1.36 to .01 7 ns, Iraq= p<05 Positive gender gap in 34 countries. Range 0.12 to 2.30; 14 countries ns, 20 countries p<05
Remarks
Data: international student survey (Lynn 1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=+.35 p < .05
Greater happiness in nations were women are less 
competitive
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=+.28 p < .05
B ontrolled for:
- societal development (HDI
- overall competitiveness
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-aR²=.05 p < .10
5% additional variance explained when entered 
after societal development and overall 
competitiveness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxiety in nation

StudyVeenhoven (1993b): study ZZ Developed nations 1970
TitleHappiness in Nations.
SourceStudies in Socio-Cultural Transformation, nr. 2, RISBO, 1993, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_nat/nat_fp.htm
PublicAdults, general public, 17 developed nations 1970-1980
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =20000

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety behaviours (30-67)
Page in Source 44
Our classificationAnxiety in nation
Operationalization
The 'Anxiety Score is based on behavioral manifestation 
of mental distress, involving consumption of 
stressrelated stimulants, risky behavior, mental 
disorganization, deviant behavior and despair behavior
Remarks
Data 1970. Distress score : Lynn (1982:239, data 1970)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL---sq-nt-11-br=-.76
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Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientiousness in nation

StudyLönnqvist & Itkonen (2014): study FI 2012
TitleIt’s all about Extraversion: Why Facebook Friend Count doesn’t Count towards Well-being.
SourceJournal of Research in Personality, 2014, Vol. 53, 64 - 67
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092656614000968
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jrp.2014.08.009
Public18+ aged, students, Finland
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4701

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived conscientiousness of compatriots
Page in Source 65-66
Our classificationConscientiousness in nation
Operationalization
Perception of conscentiousness of fellow countrymen 
reported in 6 bi-polar items:
a 'Capable, efficient, competent' vs. 'Inept, 
unprepared'
b 'Disorganized, sloppy' vs. 'Organized, neat, 
methodical'
c 'Dutiful, scrupulous' vs. 'Unreliable, undependable'
d 'Lazy, unambitious, imless' vs. 'Ambitious, 
workaholic'
e 'Discipined, persistent, strong-willed' vs. 
'Procrastinating, quitting, weak'
f 'Spontaneous, careless, thoughtless' vs. 'Cautious, 
reflective, careful'
5-point ratings thwards one or the other end of the 
scale.
Remarks
Items from the National Character Test (Terraciano 
2005)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.04 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.01 ns
Beta's controlled for:
- age
- gender
- number of Facebook friends
- extraversion
- emotional stability
- openness to experience
- agreeableness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conscientiousness in nation

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelConscientiousness
Page in Source 775
Our classificationConscientiousness in nation
Operationalization
Conscientiousness as measured by the
NEO-PI-R five factor model
Observed distributionM=49,54 SD=2,85
Remarks
Assessed in the years 1992-2000 in various subgroups 
(e.g. college students) most of them not representative 
for the general population.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=-.05 ns
AVERAGE Conscientiousness by AVERAGE happiness 
(Affect) in 13 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=-.21 ns
AVERAGE Conscientiousness by AVERAGE happiness 
(Life Satisfaction) in 16 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=-.33 ns
AVERAGE Conscientiousness by AVERAGE happiness 
(Happiness in Life) in 15 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=-.14 ns
AVERAGE Conscientiousness by AVERAGE happiness 
(Overall Appraisal) in 16 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Cynism in nation

StudyJoshanloo et al. (2014): study ZZ 2014
TitleCross-Cultural Validation of Fear of Happiness Scale Across 14 National Groups.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2014, 1 -19
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0022022113505357
PublicStudents, 14 nations, 2014
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2398

Correlate
Author's labelSocietal cynicism
Page in Source 6,10
Our classificationCynism in nation
Operationalization
Self-report on 11 questions:
a To care about societal affairs only brings trouble 
for yourself
b Kind-hearted people usually suffer losses
c Old people are usually stubborn and biased 
d It is rare to see a happy ending in real life
e People will stop working hard after they secure a 
comfortable life
f  Old people are a heavy burden on society
g Kind-hearted people are easily bullied
h People deeply in love are usually blind
i  Humility is dishonesty
j  Power and status make people arrogant
k Powerful people tend to exploit others

Rated:
1 'strongly believe' 
-
-
-
11 'strongly disbelieve'
Remarks
Part of the Social Axioms Survey (Bond at al. 2004)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=-.73 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE societal cynism in 14 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Emotional stability in nation

StudyLönnqvist & Itkonen (2014): study FI 2012
TitleIt’s all about Extraversion: Why Facebook Friend Count doesn’t Count towards Well-being.
SourceJournal of Research in Personality, 2014, Vol. 53, 64 - 67
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092656614000968
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jrp.2014.08.009
Public18+ aged, students, Finland
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4701

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived emotional stability of compatriots
Page in Source 65-66
Our classificationEmotional stability in nation
Operationalization
Perception of emotional stability of fellow countrymen 
reported in 6 bi-polar items:
a 'Anxious, nervous, worrying' vs. 'At ease, calm, 
relaxed'
b 'Even-tempered, easygoing' vs. 'Irritable, angry, 
touchy'
c 'Depressed, sad, pessimistic' vs. 'Contented, 
optimistic'
d 'Poised, comfortable with others' vs. 
'self-conscious, awkward, timid'
e 'Impulsive, yielding to temptation' vs. 'Controlled, 
self-restrained'
f Resilient, copes well with crises' vs. 'Vulnerable, 
fragile, helpless'
5-point ratings thwards one or the other end of the 
scale.
Remarks
Items from the National Character Test (Terraciano 
2005)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.49 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.45 p < .001
Beta's controlled for:
- age
- gender
- number of Facebook friends
- extraversion
- openness to experience
- agreeableness
- conscientiousness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraversion in nation

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002): study ZZ 1977
TitleStructural and Functional Equivalence of the Eysenk Personality Questionnaire Within and Between Countries.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2002, Vol. 33, 1229 - 1249
DOIdoi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00007-7
PublicNormal adults, general public, 30 countries, 1977-1997
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =333

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion vs introversion
Page in Source 28, 35
Our classificationExtraversion in nation
Operationalization
Extraversion scale of Eysenk Personal Questionnaire 
(1975 version)
Observed distributionM=18.63
Error EstimatesCrombach's alpa=.82
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondents

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=+.29 ns
Average happiness by average Extraversion in 38 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraversion in nation

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion (Eysenck)
Page in Source 65
Our classificationExtraversion in nation
Operationalization
Extraversion scale of Eysenk Personal 
questionnaire(1975)
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondants. Units are nation averages.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=+.26 ns
Average happiness by average extraversion in 20 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraversion in nation

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 775
Our classificationExtraversion in nation
Operationalization
Extraversion as measured by the Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire
Observed distributionM=18,40 SD=2,04
Remarks
Assessed in various subgroups assumed to be 
representative for the general population over the 
years 1975-1998.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=+.39 p < .05
AVERAGE Extraversion by AVERAGE happiness (Affect) 
in 23 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=+.06 ns
AVERAGE Extraversion by AVERAGE happiness (Life 
Satisfaction) in 30 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=-.01 ns
AVERAGE Extraversion by AVERAGE happiness 
(Happiness in Life) in 31 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=+.08 ns
AVERAGE Extraversion by AVERAGE happiness (Overall 
Appraisal) in 32 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraversion in nation

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 775
Our classificationExtraversion in nation
Operationalization
Extraversion as measured by the 
NEO-PI-R five factor model
Observed distributionM=45,11 SD=3,62
Remarks
Assessed in the years 1992-2000 in various subgroups 
(e.g. college students) most of them not representative 
for the general population.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=+.70 p < .05
AVERAGE Extraversion by AVERAGE happiness (Affect) 
in 13 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=+.48 p < .05
AVERAGE Extraversion by AVERAGE happiness (Life 
Satisfaction) in 16 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=+.44 p < .05
AVERAGE Extraversion by AVERAGE happiness 
(Happiness in Life) in 15 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=+.47 p < .05
AVERAGE Extraversion by AVERAGE happiness (Overall 
Appraisal) in 16 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extremety in nation

StudyGundelach & Kreiner (2004): study ZZ Western Europe 1999
TitleHappiness and Life Satisfaction in Advanced European Countries.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2004, Vol. 38, 359 - 386
DOIDOI: n10.1177/1069397104267483
Public18 + aged, general public, 9 nations in Western Europe, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10517

Correlate
Author's labelNorm for expressing extreme opinions
Page in Source 383
Our classificationExtremety in nation
Operationalization
Percentage of the sample scoring 10 on 1-10 step 
questions about life-satisfaction and job-satisfaction
- low
- high
Remarks
Cut-off point between low and high not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=+
% very happy in nations where:
- few people score 10:  31%
- many people score 10: 37%
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aGs=+.09
Gs controlled for:
- participation rate in voluntary organizations
- percentage scoring 10 on both life satisfaction 
and job-satisfaction
- support for the view that singles are less happy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hedonism in nation

StudyJoshanloo et al. (2014): study ZZ 2014
TitleCross-Cultural Validation of Fear of Happiness Scale Across 14 National Groups.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2014, 1 -19
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0022022113505357
PublicStudents, 14 nations, 2014
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2398

Correlate
Author's labelFear of happiness
Page in Source 5,10
Our classificationHedonism in nation
Operationalization
Self-report on 5 questions:
a "I prefer not to be joyful, because usually joy is 
followed by sadness"
b "I believe the more cheerful and happy I am, the more 
I should expect bad things to occur in my life"
c "Disastres often follow good fortune"
d "Having lots of joyand fun causes bad things to 
happen"
e "Excessive joy has some bad consequences"
Rated:
1(strongly disagree) 
-
-
-
-
7 (strongly agree):
Remarks
Fear of Happiness Scale (FHS) (Joshanloo2013)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=-.13 ns
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE fear of happiness in 
14 nations
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ab=-.14 p < .001
b controlled for:
- personal growth initiative
- personal level autonomy
- culture level wealth
- culture level individualism


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hedonism in nation

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of happiness
Page in Source 65
Our classificationHedonism in nation
Operationalization
Self-report on questions on importance of bring:
a. Contended
b. Enthusiastic
b. Jolly
c. Moody
d. Pleasure seeking
Factorscore, explaining 50,9% of variance.
Remarks
From Williams et al(1998), participants from 20 
countries rating the importance of 300 different 
psychological traits.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=+.41 p < .05
Average happiness by importance of happiness in 11 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hedonism in nation

StudyHills et al. (2015): study ZZ Europe 1973 /1
TitleHistorical Analysis of National Subjective Wellbeing Using Millions of Digitized Books.
SourceIZA Discussion Paper. 2015, No. 9195< Warwick, Uk
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp9195.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 6 EU nations, 1973-2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =190

Correlate
Author's labelPositive/negative valence of words used in books in nations
Page in Source 3-5,8,14,17
Our classificationHedonism in nation
Operationalization
Positive and negative valence scores of 1003 words in 6 
different languages.

A Valence of words:  Individuals in each 
nation/language were asked to rate a list of words on 
how those words make them feel. Next these words were 
rated on a 1-9 valence scale from negative to positive. 
Around 1000 words per language were rated this way.

B Use of these words  in books 1800-2009.
In Google Books, texts in books from 1800-2009 were 
analyzed on the frequency of words and their valance in 
each language, using the words list and the ratings.
Observed distributionRange average valence in nations: 5,302 to 6.07, M : 5,72, SD: 0,114
Remarks
Examples of rated valence of words in English: Ability: 
7.0, Abide: 5.52, Abort: 3.1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bOR=1.47 p < .01
Time series analysis up to 2000
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bOR=1.38 p < .01
OR controled for log GDP
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bOR=1.39 p < .01
Time series analysis extended to 2009 instead of 
2000.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bOR=2.18 p < .01
Without Spain and France


Correlational finding on Happiness and Individualism/collectivism in nation

StudySchyns (1998): study ZZ 1990
TitleCrossnational Differences in Happiness: Economic and Cultural Factors Explored.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1998, Vol. 43, 3 - 26
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006814424293
Public18+ aged, general public, 40 nations, early 1990s
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400000

Correlate
Author's labelIndividualism
Page in Source 15-16
Our classificationIndividualism/collectivism in nation
Operationalization
Expert rating of countries on a 1 to 10 scale.
1 is the most collectivistic and 10 the most 
individualistic

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.51 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=-.01 ns
rpc controlled for Real GDP per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Individualism/collectivism in nation

StudyVeenhoven (1993b): study ZZ Western Europe 1980 /5
TitleHappiness in Nations.
SourceStudies in Socio-Cultural Transformation, nr. 2, RISBO, 1993, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_nat/nat_fp.htm
PublicAdults, general public, 10 European nations, circa 1980
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelValue-individualism
Page in Source 62
Our classificationIndividualism/collectivism in nation
Operationalization
Responses to survey questions about:
a) Permissiveness in moral and religious matters
b) Permissive vs. Traditional orientation in mariage 
and family 
c) Comfort dimensions in work ethics

Summed average scores in nations
Remarks
Data taken from Halman, L.,Traditie, Secularisatie en 
Individualisering, 1987, p. 159/178

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.27 ns
Average happiness by average value orientation in 
nation
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Individualism/collectivism in nation

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelIndividualism (Hofstede)
Page in Source 65
Our classificationIndividualism/collectivism in nation
Operationalization
Self-report of work-values by employees.
Questions not reported.
Remarks
From Hofstede's(1980, 2001)work related values.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=+.78 p < .01
Average happiness by individualism in 22 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Individualism/collectivism in nation

StudyDiener (1995a): study ZZ 1946
TitleSubjective Well-Being in Cross-Cultural Perspective.
SourceGrad, H.;et al;Eds.: "Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Cross-Cultural Psychology", Swets & Zeitlinger, 1995, Netherlands
PublicAdults, general public, 43 nations, 1946-1992
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =43

Correlate
Author's labelIndividualism
Page in Source 10
Our classificationIndividualism/collectivism in nation
Operationalization
Expert rating of degree of individualism versus 
collectivism of the society
Remarks
A score assigned to the nations by Harry Triandis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---sq-*-11-ar=+.58 p < .001
O-HL---sq-nt-11-br=+.40 p < .05
O-SLW---sq-*-11-ar=+.59 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Control belief: internal/external in nation

StudyJoshanloo et al. (2014): study ZZ 2014
TitleCross-Cultural Validation of Fear of Happiness Scale Across 14 National Groups.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2014, 1 -19
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0022022113505357
PublicStudents, 14 nations, 2014
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2398

Correlate
Author's labelDynamic externality
Page in Source 6,10
Our classificationControl belief: internal/external in nation
Operationalization
Self-report on 21 questions om lack of fate control 
(external factors determining one's fate):
a  Belief in a religion helps one understand the 
meaning of life
b  Good deeds will be rewarded, and bad deeds will be 
punished
c  Religious faith contributes to good mental health
d  There is a supreme being controlling the universe
e  All things in the universe have been determined
f   Belief in a religion makes people good citizens
g  The just will eventually defeat the wicked
h  Religion makes people escape from reality
I   One will succeed if he/she really tries
m Religious beliefs lead to unscientific thinking
n  Knowledge is necessary for success
o  Failure is the beginning of succes
p  There arte many ways for people to predict what will 
happen in the future
q  Ghosts or spirits are people's fantasy
r   Human behavior changes with the societal context
s  Competition brings about progress
t   Caution helps avoid mistakes
u  Adversity can be overcome by effort

Rated:
1 'strongly disbelieve'

.
.
.
5 'strongly believe'
Remarks
Part of Social Axioms Survey (Bond et al. 2004)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=-.65 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE lack of fate control 
in 14 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Control belief: internal/external in nation

StudyJoshanloo et al. (2014): study ZZ 2014
TitleCross-Cultural Validation of Fear of Happiness Scale Across 14 National Groups.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2014, 1 -19
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0022022113505357
PublicStudents, 14 nations, 2014
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2398

Correlate
Author's labelVerticality
Page in Source 6,10
Our classificationControl belief: internal/external in nation
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to indicate on
five-point rating scales for each of these
events, how much they relied on each of eight
sources of guidance. These were: 
1 one’s own experience and training
2 superiors 
3 others at the same level as oneself
4 subordinates
5 specialists
6 formal rules and procedures
7 informal rules about ‘how things are usually done 
around here’
8 ‘beliefs which are widespread
in my country as to what is right’.

Events:
a Appointing a new subordinate in your department.
b When one of your subordinates is doing
consistently good work.
c When one of your subordinates is doing
consistently poor work.
d When some of the machinery or
equipment in your department seems to
need replacement.
e When another department does not
provide the resources or support that
you require.
f When there are differing opinions within
your department.
g When you see the need to introduce new
work procedures into your department.
h When the time comes to evaluate the
success of new work procedures.
Remarks
Verticality Index (Smith et al.,2002)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=-.45 ns
AVERAGE HAPPINESS by AVERAGE verticality in 11 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Control belief: internal/external in nation

StudyJoshanloo et al. (2014): study ZZ 2014
TitleCross-Cultural Validation of Fear of Happiness Scale Across 14 National Groups.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2014, 1 -19
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0022022113505357
PublicStudents, 14 nations, 2014
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2398

Correlate
Author's labelConformity
Page in Source 6,10
Our classificationControl belief: internal/external in nation
Operationalization
Higher scores indicate a greater level  of harmony 
orientation in a culture
Remarks
Conformity Index (Schwartz 1994,2006, Ralston 2011)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=-.46 ns
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE conformity in 14 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Control belief: internal/external in nation

StudyBrulé & Veenhoven (2012): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleWhy are Latin Europeans Less Happy? The Impact of Hierarchy.
SourceCamevacci, M.;Ed.: 2012, "Polyphonic Antroplogy: Theoretical and Emperical"
URLhttp://repup.eur.nl/pub/38195
PublicAdults, 6 European nations, 2000-2009
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =55000

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control (life)
Page in Source 14
Our classificationControl belief: internal/external in nation
Operationalization
Freedom in life is based on a question from the World 
Values Survey that asks, "Some people feel they have 
completely free choice and control over their lives, 
while other people feel that what they do has no real 
effect on what happens to them. Please use this scale 
where 1 means 'none at all' and 10 means 'a great deal' 
to indicate how much freedom of choice and control you 
feel you have over the way your life turns out."
Observed distributionNorth Europe M=6,9 Latin Europe M=6,4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=+.74
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE perceived fate 
control in 40 European countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Interest in life in nation

StudyLeepin (1978): study ZZ 1974
TitleLe Monde Entier Interviewé. (The Entire World Interviewed).
SourceLa Baloise, Groupe des Assurances, 1978, Bâle, Switzerland
Public15+ aged, general public, 5 parts of the world, 1974-1976.
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8433

Correlate
Author's labelBelief that life is interesting
Page in Source 26
Our classificationInterest in life in nation
Operationalization
Percentage of people per country who think life is 
interesting. (As assessed by single direct survey 
question)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-br=+.98 p < .001
Average scores per region:
                     % life            % happy
                     interesting       
Western-Europe       77                80
North America        92                91
Australia            92                94
South America        66                70
Africa               74                68
Asia                 49                48


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intrinsec/extrinsic motivation in nation

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002): study ZZ 1986
Title''Better Than'' Performances Motives as Roots of Satisfaction across More and Less Developed Countries.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2002, Vol. 33, 380 - 397
DOIdoi:10.1177/00222102033004002
PublicStudents, 42 countries, 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14000

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-referenced performance motives (intrinsic motives)
Page in Source 385-388
Our classificationIntrinsec/extrinsic motivation in nation
Operationalization
Self-reports on three questions:
A. If I am not good at something, I would rather keep 
struggling to master it than move on to something I may 
be good at.
B. I would rather do something at which I feel 
confident and relaxed than something which is 
challenging and difficult (reversed scoring).
C. I more often attempt tasks that I am not sure I can 
do than tasks I believe I can do.

Average scores of students were used to estimate 
self-referenced motivation at national levels in 42 
nations.
Observed distributionMales: M=19,25; SD=4,23 Females: M: 18,79; SD=4,16
Remarks
Average ambition in 42 nations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=+.26 ns
Average happines by average intrinsic motivation

Stronger in developed countries


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intrinsec/extrinsic motivation in nation

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002): study ZZ 1986
Title''Better Than'' Performances Motives as Roots of Satisfaction across More and Less Developed Countries.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2002, Vol. 33, 380 - 397
DOIdoi:10.1177/00222102033004002
PublicStudents, 42 countries, 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14000

Correlate
Author's labelOther-referenced performance motives (extrinsic motives)
Our classificationIntrinsec/extrinsic motivation in nation
Operationalization
Self-reports on three questions:
A. I try harder when I'm in competition with other 
people.
B. It is important to me to perform better than others 
on a task.
C. I feel that winning is important in both work and 
games.

Average scores of students were used to estimate 
self-referenced motivation at national levels in 42 
nations.
Observed distributionMales: M=12,44; SD= 1,69 Females: M= 11,76; SD=1,85
Remarks
Average ambition in 42 nations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.55 p < .05
Average happiness by average extrinsic motivation

Negative in developed countries
Slightly positive in developing nations
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Correlational finding on Happiness and Intrinsec/extrinsic motivation in nation

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002a): study ZZ 1986 /1
TitleCompetive Societies are Happy if the Women are Less Compitive than the Men.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2002, Vol. 36, 321 - 337
DOIDOI:10.1177/106939702237305
PublicGeneral public and students, 42 nations, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelOverall competitiveness
Page in Source 326, 331
Our classificationIntrinsec/extrinsic motivation in nation
Operationalization
Attitude of university students:
Average of the summed mean female responses and male 
responses to the following 5 items:
-I try harder when I am in competition with other 
people
-It is important to me to perform better than others to 
a task
-I enjoy working in situations involving competition 
with others
-I feel that winning is important in both work and 
games
-It annoys me when other people perform better than I 
do
Assessed on a 5 point scale: 0=strongly disagree to 4= 
strongly agree
Observed distributionAll: M= 12,10, SD=1,73 Women: M = 11,76 SD= 1.85, Men M=12,44 SD= 1,6.
Error Estimatesr=+.90 between female and male responses, r=+.73 p<.01 (between responses in 21 more and 21 less developed countries)
Remarks
Data: International student survey (Lynn 1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=-.55 p < .001
Nations as unit of analysis: Average happiness by 
average compititiveness
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=-.31 p < .10
B controlled for societal development as measured 
with the Human Development Index
(8% additional variance in happiness explained)
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=+.28 p < .10
B controled for gender gap in competition
(5% additional variance in happiness explained 
after societal development and and overall 
competitiveness)
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=+.26 p < .10
Interaction effect with gender gap.
No less happiness in nations were men are 
competitive, but women less so (large gender gap)
Much less happiness in nations were both men and 
women are competitive (small gender gap)
(6% additional variance in happiness explained)

PICTURE INVOEGEN
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Correlational finding on Happiness and Honesty in nation

StudyBruni & Stanca (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleWatching Alone: Relational Goods, Television and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2006, Vol. 30, 1 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2005.12.005
PublicAdults, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2004
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =259947

Correlate
Author's labelHonesty
Page in Source 8
Our classificationHonesty in nation
Operationalization
The honesty indicator is based on answers to the 
question 'is it justifiable to cheat on taxes?', on a 
1-10 scale (1= always justifiable, 10= never 
justifiable)
Observed distributionRange 1-10, M= 8.58 SD= 2.36

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.27 p < .05
B controlled for: 
- member of voluntary organization
- active in voluntary organization 
- income
- self rated health
- perceived freedom
- unemployed
- married
- education
- age
- gender
- religion perceived as important
- trust in people
- individual country dummies
- time dummies for survey waves

B means 1 point extra honesty goes with 0.03 point 
greater happiness on scale 1-10 (0.27 on scale 
10-100)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Honesty in nation

StudyBjornskov (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleThe Multiple Facets of Social Capital.
SourceEuropeaen Journal of Political Economy, 2006, Vol. 22, 22 - 40
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2005.05.006
Public18+ aged, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =800000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial/average norms
Page in Source 25,31
Our classificationHonesty in nation
Operationalization
Response to survey questions about acceptability of:
-claiming government benefits to which one is not 
entitled,
-avoiding fares on public transport,
-cheating on taxes,
-accepting bribes in the course of ones duties.
Answers are coded from 1 (never justify) to 10 (always 
justify). 

Average of scores in nation
Observed distributionN = 78 M = 2,33 Range: 1,15 to 5,49 SD: = 0,81
Remarks
Data: World Values Survey

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.49 p < .10
% happy by average acceptance of social norms in 
80 nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.05 ns
N=33 B controlled for variables at country-level:
-GDP
-trade openness
-post communist
-inflation
-associational activity in nation
-social trust in nation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Honesty in nation

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002): study ZZ 1977
TitleStructural and Functional Equivalence of the Eysenk Personality Questionnaire Within and Between Countries.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2002, Vol. 33, 1229 - 1249
DOIdoi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00007-7
PublicNormal adults, general public, 30 countries, 1977-1997
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =333

Correlate
Author's labelLie
Page in Source 28, 35
Our classificationHonesty in nation
Operationalization
Lie scale of Eysenk Personal Questionnaire (1975 
version) Measure of tendency to fake good and answer in 
a social desirable way
Observed distributionM= 13,23
Error EstimatesCrombach's alpha= .78
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondents

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.57 p < .01
Average happiness by average tendency to Lie in 38 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Honesty in nation

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelSocial desirability (Eysenck)
Page in Source 65
Our classificationHonesty in nation
Operationalization
Lie scale of Eysenk Personal Questionnaire (1975 
version)
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondants. Units are nation averages.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.70 p < .01
Average happiness by average scores on lie-scale 
in 19 countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Honesty in nation

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-deception
Page in Source 771-772
Our classificationHonesty in nation
Operationalization
Self-deception as measured by the Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire
Observed distributionM=15,34 SD=3,30
Remarks
Assessed in various subgroups assumed to be 
representative for the general population over the 
years 1975-1998.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=-.35 p < .05
AVERAGE Self-deception by AVERAGE happiness 
(Affect) in 24 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=-.37 p < .05
AVERAGE Self-deception by AVERAGE happiness (Life 
Satisfaction) in 31 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=-.38 p < .05
AVERAGE Self-deception by AVERAGE happiness 
(Happiness in Life) in 32 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=-.36 p < .05
AVERAGE Self-deception by AVERAGE happiness 
(Overall Appraisal) in 33 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neuroticism in nation

StudyVeenhoven (2007f): study ZZ 1990
TitleQuality of Life in Nations. As Measured by How Long and Happy People Live.
SourceStam, J; Veenhoven, R.;Ed.:"Quality of Life & Happiness of People in Japan and The Netherlands", KIT Publishers, 2007, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 16 - 31
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/12758
PublicAdults, general public, 96 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =60000

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 9, 20
Our classificationNeuroticism in nation
Operationalization
Self report on personality questionnaire (Eysenck 
N-score)
Remarks
Data: Lynn (1995) based on survey among university 
students

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=-.29
Average happiness by neuroticism in 31 countries
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Correlational finding on Happiness and Neuroticism in nation

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002): study ZZ 1977
TitleStructural and Functional Equivalence of the Eysenk Personality Questionnaire Within and Between Countries.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2002, Vol. 33, 1229 - 1249
DOIdoi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00007-7
PublicNormal adults, general public, 30 countries, 1977-1997
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =333

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 28, 35
Our classificationNeuroticism in nation
Operationalization
Neuroticism scale of Eysenk Personal Questionnaire 
(1975 version)
Observed distributionM=14.34
Error EstimatesCrombach's alpa=.83
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondents.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.23 ns
Average happiness by average Neuroticism in 38 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neuroticism in nation

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism (Eysenck)
Page in Source 65
Our classificationNeuroticism in nation
Operationalization
Neuroticism scale of Eysenk Personal questionnaire(1975 
version)
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondants. Units are nation averages.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.14 ns
Average happiness by average neuroticism in 20 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neuroticism in nation

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 775
Our classificationNeuroticism in nation
Operationalization
Neuroticism as measured by the Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire
Observed distributionM=14,38 SD=2,13
Remarks
Assessed in various subgroups assumed to be 
representative for the general population over the 
years 1975-1998.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=-.59 p < .05
AVERAGE Neuroticism by AVERAGE happiness (Affect) 
in 24 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=-.48 p < .05
AVERAGE Neuroticism by AVERAGE happiness (Life 
Satisfaction) in 31 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=-.17 ns
AVERAGE Neuroticism by AVERAGE happiness 
(Happiness in Life) in 31 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=-.45 p < .05
AVERAGE Neuroticism by AVERAGE happiness (Overall 
Appraisal) in 33 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neuroticism in nation

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 775
Our classificationNeuroticism in nation
Operationalization
Neuroticism as measured by the 
NEO-PI-R five factor model
Observed distributionM=52,00 SD=2,66
Remarks
Assessed in the years 1992-2000 in various subgroups 
(e.g. college students) most of them not representative 
for the general population.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=-.54 p < .05
AVERAGE Neuroticism by AVERAGE happiness (Affect) 
in 13 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=-.59 p < .05
AVERAGE Neuroticism by AVERAGE happiness (Life 
Satisfaction) in 16 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=-.48 p < .05
AVERAGE Neuroticism by AVERAGE happiness 
(Happiness in Life) in 15 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=-.58 p < .05
AVERAGE Neuroticism by AVERAGE happiness (Overall 
Appraisal) in 16 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neuroticism in nation

StudyTyssen et al. (2009): study NO 1993
TitleLower Life Satisfaction in Physicians Compared with a General Population Sample: A 10-year Longitudinal, Nationwide Study of Course and Predictors.
SourceSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2009, Vol. 44, 47 - 54
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00127-008-0403-4
PublicPhysicians followed 9 years after graduating, Norway, 1993-2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-ResponseResp. 17% , 38% at 1 year, 33% at 4 years, 38 % at 9 years.
Respondents N =631

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism trait
Page in Source 48,49,51
Our classificationNeuroticism in nation
Operationalization
Basic Character Inventory (BCI). The vulnarability 
dimension from the BCI is based on 9 dichotomous 
questions(agree/disagree), which closely resembles the 
classic neuroticism scale.
.
Observed distributionTotal scores range from 0 (low) to 9 (high)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cBeta=-.06 p < .05
CI95[-.11 to -.01]

Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- neuroticism
- extraversion
- conscientiousness
- married/cohabitant at T4
- perceived social support at T4
- work stress at T4
- negative life events at T4
- frequency of physical training at T4
- frequency of religious meetings at T4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Openness in nation

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelOpenness to Experience
Page in Source 775
Our classificationOpenness in nation
Operationalization
Openness as measured by the
NEO-PI-R five factor model
Observed distributionM=50,87 SD=2,35
Remarks
Assessed in the years 1992-2000 in various subgroups 
(e.g. college students) most of them not representative 
for the general population.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=+.29 ns
AVERAGE Openness by AVERAGE happiness (Affect)
in 13 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=+.23 ns
AVERAGE Openness by AVERAGE happiness (Life 
Satisfaction)in 16 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=+.14 ns
AVERAGE Openness by AVERAGE happiness (Happiness 
in Life) in 15 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=+.22 ns
AVERAGE Openness by AVERAGE happiness (Overall 
Appraisal) in 16 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Optimism in nation

StudyHills et al. (2015): study ZZ Europe 1973
TitleHistorical Analysis of National Subjective Wellbeing Using Millions of Digitized Books.
SourceIZA Discussion Paper. 2015, No. 9195< Warwick, Uk
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp9195.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 5 EU nations, 1973-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =119

Correlate
Author's labelValence of words used in books
Page in Source 4,5,14,17
Our classificationOptimism in nation
Operationalization
2 step rating of positiveness of words used in books in 
a language in a year:

Step1:
Rating of Intrinsic attractiveness or aversiveness of 
words. Respondents were asked to value of common words, 
such as 'abandon'. 'abbey', 'ability'... etc.. The 
number of words valued varied per nation from 1003 
words in German to 1034 words in the UK and Spain. Each 
word was rated by 20 participants per nation on the 
following scale:
   -3:: Most negative association
   -2
   -1
    0
  +1
  +2
  +3: most positive association
Ratings were recoded afterwards to range 1-9 and a mean 
per nation was computed

Step 2:
Assesment of average valence of words used in books in 
the national language using Google Book database
Observed distributionM = 5,72, SD = 0,114
Error Estimates0.35

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+1.5 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness in nation by average valence of 
words used in books in 119 nation/year 
combinations 1973-2000
b controlled for:
- country fixed effects
- year fixed effects
- number of words covered
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bR²=.90
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+1,4 p < .01
b additionally controled for GDP
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bR²=.90
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+1,4 p < .01
b when years extended from 1973-2009
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bR²=.90
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+2.2 p < .01
b without Spain and France (N nation/year 78).
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bR²=.95
(


Correlational finding on Happiness and Psychoticism in nation

StudyVeenhoven (2007f): study ZZ 1990
TitleQuality of Life in Nations. As Measured by How Long and Happy People Live.
SourceStam, J; Veenhoven, R.;Ed.:"Quality of Life & Happiness of People in Japan and The Netherlands", KIT Publishers, 2007, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 16 - 31
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/12758
PublicAdults, general public, 96 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =60000

Correlate
Author's labelPsychotism
Page in Source 8
Our classificationPsychoticism in nation
Operationalization
Self report on pesronality questionnaire (Eysenck 
P-score)
Remarks
Data: Lynn (1995) based on survey among university 
students

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=-.18
Average happiness by average psychotism in 31 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Psychoticism in nation

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002): study ZZ 1977
TitleStructural and Functional Equivalence of the Eysenk Personality Questionnaire Within and Between Countries.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2002, Vol. 33, 1229 - 1249
DOIdoi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00007-7
PublicNormal adults, general public, 30 countries, 1977-1997
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =333

Correlate
Author's labelPsychoticism
Page in Source 28, 35
Our classificationPsychoticism in nation
Operationalization
Psychoticism scale of Eysenk Personal Questionnaire 
(1975 version)
Observed distributionM=4.96
Error EstimatesCrombach's alpa=.66
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondents.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.41 p < .05
Average happiness by average Psychotism in 38 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Psychoticism in nation

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelPsychoticism (Eysenck)
Page in Source 65
Our classificationPsychoticism in nation
Operationalization
Psychoticism scale of Eysenk Personal 
Questionnaire(1975 version)
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondants. Units are nation averages

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.57 p < .01
Average happiness by average psychoticism in 20 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Psychoticism in nation

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelPsychoticism
Page in Source 775
Our classificationPsychoticism in nation
Operationalization
Psychoticism as measured by the Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire
Observed distributionM=4,73 SD=1,61
Remarks
Assessed in various subgroups assumed to be 
representative for the general population over the 
years 1975-1998.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=-.35 p < .05
AVERAGE Psychoticism by AVERAGE happiness (Affect) 
in 24 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=-.16 ns
AVERAGE Psychoticism by AVERAGE happiness
(Life Satisfaction) in 31 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=-.13 ns
AVERAGE Psychoticism by AVERAGE happiness 
(Happiness in Life) in 32 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=-.17 ns
AVERAGE Psychoticism by AVERAGE happiness (Overall 
Appraisal) in 33 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self confidence in nation

StudyBrulé & Veenhoven (2014a): study ZZ Developed nations 2000
TitleParticipatory Teaching and Happiness in developed Nations.
SourceJournal Advances in Applied Sociology, 2014, Vol. 4, 235 - 245
URLhttp://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=51393
DOIDOI:10.4236/aasoci.2014.411028
PublicAdults, developed nations, 2000
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =240000

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological freedom
Page in Source 242
Our classificationSelf confidence in nation
Operationalization
Psychological freedom is about the capability to choose 
and denotes an absence of inner restrictions. It is 
measured using the Rosenberg (1965) Self Esteem Scale, 
which is a 10 item questionnaire:
a: I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an 
equal plane with others
b: I feel that I have a number of good qualities
c: All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a 
failure
d: I am able to do things as well as most other people
e: I feel I do not have much to be proud of
f: I take a positive attitude toward myself
g: On the whole, I am satisfied with myself
h: I wish I could have more respect for myself
i: I certainly feel useless at times
j: At times I think I am no good at all

The second measure used to measure psychological 
freedom is Acquiscence, which is obtained from the 
revised NEO personality inventory.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.59
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE psychological freedom 
teaching in 27 developed nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=+.17
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE psychological freedom 
teaching in 27 developed nations. rpc controls for 
participatory teaching.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=.32
Path analysis


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tolerance in nation

StudyVeenhoven (2008b): study ZZ 1995
TitleComparability of Happiness accross Nations.
SourceSchool of Sociology and Social Work Journal no.104, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2008, Kobe, Japan.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/14883
PublicAdults, general public, 98 nations, 2000s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelTolerance
Page in Source 220
Our classificationTolerance in nation
Operationalization
Average number of categories not wanted as neighbours.
"On this list are various groups of people. Could you 
please sort out any that you would not like to have as 
neighbors?"People with a criminal record; People of 
different race; Political extremists; Heavy drinkers; 
Emotionally unstable people; Muslims, Jews, Members of 
religious movements or People with different religion; 
Blacks, Muslims; Whites, Christians; Coloureds; 
Indians; Immigrants/Foreign workers; People who have 
AIDS; Drugaddicts; Homosexuals
Remarks
WVS3 items 51-60

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.52
Average happiness by tolerance in 76 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=+.40
rpc controlled for purchasing power per head


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tolerance in nation

StudyVeenhoven (2008b): study ZZ 1995
TitleComparability of Happiness accross Nations.
SourceSchool of Sociology and Social Work Journal no.104, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2008, Kobe, Japan.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/14883
PublicAdults, general public, 98 nations, 2000s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in compatriots
Page in Source 220
Our classificationTolerance in nation
Operationalization
Public opinion. "I want to ask you how much you trust 
various groups of people: Using the responses on this 
card, could you tell me how much you trust...b) The 
[e.g. British] in general? Answer categories were: 
1-Trust them, 2-Trust them little, 3-Neither trust nor 
distrust them, 4-Do not trust them very much, 5-Do not 
trust them at all, 9-DK.
Remarks
WVS2 item 341

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.39
Average happiness by trust in compatriots in 79 
nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=+.17
rpc controlled for purchasing power per head


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tolerance in nation

StudyVeenhoven (2007f): study ZZ 1990
TitleQuality of Life in Nations. As Measured by How Long and Happy People Live.
SourceStam, J; Veenhoven, R.;Ed.:"Quality of Life & Happiness of People in Japan and The Netherlands", KIT Publishers, 2007, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 16 - 31
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/12758
PublicAdults, general public, 96 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =60000

Correlate
Author's labelTolerance in the country
Page in Source 8
Our classificationTolerance in nation
Operationalization
Average number of categories not wanted as neighbours.
"On this list are various groups of people. Could you 
please sort out any that you would not like to have as 
neighbors?"People with a criminal record; People of 
different race; Political extremists; Heavy drinkers; 
Emotionally unstable people; Muslims, Jews, Members of 
religious movements or People with different religion; 
Blacks, Muslims; Whites, Christians; Coloureds; 
Indians; Immigrants/Foreign workers; People who have 
AIDS; Drugaddicts; Homosexuals

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=+.50
Average happiness by average tolerance in the 
country in 48 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tolerance in nation

StudyVeenhoven & Kalmijn (2005): study ZZ 1990
TitleInequality-Adjusted Happiness in Nations. Egalitatianism and Utilitarianism Married in a New Index of Social Performance.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 421 - 455
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7204
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-8857-5
PublicAdults, general public, 90 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =90000

Correlate
Author's labelTolerance
Page in Source 432+436
Our classificationTolerance in nation
Operationalization
Response to survey questions about the kind of people 
one would like to have as a neighbour.
Remarks
Source; World Value Surveys 1990-1995, items 51-60

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ar=+.50
LEVEL OF HAPPINESS by Tolerance in 79 nations
Level of happiness measured using average score in 
the country
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ar=-.33
INEQUALITY OF HAPPINESS by Tolerance in 79 nations
Inequality of happiness measured using the 
standard-deviation of happiness
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ar=+.50
INEQUALITY-ADJUSTED HAPPINESS by Tolerance in 79 
nations
Inequality-adjusted happiness measured using index 
of mean and standard deviation as proposed by 
Kalmijn & Veenhoven 2005
O-SLW---sq-t-11-arpc=+.43
rpc controlled for purchasing power per head


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tolerance in nation

StudyVeenhoven (2002): study ZZ 1990
TitleBevrijde Sexualiteit. (Liberated Sexuality).
SourceDe Psycholoog, Juli/Augustus 2002, Vol. 42, 377 - 382
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8749
PublicAdults, general public, 42 nations, 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =50000

Correlate
Author's labelSexual freedom
Page in Source 380, 382
Our classificationTolerance in nation
Operationalization
Public acceptance of homosexuality indicated by 
response to survey question:
Please ell me for each of the following statements 
whether you think it can always be justified, never be 
justified, or something in between. "Homosexuality"
1 never justifiable … 10 always justifiable.
Remarks
Data: WVS (World Value Surveys Cumulative file 6160, 
ICPRS, Ann Arbor Michagan)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.72
Happy Life Years by Acceptatance of homosexuality 
in 42 nations
Set Image size:   

Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.38
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tolerance in nation

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelPrejudice
Page in Source 46
Our classificationTolerance in nation
Operationalization
Average response to question in survey:
Could you please sort out, from this list of 14 groups 
of people, those you would not like to have as 
neighbours?
Each response is coded:
1: mentioned
0: not mentioned
Remarks
Data: World Value Survey 2, items 69-72, 1990-92, Ann 
Arbor, Michagan, USA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=-.67
Happy Life Years by Prejudice in 38 nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=-.43
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tolerance in nation

StudyInglehart et al. (2008): study ZZ 1981
TitleDevelopment, Freedom, and Rising Happiness.
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2008, Vol. 3, 264 - 285
Public18+ aged, general public, 52 nations, 1981-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =72000

Correlate
Author's label(Change in) Tolerance of outgroups
Page in Source 267, 271
Our classificationTolerance in nation
Operationalization
Respondents designated groups of people that they would 
not like to have as neighbors, using a list that 
included drug addicts, people of a different race, 
people with AIDS, immigrants/foreign workers, 
homosexuals, people of a different religion, and heavy 
drinkers. Respondents also indicated to what extent 
they felt that homosexuality can be justified, using a 
scale that ranged from 1 (never) to 10 (always).
Observed distributionNot reported
Remarks
Data: World Values Surveys. 52 nations involved in at 
least two waves between 1981 and 2007, AT LEAST 10 
YEARS APART.
Cases weighted for number of years between first and 
last survey; so countries for which the full 26-year 
time series was available have 2,6 times the weight of 
countries with a 10-year series. 
T1 = first survey
T2 = last survey

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.02 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1 tolerance in 41 
nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.23 p < .05
O-Sum---mq-*-14-ab=+.29 p < .05
Change in happiness measured controling T2 by T1
B's  further controlled for:
-T1 GDP per capita
-T1 democracy
-T1 religiosity

Similar outcome for O-Sum if additionally 
controlled for T1-level of national pride and T1 
sense of free choice.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.04 p < .05
T2-T1-CHANGE in average happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE 
in tolerance of outgroups in 42 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.07 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.15 p < .05
Change in happiness and tolerence measured 
controling T2 by T1
B's additionally controlled for T1T2  CHANGE in:
- GDP per capita
- democracy
- religiosity
- national pride
- sense of free choice


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in nation

StudyBjornskov (2005): study ZZ World samples 1997
TitleLife Satisfaction: Is There a Role for Policy?
SourcePolicy Paper No. VI/2005, European Enterprise Insitute, 2005, Brussels, Belgium
Public18+ aged, general public, 73 nations, 1997-2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial trust
Page in Source 10
Our classificationTrust in nation
Operationalization
not reported
Observed distributionM = 27,85, SD = 14,17

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-*-100-ab=+.26
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE social trust in 73 
nations

B controlled for:
- government share of GDP
- openness of the economy
- investment price level
- communist past
- log GDP per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in nation

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2006): study ZZ 1981
TitleHow's your Government? International Evidence linking Good Government and Well-Being.
SourceWorking Paper 11988, 2006, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, USA
URLHTTP://www.nber.org/papers/w11988
Public15+ aged, general public, 72 nations, 1981-2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =163000

Correlate
Author's labeltrustnat: General Trust
Page in Source 27
Our classificationTrust in nation
Operationalization
National average response to "Generally speaking, would 
you say that most people can be trusted or that you 
cant be too careful in dealing with people?"
1
:
10
Remarks
WVS

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.6 p < .01
All nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.8 p < .05
POOR nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.89 ns
RICH nations

B's controlled for:
- govdo: average of:
  - government effectiveness
  - regulatory qualitiy
  - rule of law
  - control of corruption
- govdem: average of:
  - voice & accountability
  - political stability
- Income p/c
- Importance of god

Rich: < half of US national income in 1995
Poor: > half of US national income in 1995


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyNidup et al. (2018): study BT 2012
TitleImproving Well-Being in Bhutan: A Pursuit of Happiness or Poverty Reduction?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2018, Vol. 140, 79 - 100
URLhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-017-1775-1
PublicAdults, age range not rpeorted, Bhutan, 2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response11,5%
Respondents N =8847

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in neighbours
Page in Source 85-88,93
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Selfreport on direct question:
"Most people who live in this neighbourhood can be 
trusted?"
5 Strongly agree
.
.
1 Strongly disagree
Error EstimatesS.E.=.012

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-fOPRC=+.07 p < .01
OPRC controlled for:
- Income poverty
- Self-perceived poverty
- Poverty index
- Household size
- Nationality of hh head
- Dependent hh members
- Number of rooms in house
- Literacy
- Education
- Unemployed
- Marital status
- Member of farmers cooperative
- Togetherness
- Believe in local deity
- Savings account
- House ownership 
- Urban (lives in city)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyAbbott et al. (2016): study CN 2012
TitleThe Quality of Society and Life Satisfaction in China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2016, Vol. 127, 653 - 670
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-015-0989-3
DOIdoi:10.1007/sl 1205-015-0989-3
Public18-75 aged, general public, China, 2012-13
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelMost people can be trusted
Page in Source 660, 663
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
1 most people can be trusted
0 not

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aV= p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.00 ns
Beta controled for:
- Socio-economic security
  - saving money
  - income
- Social cohesion
  - would people take advantage (or try to be 
fair)
  - civil society confidence
  - media confidence
  - government institutions confidence
  - trust: your family
  - trust: your neighbourhood
  - trust: people you know personally
- Social inclusion
  - married
  - part of chinese nation
  - part of local community
- Social empowerment
  - education
  - state of subjective health
  - freedom of choice and control over life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelTrusting others
Page in Source 216
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.20 ns
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=1.03 ns
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=1.12 ns
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyKainulainen et al. (2018): study FI 2012 /1
TitleLife-Satisfaction is More a Matter of Feeling Well Than Having What You Want. Tests of Veenhoven's Theory
SourceInternational Journal of Happiness and Development, 2018, Vol. 4, 209 - 235
URLhttps://econpapers.repec.org/article/idsijhdev/v_3a4_3ay_3a2018_3ai_3a3_3ap_3a209-235.htm
Public20-64 aged, Finland, 2012
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response62%
Respondents N =1883

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 19
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
"Can one trust people or there cannot be too careful in 
relations with other people. Do you trust people?"
Remarks
Ratings not reported. N=1857

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.37
C-W-h-sq-n-11-br=+.29
Significance of both r's not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyBergheim (2007): study ZZ OECD member states 2005
TitleThe Happy Variety of Capitalism.
SourceDeutsche Bank Research, 2007, 25 april, 1 - 22
Public14+ aged general public, 22 rich countries, 2005
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =33000

Correlate
Author's labeltrust neighbours
Page in Source 7,8
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Self report on single question: 
One can trust most people or not?
Remarks
Data: World Values Survey

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=+
AVERAGE happiness, by AVERAGE trust in fellow-man.
Correlation coefficient not reported.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudySamanni & Holmberg (2010): study ZZ 1999
TitleQuality of Government Makes People Happy.
SourceQoG Working Paper Serie 2010:1, The Quality of Government Institute, Department of Political Science, University of Göteborg, 2010, Sweden
Public18+ aged, general public, in 90 nations, 1999-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelInterpersonal trust
Page in Source 6, 16
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Generally speaking, would you say that most people can 
be trusted or that you need to be very careful in 
dealing with people?

A. Most people can be trusted 
B. You can never be too careful when   dealing with 
others.

TRUST INDEX = 100 + (% Most people can be trusted) - (% 
Can´t be too careful).
Possible range: 0-100.
Observed distributionNot reported.
Remarks
Source: World Values Surveys (1996-2008)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE interpersonal trust 
in nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.17
All nations (N=90)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.56
OECD-nations (N=30)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=-.17
Non-OECD-nations (N=60)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.33
All nations (N=90)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.58
OECD-nations (N=30)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.00
Non-OECD-nations (N=60)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyBjornskov et al. (2007): study ZZ 1997
TitleThe Bigger the Better? Evidence of the Effect of Government Size on Life Satisfaction around the World.
SourcePublic Choice, 2007, Vol. 130, 267 - 292
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11127-006-9081-5
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 nations, 1997-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelsocial trust
Page in Source 11
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
% of the population answering "yes" to the question: 
"In general, do you think that most people can be 
trusted?"
Remarks
Source: World Values Survey 1997-2001.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.25 p < .05
% very happy citizens by % trusting citizens in 74 
nations. 

B controlled for
-openness
-investment price
-log GDP per capita
-postcommunist
-government consumption


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyVeenhoven (2008b): study ZZ 1995
TitleComparability of Happiness accross Nations.
SourceSchool of Sociology and Social Work Journal no.104, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2008, Kobe, Japan.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/14883
PublicAdults, general public, 98 nations, 2000s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in compatriots
Page in Source 220
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Public opinion. "I want to ask you how much you trust 
various groups of people: Using the responses on this 
card, could you tell me how much you trust...b) The 
[e.g. British] in general? Answer categories were: 
1-Trust them, 2-Trust them little, 3-Neither trust nor 
distrust them, 4-Do not trust them very much, 5-Do not 
trust them at all, 9-DK.
Remarks
WVS2 item 341

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.39
Average happiness by trust in compatriots in 79 
nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=+.17
rpc controlled for purchasing power per head


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyRode (2013): study ZZ World samples 1995
TitleDo Good Institutions Make Citizens Happy, or Do Happy Citizens Build Better Institutions?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2013, vol. 14, 1479 - 1505
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-012-9391-x
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-012-9391-x
Public18+ years, general public, 87 countries, 1995-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =180000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial trust
Page in Source 1488
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Percentage of people in a country who think that most 
people can be trusted.
1: Most people can be trusted
0: Can't be too careful
Observed distributionM=0,26 SD=0,15
Remarks
Self-report on a single question: "In general, do you 
think most people can be trusted?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.6 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE social trust
In 87 nations

b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.5 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
-economic freedom
-democracy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.8 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
-regional dummies
-period dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.9 p < .01
b controls for: 
-size of government INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.8 p < .01
b controls for: 
-legal system and property rights INSTEAD of 
economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.7 p < .01
b controls for: 
-sound money INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.9 p < .01
b controls for: 
-freedom to trade INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.8 p < .01
b controls for: 
-regulation INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+2.1 p < .01
In 61 poor countries (GDP per capita less than 
$20,000)


Similar coefficients are obtained when size of 
government, legal system and property rights, 
sound money, freedom to trade and regulation are 
controlled for INSTEAD of economic freedom.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.1 p < .05
In 43 rich countries (GDP per capita more than 
$10,000)

Similar coefficients are obtained when size of 
government, sound money, freedom to trade and 
regulation are controlled for INSTEAD of economic 
freedom. When legal system and property rights are 
controlled for instead of economic freedom, social 
trust is not significant.

b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
-democracy
-economic freedom
-regional dummies
-period dummies

Similar results are obtained when economic freedom 
is instrumented by:
- air distance to New York, Rotterdam, and Tokyo
- the fraction of the population that speaks 
English as a mother tongue

In sum: Social trust is positively associated with 
average life satisfaction in nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study ZZ OECD member states 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =92338

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 12,14,15,37
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Self perceived trust in people:
1: Most people can be trusted
0: Need to be very careful
Remarks
Operationalization recoded by WDH

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.14 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by AVERAGE trust
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.27 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.38 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE trust in nation

Beta's controlled for:
  - individual characteristics
     - household income
     - subjective poverty
     - self rated health
     - education
     - sexe
     - age
     - divorced
     - number of children
  - national charactereristics
     - average perception of
     - income inequality in country
     - unemployment (ind.)
     - unemployment rate
     - air pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyVeenhoven (2005): study ZZ 1990
TitleApparent Quality-of-Life in Nations: How Long and Happy People Live.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 61 - 86
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7200
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8014-2
PublicAdults, general public, 67 nations, 1990s
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in compatriots
Page in Source 73
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Responses to survey question
Remarks
Source: World value surveys 1990-1995, item 41
See also VEENH1996 in this database

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.20
Happy Life Years by Trust in compatriots in 37 
nations in the 1990s.
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.20
rpc controlled for purchasing power per head.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyVeenhoven & Kalmijn (2005): study ZZ 1990
TitleInequality-Adjusted Happiness in Nations. Egalitatianism and Utilitarianism Married in a New Index of Social Performance.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 421 - 455
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7204
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-8857-5
PublicAdults, general public, 90 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =90000

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 432+436
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Response to survey question
Remarks
Source; World Value Surveys 1990-1995, item 165

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ar=+.37
LEVEL OF HAPPINESS by Trust in people in 79 
nations
Level of happiness measured using average score in 
the country
O-SLW---sq-t-11-arpc=-.50
INEQUALITY OF HAPPINESS by Trust in people in 79 
nations
Inequality of happiness measured using the 
standard-deviation of happiness
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ar=+.54
INEQUALITY-ADJUSTED HAPPINESS by Trust in people 
in 79 nations
Inequality-adjusted happiness measured using index 
of mean and standard deviation as proposed by 
Kalmijn & Veenhoven 2005
O-SLW---sq-t-11-arpc=+.16
rpc controlled for purchasing power per head


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in family members
Page in Source 46
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Average response to survey question:
Could you tell me how much you trust your family?
1: Do not trust at all
2: Do not trust very much
3: Trust nor distrust
4: A little
5: Completely
Remarks
Data: World Value Survey 2, item 340, 1990-92, Ann 
Arbor, Michagan, USA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.27
Happy Life Years by Trust in family members in 42 
nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.32
rpc controlled fo buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in (fellow) countrymen
Page in Source 46
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Average response to survey question:
Could tou tell me how much you trust your fellow 
countrymen?
1: Do not trust at all
2: Do not trust very much
3: Trust nor distrust
4: A little
5: Completely
Remarks
Data: World Value Survey 2, item 341, 1990-92, Ann 
Arbor, Michagan, USA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.11
Happy Life Years by Trust in (fellow) countrymen 
in 42 nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.25
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyBjornskov (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleThe Multiple Facets of Social Capital.
SourceEuropeaen Journal of Political Economy, 2006, Vol. 22, 22 - 40
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2005.05.006
Public18+ aged, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =800000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial/generalised trust
Page in Source 24,31
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Response to survey question:
In general, do you think that most people can be 
trusted, or can't you be too careful?
1 yes
0 no

% in nation answering 'yes'
Observed distributionN = 83 M = 27,5 Range: 2,8 to 66,5 SD: 15,64

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.25 ns
% happy by social or generalised trust in 80 
nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.28 p < .05
N=33 B controlled for variables at country-level:
-GDP
-trade openness
-post communist
-inflation
-social norms in nation
-associational activity in nation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyBjornskov et al. (2010): study ZZ 1981
TitleFormal Institutions and Subjective Well-Being: Revisiting the Cross-Country Evidence.
SourceEuropean Journal of Political Economy, 2010, Vol. 26, 419 -430
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2010.03.001
Public18+ aged, general public, 55 nations, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =135000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial trust
Page in Source 11, 29, 30, 32
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Percentage of respondents answering 'yes' to the 
question: "Do you think most people can be trusted?"
Observed distributionM=0,326 SD=0,144

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
AVERAGE happiness by average social trust in 
nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.15 p < .01
All nations (N=55)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.3 p < .01
Rich nations (GDP per capita => 8000 USD, N=34)

B's controlled for
-average membership of voluntary organizations
-belief in god
-divorce rate
-unemployment rate
-honest and efficient government
-post-communism
-openness to trade
-investment price level
-regional and period dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyBjornskov (2014): study ZZ Europe 1975
TitleDo Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 163 - 182
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
DOIDoi:10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
Public14+ aged, 29 countries (EU member states and potential members), 1975-2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial trust
Page in Source 174,176
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
not reported
Observed distributionM = 30,707 SD = 14,247

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.36 p < .01
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness, by social trust in 
nations.
B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Log GDP per capita
- Stable country characteristics 
  - Legal quality
  - Postcommunist
  - Openness economy
  - Government size
  - Investment price
  - Regulations
- Crisis (episodes  in which the year-to-year 
change in purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita 
is negative)

Random effects model
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.36 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- GDP growth rate (instead of Log GDP per capita)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.36 p < .01
No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for interaction:
- Growth*crisis
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.33 p < .01
No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for interaction:
- Social trust*crisis
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.17 p < .01
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness, by interaction variable 
social trust*crisis in nation.

B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Social trust
- Crisis (episodes  in which the year-to-year 
change in purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita 
is negative)

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = +.166 
(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelCynicism
Page in Source 65
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Mistrust in others, self-report on single 
question:Using the responses on this card, could you 
tell me how much you trust (Nationally) people in 
general?
1-Trust completely
2-Trust a little
3-Neither trust or distrust
4-Not trust very much
5-Not trust at all
Average score per country.

(%...)
Remarks
Veenhoven (1984), scores on an item measuring mistrust 
in others were taken from the World Values Survey.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.43 ns
Average happiness by average cynicism in 20 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyDuffy (2004): study GB 2000
TitleLife Satisfaction and Trust in Other People.
SourcePublication MORI, 2004, London, UK
URLhttp://www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/publications/1226/Life-satisfaction-and-trust-in-other-people.aspx
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8952

Correlate
Author's labelTrust
Page in Source 12
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Self report on single question whether other people can 
be trusted
1 yes
0 no
Observed distribution1: 36%, 2: 64%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eD%=+
Composition of 2% Most Happy (N=180) and
2% Least Happy (N=180) in terms of trust in other 
people 

          2% Most happy  2% Least happy  Dif. 
Answered       50           14           +36%
yes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyKeyes (1998): study US Wisconsin 1994
TitleSocial Well-Being.
SourceSocial Psychology Quarterly, 1998, Vol. 61, 121 - 140
Public18+ aged, general public, Dane County, Wisconsin USA, 1994
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response37%
Respondents N =373

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Acceptance
Page in Source 138
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Respondents indicated (dis)agreement with the following 
statements: You think/believe/feel
a) Other people are unreliable (-)
b) People are kind (+)
c) People are selfcentered (-)
d) People are not trustworthy (-)
e) People only live for themselves (-)
f) People are more and more dishonest (-)
g) People care about each-other's problems (+)
Items with (-) are reverse scored on scale ranging from 
1.strongly  2.moderately 3.slightly disagree 4.slightly 
5.moderately 6.strongly agree
Observed distributionM = 28.3 SD = 6.4
Error EstimatesMetric Loading ranging from 0.62 to 1.1 Validity Coefficient ranging from 0.51 to 0.68 Alpha Reliability 0.77

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-m-sq-v-4-ar=+.21 p < .01
O-SLu-h-sq-v-4-ar=+.14 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man in nation

StudyBjornskov (2008a): study US 1993
TitleSocial Capital and Happiness in the United States.
SourceApplied Research inQuality of Life, 2008, Vol. 3, 43 - 62
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11482-008-9046-6
Public18+aged, general public, 9 regions, USA, 1983-1998
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60200

Correlate
Author's labelSocial trust
Page in Source Table 1, 3, and 7
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man in nation
Operationalization
Response to statement:
"Most people are honest".
1 generally agree
2
3
4
5
6  definitively agree
Observed distributionMean: 31,367; Min. 24,692 (North Carolina); Max.37,969 (New Hampshire). Mean, minimum and maximum seem to be obtained by some transformation of the original results on the 1-6-scale.
Remarks
Average response per state, assessed in 1983 and 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ar=+.89
Level of average happiness by level of social 
trust in 9 US-regions over 16 years over 1983-1998 
(cross-esectional).
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ar=+.33 p < .01
CHANGE in average happiness by CHANGE in average 
social trust in 9 US-regions over 16 years over 
1983-1998.
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ar=+.59 p < .01
If two outlier observations are excluded.
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-aBeta=+.01 p < .01
Beta (+0,008) controlled for
-regional fixed effects, such that only changes in 
the variables are captured while longer-run 
effects and the potential influence of stable 
stocks of social capital are not considered.
-formal sociability
-informal sociability
-log Gross State Product (GSP) per capita
-GSP relative to USA-GDP
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-aBeta=+.01 p < .05
Beta unchanged (+0.008) if additionally controlled 
for changes at individual level by analyzing the 
residuals of individual-level analysis.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in institutions in nation

StudyPontarollo et al. (2018): study EC 2015
TitleThe Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in A Developing Country: The Ecuadorian Case.
SourceJCR Report, 2018, Nr. 109319, European Commission, Luxembourg
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ipt/iptwpa/jrc109319.html
DOIdoi: 10.2760/858865
PublicAdults, Ecuador, 2015
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21265

Correlate
Author's labelInstitutional trust
Page in Source 8,12
Our classificationTrust in institutions in nation
Operationalization
Selfreport on trust in the public defender center:
1
.
.
5
Observed distributionMin.=1, max.=5; mean=-3.18; SD=1.08
Error Estimatesb: SE=.02; OLRC: SE=.02
Remarks
Measure nor reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-nb=+.13 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-nOLRC=+.17 p < .01
b and OLRC controlled for:
Aggregate variables:
- regional economy dependent on oil production
- VGA pc (log regional income)
- income inequality
- natural hazard risk
- urban/rural area
Individual variables:
- urban/rural
- gender
- age and age squared
- marital status
- importance of religion
- leisure time
- indigenous 
- education
- employed
- socio-economic status
- health insurance
- walls in good condition
- internet access
- home-owner
- household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in institutions in nation

StudyWell-Being Study Unit (2012a): study JP 2012
TitleInitial investigation on the data from the Quality of Life Survey FY2011.
SourceEconomic and Social Research Institute Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2012, Japan
URLhttp://www.esri.go.jp/en/prj/current_research/koufukudo/abstract/tentative_report.pdf
Public15-69 aged, general population, Japan, 2012
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =10469

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in institutions
Page in Source 39
Our classificationTrust in institutions in nation
Operationalization
Self reported on single question
A:  Trust in national government
B: Trust in local government
C: Trust for assemblies
D: Trust for judicial system
E: Trust for media
F: Trust for corporations

Verbal answers coded as:
1: Cannot be trusted at all
2: Cannot be trusted
3: Neither can nor cannot be trusted
4: Can be trusted somewhat
5: Can be trusted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-er=+.15 p < .01
Trust in national government
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-er=+.18 p < .01
Trust in local government
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-er=+.14 p < .01
Trust in assemblies
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-er=+.20 p < .01
Trust in judicial system
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-er=+.12 p < .01
Trust in media
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-er=+.20 p < .01
Trust in corporations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in institutions in nation

StudyKasmaoui & Bourhaba (2017): study ZZ 2006
TitleHappiness and Public Expenditure: Evidence from a Panel Analysis.
SourceMPRA Working Paper, 2017, No. 79339, 1 - 12
URLhttps://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/79339/
Public18+ aged, general public, 132 nations, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1320000

Correlate
Author's labelConfidencel
Page in Source 3,7
Our classificationTrust in institutions in nation
Operationalization
Confidence in national government. Trust your 
government?
0: no
1: yes
Observed distribution%yes Min 0,07 Max 0,97 Mean 0,46 SD 0,18

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.34 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by CURRENT confidence in 
national government in nation. (OLS analyses on 
pooled data 2006-2015 in 166 nations)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.23 p < .05
CHANGE in AVERAGE happiness in 2006-2015 (measured 
by controling T2 happiness by T1 happiness) by 
CHANGE in confidence in national government.(GMM 
analysis in 116 nations)

b additionally controlled for CHANGE in 
-log GDP per capita
-social support
-healthy life expectancy at birth
-freedom to make life choices
-democratic quality of government (World Bank)
-public spending.

Similar b if addionally controlled for change in 
inequality in household income (Gini)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in institutions in nation

StudySamanni & Holmberg (2010): study ZZ 1999
TitleQuality of Government Makes People Happy.
SourceQoG Working Paper Serie 2010:1, The Quality of Government Institute, Department of Political Science, University of Göteborg, 2010, Sweden
Public18+ aged, general public, in 90 nations, 1999-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelConfidence in Parliament
Page in Source 6, 16
Our classificationTrust in institutions in nation
Operationalization
The proportion of respondents who indicate either “a 
great deal” or “quite a lot” of confidence in 
parliament, as a percentage of all respondents.
Observed distributionNot reported.
Remarks
Source: World Values Surveys (1996-2006)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE confidence in 
parliament in nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.22
All nations (90)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.44
OECD-nations (30)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.22
Non-OECD-nations (60)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.10
All nations (90)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.50
OECD-nations (30)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.17
Non-OECD-nations (60)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in institutions in nation

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in social institutions
Page in Source 46
Our classificationTrust in institutions in nation
Operationalization
Average reponse to survey question:
Please tell me for each institution listed how much 
confidence you have in them: church, armed forces, 
education stystem, legal system, press, trade unions, 
police, parliament, civil service, major companies, 
social security system, European Community (Western 
Europe and China) / TV (other countries), NATO, 
American political system,
1: none at all
2: not very much 
3: quite a lot
4: a great deal
Remarks
Data: World Value Survey 2, item 272-285, 1990-92, Ann 
Arbor, Michagan, USA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=-.05
Happy Life Years by Trust in social institutions 
in 30 countries
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.14
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in institutions in nation

StudyVanBeuningen & Kloosterman (2011): study NL 2009
TitleSubjectief Welzijn: Welke Factoren spelen een Rol? (Subjective Well-Being, Which Factores are Important?)
SourceBevolkingstrends, 4e kwartaal 2011, Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS), Netherlands
URLhttps://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/50FF24EA-D783-40E4-B13C-9D7CAF89E8E7/0/2011k4p85b15art.pdf
Publicaged 18+, Netherlands, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6878

Correlate
Author's labelConfidence in parliament
Page in Source 92, 89
Our classificationTrust in institutions in nation
Operationalization
Self reported question on trust in parliament:
a. not at all
b. not so much
c. quite a lot
d. very much

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dD%=+
a. 83%
b. 88%
c. 91%
d. 94%
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=+
a. 80%
b. 87%
c. 90%
d. 90%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=+.11
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=+.15
B's controled for:
- household income per year
- holiday
- financial independancy
- health
- scholing
- socio-economic category
- participation in societies
- contact with family
- contact with friends
- social trust
- having partner
- children in household
- feelings in unsafety
- community feeling
- urbanity
- age
- sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in institutions in nation

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelDegree of trust in institutions
Page in Source questions 55 - 67
Our classificationTrust in institutions in nation
Operationalization
To what degree the following institutions are 
trustworthy?
a Deputies Convention
b the Supreme Council
c the President of Russia
d the governemnt of Russia
e the Supreme Court 
f regional (republic) authorities
g local (city, district) authorities
h the army
i State Security Committee (KGB) 
j policy, court, prosecution authorities 
k trade unions
l the Orthodox church 
m mass media


Scale:
1 not at all trustworthy
2 rather untrustworthy 
3 rather trustworthy
- DK/NA
Observed distributionN = a: 1: 54,8% 2: 16,6% 3: 4,3% DK/NA: 24,4% b: 1: 49,3% 2: 19,3% 3: 4,5% DK/NA: 26,9% c: 1: 21,9% 2: 33,4% 3: 26,6% DK/NA: 18,1% d: 1: 21,9% 2: 35,1% 3: 17,6% DK/NA: 25,4% e: 1: 31,8% 2: 25,5% 3: 11,2% DK/NA: 31,5% f: 1: 28,6% 2: 28,5% 3: 9,1% DK/NA: 33,7% g: 1: 31,2% 2: 28,5% 3: 11,3% DK/NA: 28,9% h: 1: 10,4% 2: 26,3% 3: 38,3% DK/NA: 25,1% i: 1: 17,8% 2: 29,2% 3: 19,6% DK/NA: 33,4% j: 1: 30,1% 2: 33,3% 3: 12,6% DK/NA: 24% k: 1: 35,4% 2: 23,1% 3: 9,9% DK/NA: 31,6% l: 1: 6,4% 2: 14,6% 3: 44,4% DK/NA: 34,6% m: 1: 17,8% 2: 40,6% 3: 22,9% DK/NA: 18,6%
Remarks
Degree of trust in institutions is computed as a sum of 
scores (from 1 to 3) given by an individual to each 
institution (a - m).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hr=+.16 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Psychological freedom in nation

StudyBrulé & Veenhoven (2014a): study ZZ Developed nations 2000
TitleParticipatory Teaching and Happiness in developed Nations.
SourceJournal Advances in Applied Sociology, 2014, Vol. 4, 235 - 245
URLhttp://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=51393
DOIDOI:10.4236/aasoci.2014.411028
PublicAdults, developed nations, 2000
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =240000

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological freedom
Page in Source 242
Our classificationPsychological freedom in nation
Operationalization
Psychological freedom is about the capability to choose 
and denotes an absence of inner restrictions. It is 
measured using the Rosenberg (1965) Self Esteem Scale, 
which is a 10 item questionnaire:
a: I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an 
equal plane with others
b: I feel that I have a number of good qualities
c: All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a 
failure
d: I am able to do things as well as most other people
e: I feel I do not have much to be proud of
f: I take a positive attitude toward myself
g: On the whole, I am satisfied with myself
h: I wish I could have more respect for myself
i: I certainly feel useless at times
j: At times I think I am no good at all

The second measure used to measure psychological 
freedom is Acquiscence, which is obtained from the 
revised NEO personality inventory.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.59
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE psychological freedom 
teaching in 27 developed nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=+.17
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE psychological freedom 
teaching in 27 developed nations. rpc controls for 
participatory teaching.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=.32
Path analysis


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB---mq-nt-11-aSelfreport on multiple questions:

Equivalent questionnaires about experienced positive and negative affect, such as Bradburn's ABS and Watson's PANAS. The number and wording of the questions varies somewhat across studies and languages.

Scores are transformed linearly to range 0-10
A-AOL-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Does life these days mostly give you a pleasant or a unpleasant feeling:
10 mostly pleasant
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 mostly unpleasant
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
C-W-h-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

How succesful are you in getting what you want from life?
10 I have got more than I ever dreamed of
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 life falls short of my wants..
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question:

How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want out of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none
- don't know
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy

B How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never

C How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want out of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none

Computation not reported: 0 to 6
M-CO---sq-*-11-aSelf report on different single questions

Responses transformed to common 0 to 10 scale
- scores on verbal response scales transformed using Thurstone's technique of expert weighing
- scores on numerical scales shorter than 11 step transformed by linear stretching
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
O-HL---sq-nt-11-aSelf report on single question:

Equivalent questions on happiness rated on various scales. The items differ slightly in wording and number of the response options.

Scores are transformed to a common range 0 - 10 by means of expert weighting of response options (Thurstone's method).
O-HL---sq-nt-11-bSelf report on single question

Various items using the term happiness

Responses transformed to common 0 to 10 scale

Scores on verbal response scales transformed using Thurstone's technique of expert weighing

Scores on numerical scales shorter than 11 step transformed by linear stretching
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how happy would you say you are currently?
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mSelfreport on single question

All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy
- Don't know
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not very happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-fSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy do you consider yourself to be?
5 very happy
4 moderately happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 moderately unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-nSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel regarding all aspects of your life all together?
10 totally happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how happy would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 very unhappy
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

To what extent do you think of yourself as a happy person?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
- don't know
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you currently lead?
5 extraordinary satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

I am very satisfied with the way things are going in my life these days:
1 definitely disagree
2
3
4
5
6 definitely agree
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life at the moment, would you say that you are by and large satisfied with life or are you mostly dissatisfied
7 very much satisfied
6 very satisfied
5 quite satisfied
4 so-so
3 quite dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 very much dissatisfied
O-SLu-h-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Ss were asked to pretend for a moment that their life would end next week end then indicate how happy they felt about the life they been able to live. (Full question not reported)
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 a little satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-aSelf report on single question:

Equivalent questions on life-satisfaction rated on various scales. The items differ slightly in wording and number of the response options.

Scores are transformed to a common range 0 - 10 by means of expert weighting of response options (Thurstone's method).
O-SLW---sq-*-11-aSelf report on single question

Various items using the term 'satisfaction with life'

Responses transformed to common 0 to 10 scale
- scores on verbal response scales transformed using Thurstone's technique of expert weighing
- scores on numerical scales shorter than 11 step transformed by linear stretching
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-aSelfreport on single question

Various questions on satisfaction with life as-a-whole, rated on 10 or 11 step numeral scales. 10 step variants stretched to range 0-10
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aSelf report on single question:

Various questions on overall satisfaction with life as a whole.

Scores transformed to scale 0-10
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now.....?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
4 quite satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 rather unsatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
- not applicable
- hard to say
O-SLW-m-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question

'….satisfied with global life right now….'
(full question not reported)
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 a little satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport on single question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-Sum---mq-*-100-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
.
.
10 satisfied

B Taking all tohether, how happy would you say you are?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy

Computation: Summed score, rescaled to range 0-100 with average 50
O-Sum---mq-*-14-aSelfreport on two questions:

A Taking all together, how happy would you say you are?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
B All things considered, how satisfied are you with your
life as-a-whole now?
10 satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 dissatisfied

Computation: (Ax2,5) +B -10

Name: Inglehart's combined score
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-aSelf report on single question:

Equivalent questions on happiness and life-satisfaction rated on various scales. The items differ slightly in wording and number of the response options.

Scores are transformed to a common range 0 - 10 by means of expert weighting of response options (Thurstone's method).
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-aSelfreport on single questions:

This measure of average happiness in nations combines responses to different questions on happiness and life-satisfaction rated on different scales. Precise items and rating scales differ per nation. Average scores per nation were transformed afterwards to a common 0-10 scale.

Name: Diener's SWB-score of nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-aHappy Life Years

Life-expectancy in nations multiplied by 0-1 average happiness as assessed with survey questions type O-HL


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
GsPARTIAL GAMMA. See: GAMMA
Range: [-1, +1].
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report.
OLRCOLRC: Regression coefficient in ordered categorical logistic regression.
Only the sign of the computed coefficient is informative.

Happiness is an ordered categorical variable. Higher categories correspond to being happier.

OLRC < 0 indicates that the odds of being beyond a chosen happiness category-to- be-ing at or below that category decreases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OLRC > 0 indicates an increase in the odds for both the above cases.
OPRCOPRC: Regression coefficient in ordered categorical probit regression.
Only the sign of the computed coefficient is informative.

Happiness is an ordered categorical variable. Higher categories correspond to being more happy.

OPRC < 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category decreases and the probability of being at or below that category increases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OLRC > 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category
increases and the probablity of being at or below that category decreases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.
OROR: Odds ratio in binary logistic regression.

Happiness is a binary or dichotomous variable with Happy =1 and Unhappy=0.

OR < 1 indicates that the odds of being happy-to-being unhappy
decreases by a factor OR when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases by one unit
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OR > 1 indicates an increase by a factor OR for both the above cases.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ra²ADJUSTED COEFFICIENT OF MULTIPLE CORRELATION
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0 ; 1]

Meaning:
Ra = 0 « not any association
Ra = 1 « strongest possible association
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
VCRAMéR's V
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
V = 0 « no association
V = 1 « strongest possible association


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness


A new version of this website is available since 2020 August 1 at the old address worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl
This old website is renamed as worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl and is still maintained.
The new website links to some parts of this old website for the time being.


Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
14971 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 7730 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1354 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12851 distributional findings in the general public, of which 9280 in 173 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3571 findings in 2299 regions and cities in nations.
3068 studies with findings in 175 specific publics.
20128 correlational findings observed in 2592 studies, excerpted from 1898 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Number of Studies
ACTIVITY (how much one does)3
ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)374
AFFECTIVE LIFE81
AGE857
AGGRESSION15
ANOMY35
APPEARANCE (good looks)28
ATTITUDES17
AUTHORITARIANISM4
BIRTH CONTROL2
BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)201
BODY113
CHILDREN13
CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)349
CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN40
CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN19
CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)36
COMMUNAL LIVING16
COMPETENCES21
CONCERNS50
CONSUMPTION174
COPING71
CREATIVENESS8
CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR3
CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)51
DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
DISASTER3
EDUCATION724
EMPLOYMENT 1078
ERA (temporal period)163
ETHNICITY231
EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
EVENTS2
FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)528
FAMILY OF PROCREATION154
FAMILY OF RELATIVES270
FARMING68
FREEDOM59
FRIENDSHIP375
GENDER840
GRIEF1
HABITS2
HANDICAP55
HAPPINESS: BEHAVIOR4
HAPPINESS: CAREER302
HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS20
HAPPINESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS3
HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES397
HAPPINESS: OF OTHERS23
HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS27
HAPPINESS: SEQUALE1
HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS164
HEALTH: BEHAVIOR67
HEALTH: MENTAL308
HEALTH: PHYSICAL966
HEALTH: PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS71
HEALTH: PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT548
HEALTH: TREATMENT MEDICAL201
HELPING19
HOPE38
HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION336
HOUSEHOLD: WORK48
HOUSING389
INCOME1385
INSTITUTIONAL LIVING64
INTELLIGENCE92
INTERNET205
INTERESTS29
INTERVIEW 104
INTIMACY220
LANGUAGE51
LEADERSHIP15
LEISURE470
LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS527
LIFE CHANGE72
LIFE EVENTS149
LIFE GOALS131
LIFE HISTORY12
LIFE STYLE 76
LOCAL: CULTURE11
LOCAL: DEMOGRAPHY38
LOCAL: ECONOMY238
LOCAL: GEOGRAPHY303
LOCAL: LIVABILITY (fit with human needs/capacities)8
LOCAL: POLITICS14
LOCAL: RESIDENCE89
LOCAL: SOCIETY263
LOTTERY13
LOVE-LIFE46
MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER120
MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS1050
MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP197
MARRIAGE: PARTNER84
MEANING35
MEDITATION8
MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY125
MIGRATION: TO OTHER REGION1
MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)54
MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN REGION0
MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
MILITARY LIFE14
MINORITY STATUS0
MODERNITY62
MOOD408
MOTIVATION25
MOBILITY (travel)0
NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONE'S NATION80
NATION: CULTURE191
NATION: DEMOGRAPHY40
NATION: ECONOMY498
NATION: GEOGRAPHY90
NATION: HISTORY7
NATION: JUSTICE61
NATION: LIFESTYLE12
NATION: LIVABILITY (fit with human needs/capacities)70
NATION: NATIONALITY82
NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)88
NATION: POLITICS234
NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION23
NATION: SOCIETY315
NUTRITION184
OCCUPATION262
PERFORMANCE149
PERSONALITY: HISTORY57
PERSONALITY: CHANGE15
PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS864
PERSONALITY: LATER22
PETS4
PLANNING12
POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR320
POPULARITY33
PREFERENCES6
POSSESSIONS274
PRISON3
PROBLEMS40
REGION OF RESIDENCE112
REGION: CULTURE11
REGION: DEMOGRAPHY9
REGION: ECONOMY48
REGION: GEOGRAPHY34
REGION: HISTORY0
REGION: LIVABILITY. Fit environment - human needs/capacities6
REGION: PERSONALITY0
REGION: POLITICS11
REGION: POSITION1
REGION: SOCIETY7
RELIGION548
RESOURCES37
RETIREMENT170
ROLES31
SCHOOL1429
SELF-IMAGE355
SEX-LIFE88
SLEEP19
SOCIAL MOBILITY27
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS114
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS162
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)61
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS211
SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED148
SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED25
SPORTS226
STIMULANTS104
SUICIDE10
SUMMED DETERMINANTS217
SUSTAINABLE BEHAVIOR0
TIME 239
TOLERANCE40
TRAVEL30
TREATMENT0
TRUST71
VALUE DEVELOPMENT8
VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)172
VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)14
VALUES: LIVING UP TO20
VICTIM 47
WAR9
WISDOM1
WORK: CAREER2
WORK: CONDITIONS152
WORK: ATTITUDES466
WORK: PERFORMANCE42
WORRIES60
UNCLASSIFIED31
X0


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)AGGRESSION
NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)Attitudinal climate in nation
NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)PERSONALITY: HISTORY
NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)PERSONALITY: CHANGE
NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION
NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)PERSONALITY: LATER
NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)
Development of modal personality innationDevelopment of culture in one's nation
Development of modal personality innationNATION: HISTORY
Current modal personality in one's nationPERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
Agreableness in nationAgreeable
Agreableness in nationSociable
Agression, anger in nationOwn attitude to older people
Agression, anger in nationAggressive, angry
Agreableness in nationTolerance in nation
Agreableness in nationAgreeable
Agreeing, yea-saying in nationAgreeing, yea-saying
Ambitiousness in nationAmbitious
Anxiety in nationFeeling secure (vs threatened)
Anxiety in nationFeeling tranquil (vs restless)
Anxiety in nationEarlier anxiety
Anxiety in nationAnxious
Competitiveness in nationEntrepreneurial climate in nation
Competitiveness in nationAmbitious
Conformism in nationAgreeing, yea-saying in nation
Conformism in nationPsychological freedom in nation
Conformism in nationApproval seeking
Conscientiousness in nationConscientious
Cynism in nationANOMY
Cynism in nationTrust in nation
Cynism in nationCynical
Emotional stability in nationNeuroticism in nation
Emotional stability in nationNeurotic
Emotional stability in nationStable
Empathy in nationEmpathic
Extraversion in nationPsychological freedom in nation
Extraversion in nationExtraverted
Extremety in nationExtreme
Hedonism in nationValuation of happiness
Hedonism in nationHedonic values in nation
Hedonism in nationA-hedonism in nation
Hedonism in nationHedonistic
Individualism/collectivism in nationMODERNITY
Individualism/collectivism in nationEarlier independence
Individualism/collectivism in nationIndependent
Control belief: internal/external in nationEarlier inner-control
Control belief: internal/external in nationInner locus of control
Control belief: internal/external in nationLater locus of control
Independence in nationAUTHORITARIANISM
Independence in nationSelf confidence in nation
Independence in nationIndependent
Interest in life in nationINTERESTS
Interest in life in nationInteresting (vs boring)
Interest in life in nationCurrent life-style in nation
Interest in life in nationInterested
Intelligence in nationINTELLIGENCE
Intelligence in nationIQ in nation
Intelligence in nationClever
Intrinsec/extrinsic motivation in nationIntrinsic motivation
Intrinsec/extrinsic motivation in nationExtrinsic motivation
Intrinsec/extrinsic motivation in nationIntrinsically motivated
Honesty in nationValue climate in the nation
Honesty in nationHonest
Masculinity (vs femininity) in nationGender roles
Masculinity (vs femininity) in nationMasculine (vs feminine)
Neuroticism in nationNeurotic (f48)
Neuroticism in nationMental health in nation
Neuroticism in nationNeurotic
Openness in nationOpen
Optimism in nationHOPE
Optimism in nationHopes for the nation
Optimism in nationEarlier optimism
Optimism in nationOptimistic
Psychoticism in nationPsychotic (f99)
Psychoticism in nationMental health in nation
Psychoticism in nationPsychotic
Self confidence in nationIndependence in nation
Self confidence in nationPsychological freedom in nation
Self confidence in nationSelf-confidant
Tightness in nationPERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
Tolerance in nationTolerance in nation
Tolerance in nationEarlier tolerance
Tolerance in nationTolerant
Tolerance in nationLater tolerance
Tolerance in nationTOLERANCE
Trust in nationCynism in nation
Trust in nationTrusting
Trust in nationTRUST
Trust in fellow-man in nationTrust in institutions
Trust in fellow-man in nationTrust in people
Trust in institutions in nationANOMY
Psychological freedom in nationAbility to choose (psychological freedom)
Psychological freedom in nationIndividualism/collectivism in nation
Psychological freedom in nationControl belief: internal/external in nation
Psychological freedom in nationSelf confidence in nation
Psychological freedom in nationFreedom in nations
Attitudes to modal personality inationSatisfaction with compatriots in nation

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings