Findings on Happiness and POSSESSIONS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and main subject: POSSESSIONS

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Nr of Studieson subject
2 POSSESSIONS
1   Career of assets
1     Earlier possessions
6     Change in possessions
    Later possessions
67   Current possessions
29     Total wealth
28     Specific possessions
3       Business assets
4           Land owned
1           Livestock
12       Communication devices
1           Internet at home
2           Tv
6           Telephone
4       Household appliances
1           Dishwasher
1           Micro wave
1           Washer
      Property
      Transport tools
18           Car
      Consumer goods
35     Debts
3       Availability of credit
1       Mortgage (on home)
9     Insurances
17     Savings
1     Bank account
1     Liquidity
16   Attitudes to one's possessions
    Attitude to investment
3     Attitude to saving

Appendices
Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
Appendix 2: Statistics used
Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 4: Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 5: Related Subjects

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and POSSESSIONS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=0135
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2021, Netherlands


Correlational finding on Happiness and POSSESSIONS

StudyHeadey & Wooden (2004): study AU 2002
TitleThe Effects of Wealth and Income on Subjective Well-Being and Ill-Being.
SourceEconomic Record, 2004, Vol. 80, 24 - 33
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-4932.2004.00181.x/abstract
Public20-59 aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7934

Correlate
Author's labelLog net worth
Page in Source 8-10, 22
Our classificationPOSSESSIONS
Operationalization
Estimates based on responses to detailed questions 
about income components. Networth is assets minus 
debts. The natural logarithm is used since wealth is 
highly skewed towards the top end
Remarks
Assets covered housing,businesses, equity- and 
cash-type investments, vehicles and collectibles. 
Indicvidual assets (superannuation, bank accounts) and 
debts (credit card, HECS other personal debts) were 
included.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=+.57 p < .001
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.71 p < .001
B and Beta controlled for:
 - equivalised Income
 - gender
 - age 
 - partnered
 - educational attainment
 - employment status
 - disability status


Correlational finding on Happiness and POSSESSIONS

StudyGraham (2005): study ZZ Latin America 2001
TitleInsights on Development from the Economics of Happiness.
SourceThe World Bank Research Observer, 2005, Vol. 20, 201 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1093/wbro/lki010
Public16+ aged, general public, 17 countries in Latin America, 2001
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18135

Correlate
Author's labelLog wealth index
Page in Source 217
Our classificationPOSSESSIONS
Operationalization
list of assets that respondents owned or not. A wealth 
index was created based on the average ownership of the 
11 assets per each respondent (assets were not 
weighted).
Observed distributionN=15209

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOLRC=+.40
OLRC controlled for:
- Country
- Age
- Gender
- Married
- Years of education
- Membership of minority group
- Current occupation
- Health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Career of assets

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn et al. (2015): study US 2011
TitleLuxury Car Owners are not Happier than Frugal Car Owners
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 121 - 141
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0223-2
Public18+ aged, general public, the US, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8907

Correlate
Author's labelYear in which acquired first car
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationCareer of assets
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
In what year did you (buy/lease/receive/acquire) 
it?-FIRST VEHICLE

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.02 ns
B controlled for 
-Car price
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.02 ns
B additionally controlled for
-Total family income
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.03 ns
B additionally controlled for
-Rent a dwelling
-Other than own/rent a dwelling
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.04 ns
B additionally controlled for
-Number of children in household
-Health status
-Gender
-Marital status
-Age
-State dummy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier possessions

StudyCheng et al. (2013): study CN 2011
TitleHousing and Subjective Wellbeing in Urban China.
SourceMonash University, Department of Economics, Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 39, Melbourne, Australia.
PublicAdult, general public, China, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5229

Correlate
Author's labelProperty tenure
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationEarlier possessions
Operationalization
Selfreport on years of property tenure
Observed distributionM = 11.8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.00 p < .05
B controlled for:
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -gender
 -age
 -schooling
 -marital status
 -household size
 -rural hukou
 -Party member
 -social insurance
 -income
-Homeownership
 -homeownership
 -homeownership property status
 -property size
 -number of homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.00 ns
B additionally controlled for:
 -source of homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.00 ns
B additionally controlled for:
-Loan
 -home loan
 -type of home loan
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.00 p < .05
B additionally controlled for:
-Perceive better local public safety
-Express lower risk aversion
-Expect
 -better economy
 -higher house price
 -higher commodity price
 -higher interest rate


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in possessions

StudyRohe & Stegman (1994): study 1992
TitleThe Effects of Homeownership: on the Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Life Satisfaction of Low-Income People.
SourceJournal of the American Planning Association,1994, Vol. 60, 173 - 184
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944369408975571#.U-ipnIccTDA
DOIDOI:10.1080/01944369408975571
PublicHome buyers and controls, Baltimore, USA, followed 18 months 1992-93
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelHome ownership
Page in Source 176,179,181
Our classificationChange in possessions
Operationalization
1 New home owners (experimental group)
0 Continuous renters (control group)
Remarks
Selection of respondents in a home ownership program 
with an experimental group of low income home buyers 
and a control group of renters. Home buyers at T1 are 
the home owners at T2.
T1-T2 interval: 18 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-faDM=+ p < .001
                 T1 before   T2 after   CHANGE
                 purchase of home
New home owners: M = 4.02    M = 4,34   +0,32
Renters:         M = 3,98    M = 3,90   -O,08
- difference        +0,04       +0,44
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-faBeta=+.25 p < .05
T1-T2 CHANGE happiness after purchase of home: T2 
happiness by T2 home ownership,controlling for:
- T1 happiness(to indicate CHANGE in happiness)
- Social background:
  - Age
  - Sexe 
  - Marital status 
  - Education
  - Income
  - Occupational status
 Housing situation:
  - Condition of the house
  - Housing type 
  - Satisfaction with neighborhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in possessions

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelGone banktrup (or been near)
Page in Source 261
Our classificationChange in possessions
Operationalization
Have you experienced gone bankrupt (or been near)
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2252 Ever in your life: N = 100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.14
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.15
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.91
ever in your life:       M = 3.32
95% CI for difference:   [0.39 ; 0.79]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in possessions

StudyHaindorfer (2019): study ZZ Eastern Europe 2012
TitleLebenszufriedenheit und Pendelerfolg. Ost-West-Pendelnde aus Tschechien, Slowakei und Ungarn in Österreich
SourceSpringer, 2019, Wiesbaden, Germany
URLhttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-658-26791-9
Public21-65 aged, commuters from Slowakia, Tsjechia and Hungary, 2012-2013
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2687

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal wealth development
Page in Source 188,T20
Our classificationChange in possessions
Operationalization
Selfreport on personal wealth development:
1 Badly deteriorated
.
.
.
10 Strongly improved
Error EstimatesSE=.0243
Remarks
Question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-afb=+.18 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-afBeta=+.20 p < .001
b and beta controlled for:
- Gross monthly income
- Perceived job-related health risks
- Perceived job security
- Commuting time in minutes (plus squared)
- Education level
- Knowledge of the German language
- Perceived health
- Perceived identity
- Balanced relation between work and family
- Marital status
- Having children
- Frequency contact w. other commuters/friends
- Frequency contact w. Austrian friends
- Working climate
- Discrimination on the job
- Number of commuters in family/friends
- Enough leisure time
- Possibilities upward mobility
- Possibilities realizing own ideas
- Irregular employment
- Nation of origin
- Gender
- Age  and age squared
- Employment status
- Type of business
- Company size
- Ethnic differentiation on workfloor
- Commuting frequency
- Employment status before current job


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in possessions

StudyKeng & Wu (2014): study TW 1989
TitleLiving Happily Ever After? The Effect of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on the Happiness of the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 583 - 808
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9449-4
PublicElderly, Taiwan, folowed 14 years 1989-2003, before and after change health insurance law in 1995
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response<10%
Respondents N =4049

Correlate
Author's labelNational Health Insurance in 1995
Page in Source 787-788,793-798
Our classificationChange in possessions
Operationalization
1 : Insured NHI bofore 1995
0 : Not insured NHI before 1995
Remarks
Assessed at:: T0: 1989, T1: 1993, T2: 1995, T3: 1999

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aDM=+ p < .01
LEVEL of happiness before change of law in 1995
Insured:     M=1.54
Not insured: M=1.20
-  difference= +.34
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bDM=+ p < .01
Insured:     M=1.23
Not insured: M=0.94
-  difference= +.29
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-ab=+.14 p < .10
CHANGE average happiness after change of law among 
initially uninsured
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bb= ns
B's controlled for
- change happiness of originally insured
- socio-demographic background
  - age
  - education
  - marital status
- health
  - illness
  - health behavior
- ethnicity 

Most gain in happiness among the initially least 
healthy uninsured

Similar across
- gender
- education
- income
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aOPRC=-.02 ns
LEVEL of happiness before change of law in 1995
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bOPRC=-.05 ns
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aOPRC=+.26 p < .05
LEVEL of happiness after change of law in 1995
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.30 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- Age
- Social background
  - sexe
  - education
  - income
  - marital status
  - origin
    - native
    - mainland
- possessions
  - house
  - stock
- health history, ever had..
  - asthma
  - stroke
  - heart
  - disbetes
- life style
  - drinks
  - smokes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in possessions

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelChange in home ownership
Page in Source 1729
Our classificationChange in possessions
Operationalization
A  Became a home owner
   0 no
   1 yes

B  Home ownership ceased
   0 no
   1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=+.14 ns
Became a home owner
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-.18 ns
Home ownership ceased


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in possessions

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelIncrease in subjective debts level
Our classificationChange in possessions
Operationalization
Single direct question on debts.
- no debts
- debts: could pay off
- debts: could not pay off without 
  borrowing.

Assessed at:
T1: January 1963
T3: Oktober 1963

Chance in response between T1-T3
1. decreased   (N=427)
2. stable      (N=1367)
3. increased   (N=287)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=- ns
CHANGE in debt level by CHANGE in happiness.
Happiness (Affect Balance) assessed at T1 and T3.

Change in happiness expressed in change () in 
average ridits (RT). RT above .50 indicates that, 
on the average, Ss in the category became more 
happy than in the reference group, RT below .50 
that these became relatively less happy. The 
reference group is the sample of 10 metropolitan 
areas.

Decreased RT = .52
Stable    RT = .50
Increased RT = .48


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyHeadey & Wooden (2004): study AU 2002
TitleThe Effects of Wealth and Income on Subjective Well-Being and Ill-Being.
SourceEconomic Record, 2004, Vol. 80, 24 - 33
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-4932.2004.00181.x/abstract
Public20-59 aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7934

Correlate
Author's labelLog net worth
Page in Source 8-10, 22
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Estimates based on responses to detailed questions 
about income components. Networth is assets minus 
debts. The natural logarithm is used since wealth is 
highly skewed towards the top end
Remarks
Assets covered housing,businesses, equity- and 
cash-type investments, vehicles and collectibles. 
Indicvidual assets (superannuation, bank accounts) and 
debts (credit card, HECS other personal debts) were 
included.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=+.57 p < .001
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.71 p < .001
B and Beta controlled for:
 - equivalised Income
 - gender
 - age 
 - partnered
 - educational attainment
 - employment status
 - disability status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study AU 2002
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Australia 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11755

Correlate
Author's labelNet worth
Page in Source 10, 16
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Estimates based on responses to detailed questions on 
assets and debts. Household networth is assets minus 
debts. The natural logarithm is used since wealth is 
highly skewed towards the top end

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-er=+.14
Only reported in original Discuusion paper
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.65 p < .001
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eBeta=+.08 p < .001
B and Beta are controlled for
- gender
- age
- partnered
- education
- income (equivalized)
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study AT 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Austria, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7007

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,87
3                  M = 7,68
2                  M = 7,43
1 least wealthy    M = 7.11

4-1 difference        +0,75
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      46,7%           8,4%
3                   40,3%           8,2%
2                   38,2%          12,5%
1 least wealthy     33,4%          15,3%

4-1 difference     +13,3%          -6,9%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study BE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Belgium, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =9651

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,83
3                  M = 7,55
2                  M = 7,43
1 least wealthy    M = 7,11

4-1 difference        +0,71
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      39,7%           5,4%
3                   31,5%           6,8%
2                   29,8%           8,4%
1 least wealthy     30,1%          13,0%

4-1 difference     + 9,6%          -7,6%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study BR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Brazil, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =23141

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,65
3                  M = 7,58
2                  M = 7,62
1 least wealthy    M = 7.49

4-1 difference        +0,16
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=-
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      43,0%           9,8%
3                   43,9%          11,4%
2                   44,2%          11,2%
1 least wealthy     46,9%          14,9%

4-1 difference      -3,9%(.05)     -5,1%(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study BG 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Bulgaria, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5928

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,92
3                  M = 7,54
2                  M = 7,28
1 least wealthy    M = 6,93

4-1 difference        +0,99
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      51,9%           9,9%
3                   43,6%          11,9%
2                   38,6%          14,8%
1 least wealthy     36,5%          18,7%

4-1 difference     +15,4%          -8.9%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyGwanfogbe et al. (1970): study CM 1965
TitlePolygyny and Marital Life Satisfaction: An Exploratory Study from Rural Cameroon.
SourceJournal of Comparative Family Studies, 1970, Vol. 28, 55 - 71
PublicMothers of young child, rural areas, Cameroon, 196?
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response37%
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold equipment
Page in Source 62,64
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
The respondents were asked if their household contained 
the following items of equipment: sewing machine, tape 
recorder, television or radio set.
Observed distribution17% sewing machine, 7,3% tape recorder, 54% radio, 6,3% television set, 41,3% none
Remarks
N = 300

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-ar=+.12 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aBeta=+.10 ns
Beta controled for:
- wife order
- marital satisfaction
- husband's supportiveness

Using mean substitution for missing data along 
with backwards elimination of varables.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study CL 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Chile, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7053

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,68
3                  M = 7,53
2                  M = 7,29
1 least wealthy    M = 6,97

4-1 difference        +0,72
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      43,0%           9,3%
3                   39,4%           9,9%
2                   35,7%          11,4%
1 least wealthy     34,2%          17,7%

4-1 difference      +8,8%          -8,4%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study CN 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, China, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =9841

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,19
3                  M = 6,92
2                  M = 6,70
1 least wealthy    M = 6,53

4-1 difference        +0,66
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/-
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      30,3%          11,5%
3                   26,6%          14,4%
2                   26,5%          17,4%
1 least wealthy     24,1%          19,0%

4-1 difference      +6,2%(.05)     -7,5%(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study CO 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Colombia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11795

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=- p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,80
3                  M = 7,89
2                  M = 7,85
1 least wealthy    M = 8.00

4-1 difference        -0,20
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=-
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      46,9%           9,4%
3                   49,0%           9,6%
2                   51,7%          10,9%
1 least wealthy     55,8%          10,4%

4-1 difference      -8,9%(.05)     -1,1%(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study CR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Costa Rica, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6866

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 8,34
3                  M = 8,21
2                  M = 8,19
1 least wealthy    M = 8,10

4-1 difference        +0,24
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/-
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      61,6%           6,1%
3                   55,9%           6,0%
2                   58,5%           7,1%
1 least wealthy     57,6%           9,0%

4-1 difference      +3,9% (ns)     -2,8%(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study HR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Croatia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5809

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 8,23
3                  M = 7,99
2                  M = 7,87
1 least wealthy    M = 7,52

4-1 difference        +0,71
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      55,2%           4,7%
3                   48,5%           6,9%
2                   46,9%           7,3%
1 least wealthy     40,5%          10,3%

4-1 difference     +14,7%          -5,6%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study CY 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Cyprus, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5571

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,37
3                  M = 7,18
2                  M = 7,05
1 least wealthy    M = 6,65

4-1 difference        +0,72
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      38,5%          11,9%
3                   29,3%          10,9%
2                   27,4%          12.6%
1 least wealthy     24,9%          19,3%

4-1 difference     +13,5%          -7,4%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study CZ 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Czech Replublic, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5587

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,41
3                  M = 7,14
2                  M = 6,96
1 least wealthy    M = 6,69

4-1 difference        +0,71
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      37,0%          10,9%
3                   29,3%          12,4%
2                   29,0%          14,1%
1 least wealthy     27,1%          17,9%

4-1 difference      +9,9%          -7,0%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study DO 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Dominican Republic, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4740

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ ns
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 8,53
3                  M = 8,61
2                  M = 8,51
1 least wealthy    M = 8,38

4-1 difference        +0,16
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=-
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      63,6%           5,%
3                   70,1%           7,1%
2                   69,9%           8,6%
1 least wealthy     67,3%          11,6%

4-1 difference      -3,7%(ns)      -6,1%(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study EE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Estonia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5587

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,98
3                  M = 7,65
2                  M = 7,48
1 least wealthy    M = 6,90

4-1 difference        +1,08
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      47,8%           6,3%
3                   40,0%           7,1%
2                   34,5%           8,0%
1 least wealthy     25,5%          15.8%

4-1 difference     +22,3%          -9,5%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study FI 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Finland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5882

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 8,07
3                  M = 7,92
2                  M = 7,89
1 least wealthy    M = 7.68

4-1 difference        +0,39
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      50,3%           5,8%
3                   44,6%           6,6%
2                   42,7%           6,0%
1 least wealthy     39,8%           8,3%

4-1 difference     +10,5%          -2,5%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study FR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, France, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6108

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,97
3                  M = 7,75
2                  M = 7,59
1 least wealthy    M = 7,21

4-1 difference        +0,76
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      43,0%           4,3%
3                   37,8%           5,6%
2                   35,8%           8,0%
1 least wealthy     29,5%          11,5%

4-1 difference     +13,6%          -7,1%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study DE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Germany, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6522

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,58
3                  M = 7,36
2                  M = 7,40
1 least wealthy    M = 7,07

4-1 difference        +0,51
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      38,9%           9,6%
3                   33,0%          10,9%
2                   33,7%          10,3%
1 least wealthy     30,1%          13,4%

4-1 difference      +8,8%          -3,8%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyChristoph (2010): study DE 2007 /1
TitleThe Relation between Life Satisfaction and the Material Situation: A Re-Evaluation using Alternative Measures.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 475 - 499
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9552-4
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2007
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11424

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation
Page in Source 490-492,495-496
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Selfreport on 14 questions on deprivation:
A  An apartment located in a house, which is in a 
proper state of repair
B The house is located in a good neighborhood
C A separate bathroom with bathtub or shower
D Central heating, self-contained central heating or 
district heating
E A hot meal including meat, fish or poultry every 2 
days
F A holiday away from home for at least 1 week a year
G To invite friends for dinner at home once a month
H A telephone
I A car
J A color TV
K A computer with internet access
L To be able to save a fixed amount a month
M I have savings in case of emergency
N To replace worn but still usable furniture with new
O To be able to pay the rent for the apartment and/or 
interest on the house or apartment one lives in always 
on time

1 Yes
0 No
Observed distributionM=1.2; min.=0, max. = 9.7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.05 p < .001
No controls
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRCs=-.28 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.05 p < .001
OLRC-S and OLRC controlled for:
- region
- nationality
- gender
- Age
- marital status
- education
- health
- employment status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRCs=-.21 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.03 p < .001
OLRC-S and OLRC additionally controlled for:
- income
- savings
- debts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyChristoph (2010): study DE 2007
TitleThe Relation between Life Satisfaction and the Material Situation: A Re-Evaluation using Alternative Measures.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 475 - 499
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9552-4
PublicWorking aged, general public, Germany, 2007/2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response69.5%
Respondents N =9408

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation
Page in Source 488,490-492,495-496
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Selfreport on 26 questions on deprivation:
A An apartment with at least as many rooms as persons 
live there
B An apartment without damp walls or floors
C A separate bathroom with bathtub or shower
D An indoor toilet
E Central heating, self-contained central heating or 
district heating
F  A garden, a balcony, or a terrace
G To be able to buy new clothing once in a while, even 
if the old clothes are not worn-out
H A hot meal at least once a day
I   Sufficient winter clothing
J A holiday away from home for at least 1 week a year
K To invite friends for dinner at home once a month
L To eat out in a restaurant once a month
M To go to the cinema, a theatre, or a concert at least 
once a month
N A car
O A TV
P A video recorder or DVD-player
Q A computer with internet access
R A washing machine
S An upright freezer, a chest freezer, or a 
refrigerator with a freezer section
T To be able to save a fixed amount a month
U To replace worn but still usable furniture with new
V To be able to pay for unexpected expenses with one's 
own money, e.g. to replace a broken washing machine
W To be able to afford medical treatment which is not 
fully covered by one's health insurance, such as 
dentures or glasses
X  To be able to pay the rent for the apartment and/or 
interest on the house or apartment one lives in always 
on time
Y To be able to pay the gas, water, heating and 
electricity bill always on time
Z To be able to buy over-the-counter drugs - such as 
painrelievers or medicine against cold - if you need 
them, even if your health insurance does not cover the 
costs

1 Yes
0 No
Observed distributionM=2.0; min.=0, max. = 19.9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRC=-.09 p < .001
No controls
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRCs=-.04 p < .001
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRC=-.08 p < .001
OLRC-S and OLRC controlled for:
- region
- nationality
- gender
- Age
- marital status
- education
- health
- employment status
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRCs=-.03 p < .001
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRC=-.06 p < .001
Beta and OLRC additionally controlled for:
- income
- savings
- debts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyGray (2014): study DE 2002
TitleFinancial Concerns and Overall Life Satisfaction: A Joint Modelling Approach.
SourceSheffield Economic Research Paper Series, 2014, No. 2014008
URLhttps://www.sheffield.ac.uk/economics/research/serps/articles/2014_008
PublicHeads of households, Germany, 2002, 2007
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =7712

Correlate
Author's labelTotal assets
Page in Source 25,27
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Summation of household's financial assets, tangible 
assets and the current value of any property owned
Observed distributionM = 179,669 SD = 439,404

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.02 p < .05
FIXED EFFECTS analysis
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
OPRC additionally controlled for:
- unsecured debt
- secured debt
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.00 ns
BIVARIATE analysis (Joint modelling of Life 
satisfaction and Financial concerns)

OPRCs controlled for:
- financial situation
  - financial concerns
  - debt
  - household income
  - net wealth
- social situation
  - marital status
  - household size
  - employment
  - education
- age
- health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study DE 2002
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9958

Correlate
Author's labelNet worth
Page in Source 10,16
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Estimates based on responses to detailed questions on 
assets and debts. Household networth is assets minus 
debts. The natural logarithm is used since wealth is 
highly skewed towards the top end

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.19
Only reported in original Discuusion paper
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.48 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.12 p < .001
B and Beta controlled for
- gender
- age
- education
- income (equivalized)
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyChristoph (2010): study DE 1998
TitleThe Relation between Life Satisfaction and the Material Situation: A Re-Evaluation using Alternative Measures.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 475 - 499
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9552-4
PublicWorking aged, general public, Germany, 1998
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response56%
Respondents N =2130

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation
Page in Source 490-492,495-496
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Selfreport on 21 questions on deprivation:
A An apartment with at least as many rooms as persons 
live there
B An indoor toilet and a buthtub or shower
C  A garden, a balcony, or a terrace
D To be able to buy new clothing once in a while, even 
if the old clothes are not worn-out
E  A hot meal at least once a day
F  A holiday away from home for at least 1 week a year
G To invite friends for dinner at home once a month
H To eat out in a restaurant once a month
I   A newspaper subscription
J A telephone
K A car
L A TV
M A video recorder 
N A computer 
O A hifi system
P A washing machine
Q A dishwasher
R To replace worn but still usable furniture with new
S To be able to afford medical treatment and dentures 
if necessary, even if it is not fully covered by one's 
health insurance
T Supplementary private health insurance
U Private pension plan

1 Yes
0 No
Observed distributionM=2.2; min.=0, max. = 19.4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.06 p < .001
No controls
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRCs=-.38 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.05 p < .001
OLRC-S and OLRC controlled for:
- region
- nationality
- gender
- age
- marital status
- education
- health
- employment status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRCs=-.34 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.05 p < .001
OLRC-S and OLRC additionally controlled for:
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyFalco et al. (2012): study GH 2004
TitleHeterogeneity in Subjective Wellbeing. An Application to Occupational Allocation in Africa.
SourcePolicy Research Working Paper 6244, Worldbank, 2012, USA
Public15-60 aged, urban population, Ghana, followed 7 years, 2004-2010
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3216

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Assests
Page in Source 43
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Log of self reported household assests
Remarks
Pooled data T1 to T+4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aOPRC=+.09 p < .01
OPRC controled for:
- self-employed, with employee
- earnings (log)
- work conditions
  - hours-squared (log)
  - tenure (log)
  - apprentice
- personal characteristics
  - household assets
  - household head
  - married
  - sexe
  - age
  - age-squared
  - education-squared (log)
- situation
  - ethnicity (dummy)
  - city (dummy)
  - year (dummy)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study GR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Greece, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5532

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,26
3                  M = 7,01
2                  M = 6,92
1 least wealthy    M = 6,47

4-1 difference        +0,79
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/-
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      32,6%          11,4%
3                   26,0%          13,8%
2                   25,7%          14,3%
1 least wealthy     20,6%          19,2%

4-1 difference     +12,0%          -7,7%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study HK 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Hong Kong, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5359

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 6,80
3                  M = 6,53
2                  M = 6,43
1 least wealthy    M = 6,15

4-1 difference        +0,65
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      18,6%          12,4%
3                   12,5%          15,2%
2                   12,5%          15,5%
1 least wealthy     11,7%          19,5%

4-1 difference      +6,9%          -7,1%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study HU 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Hungary, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5658

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,58
3                  M = 7,26
2                  M = 7,17
1 least wealthy    M = 6,67

4-1 difference        +0,92
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      37,9%           8.8%
3                   32,1%          11,7%
2                   30,5%          12.9%
1 least wealthy     26,1%          19.3%

4-1 difference     +11,7%         -10,5%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study HU 1996
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3055

Correlate
Author's labelNet worth (ln)
Page in Source 10,16
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Estimates based on responses to detailed questions on 
assets and debts. Household networth is assets minus 
debts. The natural logarithm is used since wealth is 
highly skewed towards the top end

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fr=+.14
Only reported in original Discuusion paper
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fb=+.32 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fBeta=+.06 p < .001
B and Beta controlled for
- gender
- age
- partnered
- education
- income (equivalized)
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study IS 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Iceland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3374

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 8,18
3                  M = 7,92
2                  M = 7,73
1 least wealthy    M = 7,34

4-1 difference        +0,84
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      34,8%           9,7%
3                   33,1%          10,9%
2                   33,6%          10,3%
1 least wealthy     28,2%          16,6%

4-1 difference      +6,6%          -6,9%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /2
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, two poor rural villages, Garhwal area, Northern India, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response341
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold index
Page in Source 270
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Household index summates the household items e.g. 
potable water, television, bath/shower

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.16 p < .005
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+.17 p < .005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study IE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Ireland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5741

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,52
3                  M = 7,37
2                  M = 7,41
1 least wealthy    M = 6,92

4-1 difference        +0,60
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      34,8%           9,7%
3                   33,1%          10,9%
2                   33,6%          10,3%
1 least wealthy     28,2%          16,6%

4-1 difference      +6,6%          -6,9%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study IT 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Italy, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11583

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,19
3                  M = 7,02
2                  M = 6,91
1 least wealthy    M = 6,45

4-1 difference        +0,74
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      29,2%          11,4%
3                   24,4%          12,9%
2                   22,9%          14,0%
1 least wealthy     20,3%          20,4%

4-1 difference      +8,8%          -9,0%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyVieno et al. (2009): study IT Veneto 2006
TitleHealth Status in Immigrants and Native Early Adolescents in Italy.
SourceJournal of Community Health, 2009, Vol. 34,181 -187
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10900-008-9144-2
Public10-18 aged general public, Vieno: Italy, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6744

Correlate
Author's labelFamily socio-economic status
Page in Source 183, 185
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Self report on 4 question: 
a) Does your family own a car, van or truck?
(No/Yes, one/Yes, two or more)
b) Do you have your own bedroom for yourself? 
(Yes/No)
c) During the past 12 months, how many times
did you travel away on holiday with your family? 
(Not at all/Once/Twice/More than twice)
d) How many computers does your family own?
(None/One/Two/More than two)
Observed distributionM=2.30
Remarks
Family Affluence Scale (FAS)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eBeta=+.45 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- Immigrant (born in Italy or not)
- Gender
- Age
- Number of friends
- Friends support
- Bullying victimization


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study JP 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Japan, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6647

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 6,89
3                  M = 6,88
2                  M = 6,84
1 least wealthy    M = 6,58

4-1 difference        +0,31
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      26,1%          15,8%
3                   24,4%          14,9%
2                   22,8%          14,2%
1 least wealthy     21,7%          19,4%

4-1 difference      +4,4%          -3,6%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study KR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Korea (South), 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5581

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 6,71
3                  M = 6,51
2                  M = 6,22
1 least wealthy    M = 6,01

4-1 difference        +0,70
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      24,0%           9,3%
3                   19,3%           9,9%
2                   16,7%          11,4%
1 least wealthy     14,5%          17,7%

4-1 difference      +9,5%          -8,4%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study LV 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Latvia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4869

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,74
3                  M = 7,45
2                  M = 7,32
1 least wealthy    M = 6,97

4-1 difference        +0,78
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      40,1%           6,4%
3                   32,1%           8.1%
2                   29,4%           8,1%
1 least wealthy     23,8%          13,1%

4-1 difference     +16,3%          -6.7%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study LT 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Lithuania, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6525

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 8,27
3                  M = 8,06
2                  M = 7,89
1 least wealthy    M = 7.24

4-1 difference        +1,03
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      58,0%           5,8%
3                   50,6%           6,4%
2                   47,2%           8,1%
1 least wealthy     34,4%          12,0%

4-1 difference     +23,6%          -6.2%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study LU 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Luxembourg, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5299

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,62
3                  M = 7,42
2                  M = 7,38
1 least wealthy    M = 7,08

4-1 difference        +0,54
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      42,2%           9,2%
3                   36,0%          10,2%
2                   35,1%          11,2%
1 least wealthy     30,9%          14,0%

4-1 difference     +11,3%          -4,8%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study MO 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Macao, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4476

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,01
3                  M = 6,75
2                  M = 6,44
1 least wealthy    M = 6,17

4-1 difference        +0,84
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      21,5%          12,0%
3                   16,8%          13,7%
2                   15,1%          16,0%
1 least wealthy     12,6%          20,0%

4-1 difference      +8,9%          -7,9%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyHinks & Davies (2008): study MW 2004
TitleLife Satisfaction in Malawi and the Importance of Relative Consumption, Polygamy and Religion.
SourceJournal of International Development, 2008, Vol. 20, 888 - 904
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jid.1470/abstract
DOIDOI:10.1002/jid.1470
PublicHousehold heads, Malawai 2004-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11272

Correlate
Author's labelhousehold assets
Page in Source 902
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=+,09 p < .01
B controlled for:
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - education
  - employment
  - marriage
    - status (married,divorced, wiwow)
    - polygamous (vs not)
  - religion
  - interaction religion-polygamous marriage
- household situation
  - size
  - consumption per capita
  - sick member
- local environmnent
  - consumption level
  - safety
    - atacked in the last year
    - feeling unsafe
  - rural (vs not)
  - hunger season
  - member of parliament lives in area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study MY 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Malaysia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =8861

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,13
3                  M = 7,11
2                  M = 7,12
1 least wealthy    M = 6,91

4-1 difference        +0,22
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      29,9%          10,4%
3                   28,9%          10,4%
2                   31,0%          10,4
1 least wealthy     29,4%          12,9%

4-1 difference      +0,5%          -2,5%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study MX 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Mexico, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7568

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 8,40
3                  M = 8,32
2                  M = 8,18
1 least wealthy    M = 8,17

4-1 difference        +0,22
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      60,5%           5,1%
3                   58,0%           5,4%
2                   57,1%           6,8%
1 least wealthy     58,2%           8,3%

4-1 difference      +2,3%          -3,2%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study ME 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Montenegro, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5665

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 8,09
3                  M = 7,86
2                  M = 7,69
1 least wealthy    M = 7.35

4-1 difference        +0,74
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      57,8%           8.8%
3                   51,7%           9,7%
2                   47,8%          11,5%
1 least wealthy     42,6%          14,3%

4-1 difference     +15,2%          -5,4%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study NL 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Netherlands, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5385

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 8,05
3                  M = 7,84
2                  M = 7,77
1 least wealthy    M = 7.64

4-1 difference        +0,40
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      38,3%           2,4%
3                   31,6%           3,4%
2                   29,8%           3,4%
1 least wealthy     29,9%           5,6%

4-1 difference      +8,4%          -3,2%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study PE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Peru, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6971

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=- ns
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,47
3                  M = 7,48
2                  M = 7,54
1 least wealthy    M = 7.52

4-1 difference        -0,06
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      38,3%          10,8%
3                   39,4%          11,8%
2                   45,8%          13,7%
1 least wealthy     47,8%          14,9%

4-1 difference      -9,5%          -4,1%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study PL 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Poland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4478

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,51
3                  M = 7,38
2                  M = 7,16
1 least wealthy    M = 6,68

4-1 difference        +0,83
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/-
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      38,8%          10,0%
3                   33,8%           9,6%
2                   31,5%          13,3%
1 least wealthy     25,2%          17,5%

4-1 difference     +13,3% (.05)    -7,5%(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study PT 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Portugal, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7325

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,65
3                  M = 7,51
2                  M = 7,30
1 least wealthy    M = 7,00

4-1 difference        +0,65
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/-
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      36,3%           6,2%
3                   31,8%           7,2%
2                   29,4%           9,4%
1 least wealthy     26,4%          12,6%

4-1 difference      +9,8%          -6,4%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study QA 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Qatar, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =12083

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,95
3                  M = 7,54
2                  M = 7,24
1 least wealthy    M = 6,89

4-1 difference        +1,07
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      54,9%          10,1%
3                   44,0%          12,3%
2                   37,7%          13,7%
1 least wealthy     33,7%          19,0%

4-1 difference     +21,2%          -8,9%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study RU 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Russia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6036

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 8,15
3                  M = 7,78
2                  M = 7,63
1 least wealthy    M = 7.46

4-1 difference        +0,69
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      56,1%           8.0%
3                   46,2%           9,9%
2                   43,1%          10,1%
1 least wealthy     41,4%          13,0%

4-1 difference     +14,8%          -6.9%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study SK 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Slovakia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6350

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,78
3                  M = 7,52
2                  M = 7,44
1 least wealthy    M = 7.12

4-1 difference        +0,67
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      45,6%           9,0%
3                   40,0%          11,0%
2                   36,3%          10,1%
1 least wealthy     35,2%          15.3%

4-1 difference     +10,4%          -6.2%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study SI 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Slovenia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6406

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,37
3                  M = 7,24
2                  M = 7,12
1 least wealthy    M = 6,97

4-1 difference        +0,41
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      35,4%          11,3%
3                   33,6%          13,3%
2                   31,2%          13,7%
1 least wealthy     29,8%          15.7%

4-1 difference      +5,6%          -4,4%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyMoller (2007a): study ZA 2002
TitleSatisfied and Dissatisfied South Africans: Results From The General Household Survey in the International Comparison.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 81, 389 - 415
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9004-3
PublicAdults, general public, South Africa, 2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26000

Correlate
Author's labelOwnership
Page in Source 400-2
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
a:Television set
b:Radio
c:Vehicle
d:Bicycle
e:Clock or watch
f:Books
g:Cattle
h:Sheep
i:Poultry
Observed distribution% a:47%, b:76%,c:12%, d:13%, e:80%, f:44%, g:9%, h:9%, i: 23%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-c
                 % happy  %neutral  % unhappy
a:Television set    55      12           32
b:Radio             53      12           35
c:Vehicle           62      12           26
d:Bicycle           58      11           31
e:Clock or watch    53      12           35
f:Books             53      12           35
g:Cattle            57      11           32
h:Sheep             57      12           31
i:Poultry           55      12           33


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study ES 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Spain, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6736

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,71
3                  M = 7,59
2                  M = 7,38
1 least wealthy    M = 6,99

4-1 difference        +0,72
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      38,3%           7,3%
3                   33,9%           7,2%
2                   32,0%           9,7%
1 least wealthy     27,8%          13,8%

4-1 difference     +10,6%          -6,5%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study CH 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Switzerland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5860

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,83
3                  M = 7,75
2                  M = 7,68
1 least wealthy    M = 7.60

4-1 difference        +0,24
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/-
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      44,4%           6,8%
3                   39,3%           6,3%
2                   38,1%           8,5%
1 least wealthy     36,2%           8,0%

4-1 difference      +8,2%(.05)     -1,2%(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study TW 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Taiwan, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7708

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 6,86
3                  M = 6,64
2                  M = 6,69
1 least wealthy    M = 6,18

4-1 difference        +0,68
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      22,5%          14,3%
3                   17,9%          14,7%
2                   19,1%          13,3%
1 least wealthy     14,2%          21,5%

4-1 difference      +8,3%          -7,2%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study TH 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Thailand, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =8249

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ ns
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,67
3                  M = 7,71
2                  M = 7,85
1 least wealthy    M = 7.61

4-1 difference        +0,06
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      38,6%           6,2%
3                   43,6%           8.6%
2                   45,0%           6,6%
1 least wealthy     43,6%           9,6%

4-1 difference      -5,0%          -3,4%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyGuillen-Royo et al. (2013): study TH 2004
TitleBasic Needs and Wealth as Independent Determinants of Happiness: An Illustration from Thailand.
SourceSocial lndicators Research, 2013, Vol. 110, 517 - 536
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-011-9941-3
Public18+ aged, general public, 7 communities in Thailand, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =745

Correlate
Author's labelMaterial wealth
Page in Source 527
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Number of consumer assets owned by the household
Observed distributionAssets (mean) 25.93
Remarks
A list of 51 items was shown to the household. The 
household had to choose the items to which it has 
access. An index was computed.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abOLRC=+.03 p < .000
OLRC controlled for:
- Household head characteristics
  - Age
  - Marital status
  - Salaried (employed=1)
  - Gender
- Household characteristics
  - Dependencz ratio
  - Number of kids
  - chronic ill health of one hh-member
  - Location dummy
- Basic needs
  - Intermediate needs deprivation index
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abOLRC=+.03 p < .000
OLRC controlled for
- Household head characteristics
  - Age
  - Marital status
  - Salaried (employed=1)
  - Gender
- Household characteristics
  - Dependencz ratio
  - Number of kids
  - chronic ill health of one hh-member
  - Location dummy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study TN 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Tunisia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5375

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,46
3                  M = 7,25
2                  M = 6,69
1 least wealthy    M = 6,18

4-1 difference        +1,29
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      43,5%          12,3%
3                   41,9%          14,5%
2                   36,6%          22,6%
1 least wealthy     31,9%          28,0%

4-1 difference     +11,6%         -15,7%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study TR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Turkey, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5895

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 6,44
3                  M = 6,26
2                  M = 6,06
1 least wealthy    M = 5,71

4-1 difference        +0,73
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/-
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      28,3%          24,5%
3                   25,4%          25,3%
2                   26,1%          29,8%
1 least wealthy     25,2%          34,5%

4-1 difference      +3,1%(ns)     -10,1%(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study AE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, United Arab Emirates, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =14167

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,91
3                  M = 7,37
2                  M = 7,12
1 least wealthy    M = 6,80

4-1 difference        +1,10
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      51,4%           9,7%
3                   39,1%          12,5%
2                   35,0%          15,2%
1 least wealthy     33,4%          20,7%

4-1 difference     +18,0%         -11,0%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study GB 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, United Kingdom, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =14157

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,33
3                  M = 7,11
2                  M = 6,97
1 least wealthy    M = 6,50

4-1 difference        +0,83
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      34,0%           9,3%
3                   30,2%           9,9%
2                   28,3%          11,4%
1 least wealthy     20,5%          17,7%

4-1 difference     +13,5%          -8,4%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyGoswami (2014): study GB 2011
TitleChildren's Subjective Well-Being: Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Personality.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 7, 119 - 140
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-013-9205-7
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7
Public10-15 aged, schoolchildren, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2400

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation index
Page in Source 127
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Self report of having or not:
a pocket money
b saving money
c branded trainers
d iPod or similar
e cable or satellite TV
f garden or similar
g acces to family car
h clothes to fit in with social peer groups
i annual family holiday
j monthly day trips

3 options for each item:
- I have this
- I do not have this but I would like it
- I do not have this and I do not want this

Index is created by adding together the number of items 
lacked and wanted resulting in a 0 to 10 scale.
Remarks
Deprivation index

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.30 p < .00
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.17 p < .00
Beta controled for
- gender
- disability
- learning difficulties
- ethnic background
- country of birth
- religion
- family structure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study GB 2000
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14101

Correlate
Author's labelNet worth (ln)
Page in Source 10, 16
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Estimates based on responses to detailed questions on 
assets and debts. Household networth is assets minus 
debts. The natural logarithm is used since wealth is 
highly skewed towards the top end

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.13
Only reported in original Discuusion paper
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.53 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.08 p < .001
B and Beta controlled for
- gender
- age
- partnered
- education
- income (equivalized)
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study US 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, United States of America, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5712

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 7,76
3                  M = 7,63
2                  M = 7,16
1 least wealthy    M = 6,88

4-1 difference        +0,89
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      42,5%           7,6%
3                   39,4%           9,7%
2                   31,5%          12,9%
1 least wealthy     29,7%          17,0%

4-1 difference     +12,8%          -9,4%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyBerry & Williams (1987): study US Indiana 1986
TitleAssessing the Relationship between Quality of Life and Marital and Income Satisfaction: A Path-Analytic Approach.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1987, Vol. 49, 107 -116
PublicCouples, Indiana, USA, 1986
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response36% of the eligibles
Respondents N =265

Correlate
Author's labelNet worth
Page in Source 109
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
estimated value of the family assets  substracting from 
all the family debts
Observed distributionWives: Mean: 4.80, SD: 1.00 Husbands: Mean: 4.80, SD: 0.84

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-?-sq-v-7-ar=+.09
WIVES
O-SQL-?-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.13 p < .01
Direct effect
O-SQL-?-sq-v-7-aBeta= ns
Indirect effects
O-SQL-?-sq-v-7-ar=+.20
HUSBANDS
O-SQL-?-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.13 p < .05
Direct effect
O-SQL-?-sq-v-7-aBeta= ns
Indirect effects

Betas controlled for:
- socio-economic status
  - family income
  - education 
- family situation
  - years married
  - number of children
  - wife's employment 
- relation with spouse
  - management procedures
  - communication 
  - value agreement


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current possessions

StudyOECD (2017): study UY 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Uruguay, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6062

Correlate
Author's labelFamily wealth
Page in Source 251-2 +Table III.10.3, p.418-9
Our classificationCurrent possessions
Operationalization
Student report of availability at home of: 
a: link to internet
b: room of their own
c: number of televisions
d: number of cars
e: rooms with a bath or shower
f:  smartphones
g: computers (desktop, portable laptop or notebook)
h: tablet computers
i: e-book readers
Observed distributionquartiles
Remarks
countries added three specific household items that 
were seen as appropriate measures of family wealth in 
the country's context

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
Average happiness by national quarter of family 
wealth
4 most wealthy     M = 8,11
3                  M = 7,79
2                  M = 7,60
1 least wealthy    M = 7.29

4-1 difference        +0,82
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eD%=+/- p < .05
Percentages by national quarter of family wealth
                Very happy(9+10)  Unhappy(0-4)
4 most wealthy      50,3%           5,7%
3                   45,1%           8,4%
2                   42,0%           9,7%
1 least wealthy     39,0%          15.1%

4-1 difference     +11,3%          -9,4%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyKim et al. (2012): study AU 2006
TitleCross-National Insights into the Relationship between Wealth and Wellbeing: A comparison between Australia, the United States of America and South Korea.
SourceAgeing and Society, 2012, Vol. 32, 41 - 59
DOIDOI:10.1017/S0144686X11000080
Public50+ aged general public, Australia, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1431

Correlate
Author's labelNet worth
Page in Source 53
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Net worth of total wealth: Total assets minus debt
Observed distributionFull sample: M = 366.54, SD = 632.80 Male: M = 403.16, SD = 674.42 Female: M = 334.94, SD = 593.170
Remarks
Equivaliyed net worth (i.e. divided by the square root 
of household size)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=+.06 p < .05
MEN

b controled for:
- incoome
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=-.04 ns
b additionally controled for:
- satisfaction with wealth
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=-.05 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.23
Beta calculated by WDH team

b and Beta additionally controled for:
- age
- education
- partner status
- employment status
- medical conditions
- disability
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=+.08 p < .01
WOMEN

b controled for:
- incoome
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=-.03 ns
b additionally controled for:
- satisfaction with wealth
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=-.04 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.19
b and Beta additionally controled for:
- age
- education
- partner status
- employment status
- medical conditions
- disability


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelTotal worth
Page in Source B131+132
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Single question:
If you were to sell everything you own, about how much 
money would you have?
1:      <$10000
2: about $50000
3: about $100000
4: about $200000
5: about half a million $
6: about 1 million $
7: More than 1 million $
Observed distributionN = 210, 2: 194, 3: 149, 4: 386, 5: 403, 6: 137, 7: 104
Remarks
Survey 11

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+
1 Mt = 7,15; SD = 2,02
2 Mt = 7,39; SD = 1,86
3 Mt = 7,44; SD = 1,67
4 Mt = 7,98; SD = 1.61
5 Mt = 7,87; SD = 1,51
6 Mt = 7,99; SD = 1,51
7 Mt = 8,10; SD = 1,67
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=+
1 Mt = 6,91; SD = 2,17
2 Mt = 7,21; SD = 2,01
3 Mt = 7,34; SD = 1,82
4 Mt = 7,69; SD = 1,73
5 Mt = 7,60; SD = 1,66
6 Mt = 7,73; SD = 1,57
7 Mt = 7,66; SD = 1,77
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caF=
4>1  p<.000
4>2  p<.004
4>3  p<.018
5>1  p<.000
5>2  p<>040
6>1  p<.000
6>2  p<.027
7>1  p<.000
7>2  p<.020
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bF=
4>1  p<.000
5>1  p<.000
6>1  p<.000
7>1  p<.000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelTotal worth
Page in Source B125
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Single question:
If you were to sell everything you own, about how much 
money would you have?
1:      <$10000
2: about $50000
3: about $10000
4: about $200000
5: about half a million $
6: about 1 million $
7: More than 1 million $
Observed distributionN = 1: 363, 2: 383, 3: 294, 4: 360, 5: 227, 6: 61
Remarks
Combined Surveys 9&11

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+
1 Mt = 7,48; SD = 1,65
2 Mt = 7,55; SD = 1,65
3 Mt = 7,64; SD = 1,51
4 Mt = 7,81; SD = 1,49
5 Mt = 7,98; SD = 1,38
6 Mt = 8,16; SD = 1,52
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caF=
5>1  p<.001
5>2  p<.007
6>1  P<.006


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelTotal Worth
Page in Source B130
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Single question:
If you were to sell everything you own, about how much 
money would you have?
1:      <$10000
2: about $50000
3: about $10000
4: about $200000
5: about half a million $
6: about 1 million $
7: More than 1 million $
Observed distributionN = 1: 210, 2: 194, 3: 149, 4: 386, 5: 403, 6: 137, 7: 104
Remarks
Combined Surveys 9&11

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+
1 Mt = 7,21; SD = 1,85
2 Mt = 7,26; SD = 1,92
3 Mt = 7,57; SD = 1,62
4 Mt = 7,93; SD = 1,63
5 Mt = 7,94; SD = 1,49
6 Mt = 8,03; SD = 1,55
7 Mt = 8,19; SD = 1,57
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caF=
4>1  p<.000
4>2  p<.000  
4>3  p<.031
5>1  p<.000
5>2  p<.000
5>3  p<.019
6>1  P<.000
6>2  p<.000
6>3  p<.019
7>1  p<.000
7>2  p<.000
7>3  p<.000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyCummins et al. (2004c): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Report 9.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Effects of Household Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1897

Correlate
Author's labelTotal Worth
Page in Source 167
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Single question:
If you were to sell everything you own, about how much 
money would you have?
1:      <$10000
2: about $50000
3: about $10000
4: about $200000
5: about half a million
6: about 1 million
7: More than 1 million
Observed distributionN= 1: 213, 2: 201, 3: 146, 4: 323, 5: 392, 6: 93, 7: 106

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cDMt=+ p < .000
1 Mt = 7,27; SD = 1,67
2 Mt = 7,13; SD = 1,98
3 Mt = 7,70; SD = 1,56
4 Mt = 7,86; SD = 1,66
5 Mt = 8,00; SD = 1,47
6 Mt = 8,10; SD = 1,62
7 Mt = 8,27; SD = 1,46
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cF=
4>1, p< .001
4>2, p< .000
5>1, p< .000
5>2, p< .000
6>1, p< .002
6>2, p< .000
7>1, P< .000
7>2, p< .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyHILDA (2003): study AU 2002
TitleHousehold, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Annuel Report 2003.
SourceThe University of Melbourne, 2003, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.melbourneinstitute.com
Public15 + aged, general public, households, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =8326

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold wealth
Page in Source 22
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Selfreport

1 1st quintile
2 2nd quintile
3 3rd quintile
4 4th quintile
5 5th quintile

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
1 1st quintile   M=7,5
2 2nd quintile   M=7,6
3 3rd quintile   M=8,0
4 4th quintile   M=8,1
5 5th quintile   M=8,3
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study AU 2002
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Australia 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11755

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 13
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Estimates based on responses to detailed questions 
about income components.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eR²=.005 p < .001
Income by itself
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eR²=.017 p < .001
Income + wealth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyHeadey & Wooden (2004a): study AU 2002
TitleThe Importance of Wealth for Subjective Well-Being.
SourceThe economic record, 2004, 80, S23-S33
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp1032.pdf
DOIdoi:.org/10.1111/j.1475-4932.2004.00181.x
Public25-59 aged general public, Australia, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7934

Correlate
Author's labelLog net worth
Page in Source 23
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Questions about assets and debts of the household 
covering
- housing
- incorporated and unincorporated business
- equity type investments (e.g. shares, managed funds)
- cash type investments (e.g. bonds, debentures)
- vehicles
- collections (e.g. art works0
net worth is calculated (assets minus debts)
Remarks
Respondents reported exact dollar amounts;
missing values for major wealth components are imputed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=+.04 p < .00
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.05 p < .00
b and Beta controled for:
- gender
- equivalized income
- Age (+ squared)
- Partnered
- Educational attainment
- Employment status
- Disability status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyBrown & Gray (2014): study AU 2002
TitleHousehold Finances and Well-Being: An Empirical Analysis of Comparison Effects.
SourceSERPS, 2014, No. 2014015, 1 - 39, Sheffield, UK.
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp8530.pdf
Public16-93 aged general public, Australia, 2002, 2006, 2010
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =27530

Correlate
Author's labelLn(Net Wealth)
Page in Source 7 + 29
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Net wealth is calculated (total value of assets - total 
value of debt)
-  ln(net wealth), where net wealth is positive -->
-  ln(wealth)=0 , where net wealth is zero
-  - ln(|nw|)  , where net wealth is negative
Observed distributionM = 11.894; SD = 4.279
Remarks
level of household assets minus total debt, where the 
level of total assets is defined as the summation of 
the household’s financial and tangible assets and total 
debt is the
summation of secured and unsecured debt.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.02 p < .000
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.06 p < .000
Beta-fix calculated by the WDH team

b-fix and Beta-fix controled for:
- income
- age
- educational attainment
- ln(household size)
- marital status
- employment status
- self-reported health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyBeiser (1974): study CA 1963
TitleComponents and Correlates of Mental Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1974, Vol. 15, 320 - 327
Public18+ aged, general public, Stirling County, Canada, 1963-1968
Sample
Non-Response10%
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelMaterial style of life
Page in Source 325
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Measures based on amount of material possessions and 
material wealth.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-ar= +
Index of Negative Affects: r = -.16 (05).
No relationship with Index of Positive Affects.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyKnight et al. (2009): study CN 2002
TitleSubjective Well-Being and its Determinants in Rural China.
SourceChina Economic Review, 2009, Vol. 20, 635 - 649
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.chieco.2008.09.003
PublicAdult general public, rural areas, China, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9200

Correlate
Author's labelNet wealth ('000 Yuan)
Page in Source 639
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Net wealth = financial assets 
                      + productive assets 
                      + consumer durables 
                      - debts

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-eb=+.00 p < .000
b (+0.001785) controled for:
basic variables
- age
- gender
- marital status
- ethinic minority dummy
- education (in years)
- self-reported health status
- hh-income 
- working hours
- employment status

b uneffected by additional control for:
- province (dummies)
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-eb=+.00 p < .000
b (+0.000507) additionally controled for: 
- comparison variables
- community variables
- attitudinal variables'.

b uneffected by additional control for:
- province (dummies) 

Similar results when:
- happiness variable is treated as ordinal 
(ordered probit estimation)
- if the sample is devided into the lowest, middle 
and highest household and province income 
terciles, respectively, with net wealth being most 
important for people in the lowest income 
terciles.
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-eOPRC=+.00 p < .05
OPRC = +0.000599 (marginal effect)
Sample contains the very happy and the happy 
people
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-eOPRC=-.00 p < .05
OPRC = -0.000140 (marginal effect)
Sample contains the very unhappy and the unhappy 
people

OPRC controled for:
- basic variables (as above)
- comparison variables
- community variables
- attitudinal variables
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-eb-iv=-.00 p < .05
b-iv (-0.004034) when instrumented for income

b-iv controled for:
- basic variables (as above)
- comparison variables
- community variables
- attitudinal variables


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged rural-urban migrants, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1930

Correlate
Author's labelNet financial assets
Page in Source 116
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Total financial assets:
Amount at the end of 2002:
.. (Yuan)
Observed distributionM=16.51

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.00 ns
B controlled for:
- Future income expectations
- Gender
- Marital Status
- Interaction gender*marital status
- Education
- Household income
- Unemployment
- Working hours
- Health
- Duration of urban residence
- Regional income
- Living with family members
- Remittances
- Area of house
- Living in own house
- Heating
- Child left behind
- Number of friends/relatives in city


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2011): study CN 2002
TitleDoes Economic Growth Raise Happiness in China?
SourceOxford Development Studies, 2011, Vol. 39, 1 - 24
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13600818.2010.551006
DOIDOI:10.1080/13600818.2010.551006
PublicAdults, China, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8872

Correlate
Author's labelNet wealth ('000 yuan)
Page in Source 6-7,9-10,13-14
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Net wealth in thousands yuan
Observed distributionNet wealth in '000 yuan: rural: M=37.68; urban: M=45.99; migrant: M= 16.51
Remarks
Question en ratings not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=+.00 p < .01
RURAL
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=+.00 p < .01
URBAN

b's controlled for:
- basic variables:
  - gender
  - age and age squared
  - marital status
  - health
- conventional economic variables
  - household income p.c. (log)
  - working hours (100's per year)

b's not affected by additional controlling for:
- comparison variables (urban)
  - fairness income distribution (in China, resp. 
city)
  - living standard (quartiles)
  - expected increase/decrease income next 5 years
  - mean provincial income p.c. (log)
- insecurity variables (urban)
  - unemployed
  - self-experienced important social problems
  - enterprise profit/loss
  - laid off work sometime 2002
- comparison variables (rural)
  - household income compared to village average
  - living standards compared to 5 years ago
  - expected income over next 5 years
  - gini of household income p.c. at county level
- attitudinal variables (rural)
  - degree of harmony among lineages
  - degree of harmony in village
  - agree that money is important
  - importance of family
  - importance of friends
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=-.00 ns
RURAL-URBAN MIGRANTS

b controlled for:
- basic variables:
  - gender
  - age and age squared
  - marital status
  - health
- conventional economic variables
  - log of p.c. household income
  - working hours (100's per year)
- comparison variables
  - expect big income increase next 5 years
  - expect small income increase next 5 years
  - expect income decrease next 5 years
  - log average p.c.urban income in city of 
residence
- harshness of city life variables
  - living with family members
  - number of relatives and friends in city
  - child still in village
  - no heating

b not significantly affected by additional 
controlling for:
- harshness of city life variables
  - satisfaction with job
  - discrimination
  - easyness of finding jobs


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyLiu & Shang (2012): study CN 2002
TitleIndividual Well-Being in Urban China: The Role of Income Expectations.
SourceChina Economic Review, 2012, Vol. 23, 833 - 849
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1043951X12000272
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.chieco.2012.04.004
PublicAdult general public, urban areas, China, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2304

Correlate
Author's labelLog(net assets)
Page in Source 838-840
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Assets= financial assets+durable goods+productive fixed 
assets+ real estateassets+other assets
Observed distributionM=11.186; SD=1.766
Remarks
assets are measured at the current market value

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db=+.07 p < .000
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db-iv=+.03 ns
b-iv instrumented for income

b and b-iv controled for:
- household income
- average household income (city)
- individual-specific characteristics
  - gender
  - age
  - have local Hukou (dummy)
  - minority 
  - education
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - working hours
  - disabled
  - health status
- household-specific characteristics  
  - debt
  - household size
  - No. of kids
- city specific characteristics
- province (dummies)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db=+.04 p < .000
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db-iv=+.02 ns
b and b-iv additionally controled for:
- perceived income
- city (dummies)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db=+.08 p < .000
b controled for:
- household consumption
- average household consumption (city)
- individual-specific characteristics(as above)
- household-specific characteristics(as above)
- city specific characteristics
- province (dummies)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyHochman & Skopek (2013): study DE 2006
TitleThe Impact of Wealth on Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of Three Welfare-State Regimes.
SourceResearch in Social Stratification and Mobility, 2013, Vol. 34, 127 - 141
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562413000280
Public50+ aged general public, Germany, 2006
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2390

Correlate
Author's labelDebts and Wealth
Page in Source 6, 7
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Gross wealth controled for debts, expressed in Euro PPP
1 lowest quartile: poor
2 
3
4: highest quartile: rich
Observed distributionM: 1: 11, 2&3: 173, 4: 653; All: 237

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cDM=+
Poor      M = 7,1
Middle    M = 7,6
Rich      M = 8,o
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=-.13 p < .05
POOR (vs two middle quartiles 2&3)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=+.11 p < .05
RICH (vs two middle quartiles 2&3)

Beta' s controlled for:
  - gender
  - household size
  - age
   -migrant status
  - married
  - education
  - child
  - employed, unemployed,
  - homemaker
  - health
  - income
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=+.07 ns
POOR (vs two middle quartiles)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=+.06 ns
RICH (vs two middle quartiles)

Beta's additionally controlled for:
- subjective economic hardship.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study DE 2002
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9958

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 8,10,13
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Estimates based on responses to detailed questions 
about income components.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dR²=.025 p < .001
Income by itself
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dR²=.039 p < .001
Income + wealth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyGray (2014): study DE 2002
TitleFinancial Concerns and Overall Life Satisfaction: A Joint Modelling Approach.
SourceSheffield Economic Research Paper Series, 2014, No. 2014008
URLhttps://www.sheffield.ac.uk/economics/research/serps/articles/2014_008
PublicHeads of households, Germany, 2002, 2007
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =7712

Correlate
Author's labelNet Wealth
Page in Source 25,27
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Net wealth = total assets - total debt
Observed distributionM = 143,680 SD = 379,701

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.02 p < .01
FIXED EFFECTS analysis
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.00 ns
BIVARIATE analysis (Joint modelling of Life 
satisfaction and Financial concerns)

OPRCs controlled for:
- financial situation
  - financial concerns
  - total assets
  - household income
  - debt
- social situation
  - marital status
  - household size
  - employment
  - education
- age
- health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study HU 1996
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3055

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 13
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Estimates based on responses to detailed questions 
about income components.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fR²=.042
Income by itself
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fR²=.049 p < .001
Income + wealth
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fR²=.070 p < .001
Income + wealth + consumption


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyLandiyanto et al. (2010): study ID 2007
TitleWealth and Happiness: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia.
SourceWorking Paper, 2010, 1 - 19, Mahidol University, Thailand
URLhttp://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/www/external/labor/FLS/IFLS/papers/2010_landiyanto2.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Indonesia, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =29013

Correlate
Author's labelAsset
Page in Source 10- 17
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question  about total value  in 
Indonesian rupiah of non-business assets(e.g. land, 
livestock, jewelry), asset ownership and ownership 
shares. Logistic natural is used.
Observed distributionM=17.09; SD=1.64; Range: 9.21-21.53

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-car=+.04
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-caOR=0.09 p < .01
OR controlled for:
-health;
-education;
-marriage status;
-expenditures;
-age;
-sexe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyHochman & Skopek (2013): study IL 2006 /1
TitleThe Impact of Wealth on Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of Three Welfare-State Regimes.
SourceResearch in Social Stratification and Mobility, 2013, Vol. 34, 127 - 141
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562413000280
Public50+ aged, general public, Israel, 2006
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1849

Correlate
Author's labelDebts and Wealth
Page in Source 7
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Gross wealth controled for debts, expressed in Euro PPP
1.Lowest quartile: poor
2.
3.
4. highest quartile: rich
Observed distribution: M: 1: 21; 2&3: 271; 4: 1446. All: 519

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cDM=+
Poor      M = 6,2
Middle    M = 7,5
Rich      M = 7,4
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=-.24 p < .01
Poor (vs two middle quartiles 2&3)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=+.17 p < .05
Rich (vs two middle quartiles 2&3)

Beta controlled for:
-gender
-household size
-age
-migrant status
-married
-education
-child
-employed, unemployed
-homemaker
-health
-income
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=-.17 p < .05
Poor (vs two middle quartiles 2&3)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=+.10 ns
Rich (vs two middle quartiles 2&3)

Beta' s additionally controlled for:
-subjective economic hardship.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyHinks & Simon (2012): study MW 2012
TitleLife Satisfaction in Malawi.
SourceSelin, H.; Davey, G; Eds.: "Happiness Across Cultures. Views of Happiness and Quality of Life in Non-Western Cultures Across Cultures. The History of Non-Westeren Science 6.", Springer, 2012, New York, USA, 271 - 292
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-2700-7_19
Public18+ aged, general public, Malawi, 2012
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelAsset index
Page in Source 288
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Asset index. Details not specified.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-eOPRC=+.06 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- consumption per capita
- ultra poor
- gender
- age
- married dummy
- employment status
- rural dummy
- education
- hungry season
- regional dummies

Additional control for crime (being attacked, 
burgled, livestock and petty theft) did not effect 
OPRC significantly.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyHinks & Davies (2008): study MW 2004
TitleLife Satisfaction in Malawi and the Importance of Relative Consumption, Polygamy and Religion.
SourceJournal of International Development, 2008, Vol. 20, 888 - 904
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jid.1470/abstract
DOIDOI:10.1002/jid.1470
PublicHousehold heads, Malawai 2004-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11272

Correlate
Author's labelhousehold assets
Page in Source 902
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=+,09 p < .01
B controlled for:
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - education
  - employment
  - marriage
    - status (married,divorced, wiwow)
    - polygamous (vs not)
  - religion
  - interaction religion-polygamous marriage
- household situation
  - size
  - consumption per capita
  - sick member
- local environmnent
  - consumption level
  - safety
    - atacked in the last year
    - feeling unsafe
  - rural (vs not)
  - hunger season
  - member of parliament lives in area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyHowell et al. (2006): study MY 2003
TitleDoes Wealth Enhance Life Satisfaction for People Who Are Materially Deprived? Exploring the Association among the 'Orang Asli' of Peninsular Malaysia.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 76, 499 - 524
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-3107-0
PublicHeads of households, Malaysia, 2003
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response4,6%
Respondents N =307

Correlate
Author's labelwealth composite index; possessions&savings
Page in Source 506-511
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
A wealth composite index; formed as the sum of z-scores 
for:
a. material wealth
b. log of savings.

Material wealth: possessions of household-members on a 
list of items; each item gets a weight based on its 
market price as a used good. In order of decreasing 
price: a gas stove, a motorcycle, radio, television, 
electricity, bicycle,indoor bathroom, chainsaw,  VCD 
player, generator, cellular phone, automobile, 
refrigirator.
Observed distributionMaterial wealth (USD): M=538; SD=411 Log-savings M=1,61; SD=1,28 Composite (z-scores) M=0,00; SD=1,57

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-br=+.23 p < .01
Correlation between wealth and life satisfaction 
is stronger if measurement errors for life 
satisfaction are removed (from .23 to .43). In 
rich nations measurements errors are less 
substantial (Cronbach alpha is .83, in poor 
nations .64) and the correlation would only 
increase from .13 to .15. The difference in 
correlation between life satisfaction and wealth 
in poor and rich nations (.43 versus .15) supports 
the need theory for life satisfaction (see 
picure).
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyHartog & Oosterbeek (1998): study NL 1952
TitleHealth, Wealth and Happiness. Why Pursue a Higher Education?
SourceEconomics of Education Review, 1998, Vol. 17, 245 - 256
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0272-7757(97)00064-2
Public41 aged, Brabant, the Netherlands, followed 1952-1993
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response53,6%
Respondents N =1893

Correlate
Author's labelWealth
Page in Source 253
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Wealth; 10 intervals ranging from debt greater than 
50.000 Dutch Florins (22500 euro) to wealth greater 
than 500.000 Dutch Florins (property, including cash, 
home, shares, business firms; minus mortgage, loans 
etc.. Wealth partner included.
Observed distributionWealth in Dutch Florins x 1000, average age = 53. 1. <-50: 5,7%; 2. -50/-10: 4,6%; 3. -10/0: 1,6% 4. 0: 7,8%; 5.+10/+50: 11,4%; 5. +50/+100:12,9% 7. +100/+250:26,7%; 8. +250/+500:14,4% 9. >+500: 8,9% Average wealth = 154,350 Dutch Florins.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.01 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
-schooling
-intelligence
-social background
-gender and familiy status
-labour market status
-self-perceived health.

OPRC (Ordered Probit Regression Coefficient) 
cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect-size. 
The coefficient only denotes whether the 
correlation is positive or negative and the 
relative differences in correlation between wealth 
and happiness; more wealth goes together with more 
happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyHochman & Skopek (2013): study SE 2006
TitleThe Impact of Wealth on Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of Three Welfare-State Regimes.
SourceResearch in Social Stratification and Mobility, 2013, Vol. 34, 127 - 141
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562413000280
Public50+ aged general public, Sweden, 2006
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2572

Correlate
Author's labelDebts and Wealth
Page in Source 6,7
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Gross wealth controlled for debts, expressed in Euro 
PPP.
1. lowest quartile: poor
2.
3.
4. highest quartile: rich

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cDM=+
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=-.07 ns
POOR (vs two middle quartiles 2&3)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=+.07 ns
RICH (vs two middle quartiles 2&3)

Beta controlled for:
-gender
-household size
-age
-migrant status
-married
-education
-child
-employed, unemployed,
-homemaker
-health
-income
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=-.03 ns
POOR (vs two middle quartiles 2&3)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=+.07 ns
RICH (vs two middle quartiles 2&3)

Beta' s additionally controlled for:
-subjective economic hardship


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study GB 2000
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14101

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 13
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Estimate based on responses to detailed questions about 
income components

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aR²=.013 p < .001
Income by itself
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aR²=.024 p < .001
Income + wealth
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aR²=.024 p < .001
Income + wealth + consumption


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyKim et al. (2012): study US 2006
TitleCross-National Insights into the Relationship between Wealth and Wellbeing: A comparison between Australia, the United States of America and South Korea.
SourceAgeing and Society, 2012, Vol. 32, 41 - 59
DOIDOI:10.1017/S0144686X11000080
Public50+ aged general public, USA, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4687

Correlate
Author's labelNet worth
Page in Source 53
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Net worth of total wealth: Total assets minus debt
Observed distributionFull sample: M = 348,539, SD = 1373,556 Male: M = 395,447, SD = 1578,715 Female: M = 320,869, SD = 1236,134
Remarks
Equivaliyed net worth (i.e. divided by the square root 
of household size)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-6-bb=+.13 p < .000
MEN

b controled for:
- incoome
O-SLu-u-sq-v-6-bb=+.01 ns
b additionally controled for:
- satisfaction with wealth
O-SLu-u-sq-v-6-bb=+.01 ns
b additionally controled for:
- age
- education
- partner status
- employment status
- medical conditions
- disability
O-SLu-u-sq-v-6-bb=+.18 p < .000
WOMEN

b controled for:
- incoome
O-SLu-u-sq-v-6-bb=+.07 p < .05
b additionally controled for:
- satisfaction with wealth
O-SLu-u-sq-v-6-bb=+.04 ns
b additionally controled for:
- age
- education
- partner status
- employment status
- medical conditions
- disability


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyCalvo et al. (2007): study US 1992
TitleWhat Makes Retirees Happier: A Gradual or 'Cold Turkey' Retirement?
SourceMPRA Paper No. 5607, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, 2007, USA
URLHTTP://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5607/
PublicEldery, United States, followed through retirement 1992-2004
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response25%; from 3022 (fully retired in 2004) to 2389.
Respondents N =2389

Correlate
Author's labelWealth
Page in Source 5, 28, 39, 43
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
Log of mean of non-housing wealth in T1-T2-period. The 
variable is recoded to zero if mean wealth is negative.
Range: 0 to 18.765 (real USD, 2003).

Values in each wave adjusted by Consumer Price Index 
(CPI) real dollars.
Observed distributionNot reported.
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1992, when still working; T2: 2004, 
when retired.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bb=+.00 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in Happiness by (log of) mean wealth

b controled for:
-prompt retirement           
-retirement (partly) wanted    
-spouse death                
-improved health             
-years since retirement      
-male                        
-white non-hispanic         
-more than high school       
-blue-collar                 
-unemployed
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bOLRC=+.02 p < .100
NEGATIVE SAMPLE
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bOLRC=-.00 ns
OLRC = -0.003


Correlational finding on Happiness and Total wealth

StudyDiener et al. (1985): study US 1984
TitleHappiness of the Very Wealthy.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 16, 263 - 274
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00415126
PublicAdult, wealthy and controls (general population), USA, 1984
Sample
Non-Response1:51 %, 2: 38 %
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelWealth
Page in Source 269
Our classificationTotal wealth
Operationalization
0. Non-wealthy                  1. Wealthy (Wealthy net 
worth over $    125 million)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aDMt= + p < .001
Wealthy        Mt' = 7.7  SD' = 1.8
Non wealthy    Mt' = 6.2  SD' = 2.2
O-HV-u-sq-v-7-bDM= +
wealthy:     Mt' = 5.8  SD' = .86
non-wealthy: Mt' = 5.3  SD' = .89
O-HV-u-sq-v-7-bE²=+.26 p < .01
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aE²=+.04 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on arts-related actvities: Buying works of art
Page in Source 36, 55
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Selfreport of times per year buying work of arts
Respondents who never buy works of art were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionAvergae 2.09 times per year
Remarks
Only people who buy works of art (N=116)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.20 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyCheng et al. (2013): study CN 2011
TitleHousing and Subjective Wellbeing in Urban China.
SourceMonash University, Department of Economics, Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 39, Melbourne, Australia.
PublicAdult, general public, China, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5229

Correlate
Author's labelHomeownership
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
1. yes
0. no(reference)
Observed distribution1. 87.74%; 0. 12.26%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.21 p < .01
B controlled for:
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -gender
 -age
 -schooling
 -marital status
 -household size
 -rural hukou
 -Party member
 -social insurance
 -income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyCheng et al. (2013): study CN 2011
TitleHousing and Subjective Wellbeing in Urban China.
SourceMonash University, Department of Economics, Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 39, Melbourne, Australia.
PublicAdult, general public, China, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5229

Correlate
Author's labelHomeownership property status
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
What form of property is your home?
a. own partial homeownership property
b. own full homeownership property
c. own minor homeownership property
Observed distributiona. 70.44%; b. 15.37%; c. 7.21%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.26 p < .01
Own partial homeownership properties
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.19 p < .01
Own full homeownership properties
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.13 ns
Own minor homeownership properties

B’s controlled for
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -gender
 -age
 -schooling
 -marital status
 -household size
 -rural hukou
 -Party member
 -social insurance
 -income
-Homeownership
 -homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.38 p < .01
Own partial homeownership properties
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.25 p < .01
Own full homeownership properties
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.18 p < .05
Own minor homeownership properties

B’s additionally controlled for
 -property tenure
 -property size
 -number of homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.40 p < .01
Own partial homeownership properties
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.26 p < .01
Own full homeownership properties
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.17 p < .05
Own minor homeownership properties

B’s additionally controlled for:
 -source of homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.39 p < .01
Own partial homeownership properties
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.24 p < .01
Own full homeownership properties
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.16 p < .05
Own minor homeownership properties

B’s additionally controlled for:
-Loan
 -home loan
 -type of home loan
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.38 p < .01
Own partial homeownership properties
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.25 p < .01
Own full homeownership properties
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.15 p < .05
Own minor homeownership properties

B’s additionally controlled for:
-Perceive better local public safety
-Express lower risk aversion
-Expect
 -better economy
 -higher house price
 -higher commodity price
 -higher interest rate


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelAcces to resources: utility
Page in Source 216,221
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Number of utilities the respondent has acces to 
including:
- public water supply
- electricity
- LPG or piped gas
- fixed line phone
- mobile phone
- fcasimile
- cable tv

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=0.98 ns
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=1.00 ns
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=1.00 ns
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.02 ns
OR and B controled for
- gender
- age cohort
- educational attainment
- marital status
- household income
- unemployed
- rural residency
- life domain satisfaction
- value priorities


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelAccess to resources: modern telecommuncation
Page in Source 216,221
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Selfreport on 3 questions:
A How often do you view Internet web pages by computer?
B How often do you read or write emails by computers? 
C How often do you read of write messages by mobile 
phone?
Each ratedated:
5: almost every day
4: several times a week
3: several times a month
2: seldom
1: never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.01 ns
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=0.99 ns
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=1.00 ns
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=-.01 ns
OR and B controled for
- gender
- age cohort
- educational attainment
- marital status
- household income
- unemployed
- rural residency
- life domain satisfaction
- value priorities


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labeldurable consumer goods
Page in Source 84,86
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Single question:
Does your household own any of the following durable 
consumer goods?
a: telephone
b: television
c: computer
d: washing machine
e: holiday home
f: car
g: motor cycle
h: boat
 
1 = yes (has)
0 = no
Observed distributionN: all:18452; a1:4400, a0:213, b1:4464, b0:149, c1:1720, c0:2993, d1:3409, d0:1204, e1:312, e0:4301, f1:2998, f0:1614, g1:175, g0:4438, h1:209, h0:4404
Remarks
Because categories are overlapping, only absolute 
frequencies are given.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
   has:       has not: difference
a: Mt=7.80    6.46     +1.26
b: Mt=7.76    7.00     +0.76
c: Mt=7.89    7.65     +0.24
d: Mt=7.89    7.31     +0.58
e: Mt=7.89    7.73     +0.15
f: Mt=7.94    7.36     +0.58
g: Mt=7.84    7.74     +0.10
h: Mt=8.16    7.71     +0.45
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
   has:       has not: difference
a: Mt=7.49    6.03     +1.46
b: Mt=7.45    6.55     +0.90
c: Mt=7.61    7.30     +0.31
d: Mt=7.60    6.90     +0.70
e: Mt=7.80    7.39     +0.41
f: Mt=7.68    6.95     +0.73
g: Mt=7.59    7.41     +0.18
h: Mt=7.96    7.39     +0.60
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
   has:       has not: diffenence
a: Mt=7.09    5.74     +1.35
b: Mt=7.05    6.04     +1.01
c: Mt=7.19    6.93     +0.26
d: Mt=7.20    6.50     +0.70
e: Mt=7.30    7.00     +0.30
f: Mt=7.25    6.60     +0.65
g: Mt=7.03    7.03     0
h: Mt=7.35    7.00     +0.35


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labeldurable consumer goods
Page in Source 80,82
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Single question:
"Does your household own any of the following durable 
consumer goods ?"
a: telephone         
b: television           
c: computer/pc       
d: washing machine    
e: holiday home      
f: car               
g: motorcycle        
h: boat
Observed distributionN has: a:1419, b:1432, c:412, d:1139, e:161, f:1080, g:47, h:114, N has not: a:64, b:51, c:1071 d:344, e:1322, f:403, g:1436, h:1369

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
                   has:        has not:  DMt
a: telephone       Mt=7.76     Mt=7.74  +0.02
b: television      Mt=7.78     Mt=7.11  +0.67  
c: computer/pc     Mt=7.90     Mt=7.70  +0.20
d: washing machine Mt=7.86     Mt=7.39  +0.45
e: holiday home    Mt=7.61     Mt=7.78  -0.17
f: car             Mt=7.90     Mt=7.37  +0.53
g: motorcycle      Mt=7.98     Mt=7.75  +0.23
h: boat            Mt=8.09     Mt=7.73  +0.26
Mean                                    +0.25
All Mt=7,75
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
                   has:        has not:  DMt
a: telephone       Mt=7.46     Mt=6.85  +0.61  
b: television      Mt=7.45     Mt=6.98  +0.47 
c: computer/pc     Mt=7.54     Mt=7.39  +0.15
d: washing machine Mt=7.58     Mt=6.98  +0.60
e: holiday home    Mt=7.58     Mt=7.41  +0.17
f: car             Mt=7.60     Mt=6.99  +0.61
g: motorcycle      Mt=7.88     Mt=7.43  +0.45
h: boat            Mt=7.76     Mt=7.41  +0,35
Mean                                    +0.43
All Mt=7,44
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
                   has         has not   DMt 
a: telephone       Mt=6.95     Mt=6.73  +0.12 
b: television      Mt=6.95     Mt=6.95  0
c: computer/pc     Mt=7.05     Mt=6.89  +0.16
d: washing machine Mt=7.03     Mt=6.65  +0.35
e: holiday home    Mt=6.99     Mt=6.93  +0.06
f: car             Mt=7.09     Mt=6.54  +0.54
g: motorcycle      Mt=7.29     Mt=6.93  +0.36
h: boat            Mt=7.39     Mt=6.90  +0.49
Mean                                    +0.26
All Mt=6,94


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelBoiler
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution0: M = 0,003 SD = 0,055
Remarks
In original: Lack of boiler. Order reversed by WDH 
team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.03 ns
PROBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
  - accomodation
- personality traits
- absolute lack of
  - savings
  - facilities   (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables     (car, telephone, etc)
  - health       (bad health, disabled etc)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.026 (ns)

No significant change when B additionaly controled 
for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life
- relative lack


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyLinssen et al. (2011): study IN Orrisa 2008
TitleSubjective Well Being in Rural India: The Curse of Conspicuous Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 101, 57-72
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9635-2
PublicPoor household, rural areas, India, 2008
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =697

Correlate
Author's labelConspicuous consumption
Page in Source Table 1 & Table 2
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Percentages of a household's consumption spend on:
a.Durable goods that are scarce and visible (jewellery, 
watches, mobile phones etc.)
b. Social and religious expenses
c. Recreation expenses
d. Last five years dowry expenses
Observed distributionM = 0.08; SD = 0.018

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ab=-.48 p < .01
B controlled for:
-Consumption
 -absolute consumption
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ab=-.46 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
-Village level characteristics
 -average village level consumption
-Relative consumption
 (difference absolute consumption of respondent 
with average in village)
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ab=-.35 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
-Individual level characteristic
 -caste
 -missed days due to health
 -age
 -education
 -marrital status
 -religion
 -employed/unemployed
 -sexe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /2
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, two poor rural villages, Garhwal area, Northern India, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response341
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelFamily savings
Page in Source 269
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.12 p < .05
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+.11 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyBecchetti & Pisani (2014): study IT 2010
TitleFamily Economic Well-Being, and (Class) Relative Wealth: An Emperical Analysis of Life Satisfaction of Secundary School Students in Three Italian Cities.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 503 -525
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9433-z
Public17-18 aged , secondary school students, Italy, 2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2124

Correlate
Author's labelHomeowner
Page in Source Table 1 - Table 5
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Selfreport on whether your parents owns home:
1. yes
0. no
Observed distributionM = .84; SD = .37

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.39 p < .05
TYPE OF SCHOOL FIXED EFFECT

OLRC controlled for:
 -single parent
 -repeated at least one school year
 -residence location
 -gender
-Household economic condition
 -mortgage
 -current account
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.40 p < .05
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-School performance
 -final grade in Italian
 -final grade in maths
 -final grade at middle school
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.42 p < .01
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-parental jobs
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.39 p < .05
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-Relationship
 -trust in family
 -friends

With SCHOOL FIXED EFFECTS and CLASS FIXED EFFECT, 
the results are nearly the same.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudySabatini (2011): study IT 2008
TitleCan a Click buy a Little Happiness? The Impact of Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce on Subjective Well-Being.
SourceMPRA Paper no. 32393, 2011, München, Germany
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/eei/rpaper/eeri_rp_2011_12.html
PublicGeneral public, Italy, 2008
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4130

Correlate
Author's labelOwnership of the house of residence
Page in Source Table 1 & Table 2
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
a: Homeowner
b: House rented or sublet
c: House under redemption agreement
d: House occupied in usufruct
e: House occupied free of charge (reference)
Observed distributiona: M = .70; SD = .46; b: M = .20; SD = .40; c: M = .01; SD = .08; d: M = .03; SD = .17 e: M = .05; SD = .22

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.08 p < .05
Homeowner                        (vs House 
occupied free of charge)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.01 ns
House rented or sublet           (vs House 
occupied free of charge)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=-.07 ns
House under redemption agreement (vs House 
occupied free of charge)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.11 p < .1
House occupied in usufruct       (vs House 
occupied free of charge)

B's controlled for:
-E-shopping
-Social background
 -Gender
 -Marital status
 -Age
 -Health condition
 -Education 
-Income position
 -Household income
 -Mortgage loan 
 -Work status
-Neighbourhood 
 -CO2 emissions
 -Public parks and gardens
 -Environmental crimes
 -Social assistance
 -Cultural supply
 -Micro-criminality
 -Dirtiness of the local area
 -Regional poverty
 -Noise in the local area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyKusago (2007): study JP 1978
TitleRethinking of Economic Growth and Life Satisfaction in Post - WW 2 Japan - A Fresh Approach
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 81, 79 - 102
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-0016-9
PublicGeneral public, Japan, 3 annual 1978-2002
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =18

Correlate
Author's labelHouse ownership
Page in Source Table 4
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
a. house owned (reference)
b. house private rent
c. house public rent
d. house subsidized
e. house others
Remarks
Signs were reversed by WDH team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=+.23 p < .01
1978

House private rent (vs house owned)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=+.22 p < .01
House public rent  (vs house owned)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=+.02 ns
House subsidized   (vs house owned)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=+.29 p < .01
House others       (vs house owned)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=+.33 p < .01
1990

House private rent (vs house owned)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=+.31 p < .01
House public rent  (vs house owned)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=-.07 ns
House subsidized   (vs house owned)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=+.25 p < .05
House others       (vs house owned)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=+.12 p < .05
2002

House private rent (vs house owned)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=+.30 p < .01
House public rent  (vs house owned)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=-.11 ns
House subsidized   (vs house owned)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=+.11 ns
House others       (vs house owned)

B's controlled for:
-age
-marital status
-gender
-employment status
-family income
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyHowell et al. (2006): study MY 2003
TitleDoes Wealth Enhance Life Satisfaction for People Who Are Materially Deprived? Exploring the Association among the 'Orang Asli' of Peninsular Malaysia.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 76, 499 - 524
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-3107-0
PublicHeads of households, Malaysia, 2003
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response4,6%
Respondents N =307

Correlate
Author's labelMaterial wealth
Page in Source 503-504
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Possessions of household-members on a list of items; 
each item gets a weight based on its market price as a 
used good. In order of decreasing price: a gas stove, a 
motorcycle, radio, television, electricity, 
bicycle,indoor bathroom, chainsaw,  VCD player, 
generator, cellular phone, automobile, refrigirator.
Observed distributionM=538 USD SD=411 USD

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-br=+.21 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyDiener et al. (2010a): study ZZ 2005
TitleWealth and Happiness across the World: Material Prosperity predicts Life Evaluation, Whereas Psychosocial Prosperity predicts Positive Feeling.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2010, Vol. 99, 52 - 61
DOIDOI:10.1037/a0018066
Public15+ aged, general public, 132 nations, 2005-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =136839

Correlate
Author's labelLuxury conveniences
Page in Source 54-57
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Answer to question, whether their homes has:
a.television.
b computer.
c.access to the internet.
1=yes
0=no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=+.39 p < .001
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=.10 p < .001
  Beta controled for:
- Psychological needs met.
- Basic needs unmet
- Satisfaction with standard of living
- Relative income
- Log income
- National income (log GDP/capita)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyBoelhouwer (2002): study NL 1997
TitleSocial Indicators and Living Conditions in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2002, Vol. 60, 89 - 113
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1021200828811
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelOwnership of a public transport season ticket
Page in Source 100
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Do you have a public transport season ticket?
1 yes, for the railways
2 yes, for bus, tram and underground
3 yes, for both categories
4 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyKullberg (2007): study NL 1975
TitleMet Mijn Tuin in de Wolken.( Happy with my Garden).
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 99 - 105
PublicAdults, general public, The Netherlands, 1975-2005
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response245
Respondents N =2229

Correlate
Author's labelHaving a garden
Page in Source 100
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
1: no garden
2: garden connected to home or elsewhere
3: hobby-garden, away from home
Observed distributionN = 2229 (respondents) 1: 575 2: 1637 (1593 at home, 44 elsewhere) 3: 17

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-aDM=+
1:       M = 2,04
2:       M = 2,76
3:       M = 3,06
Difference  +1,02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyBoelhouwer & Stoop (1999): study NL 1974
TitleMeasuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 51 - 75
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006931028334
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of holiday articles
Page in Source 62
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Number of holiday articles (camper; folding-trailer; 
tent; holiday-home; mobile home)
1 no holiday articles
2 one or more holiday articles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.07 p < .05
1993
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.11 p < .05
1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyBoelhouwer & Stoop (1999): study NL 1974
TitleMeasuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 51 - 75
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006931028334
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of household appliances
Page in Source 62
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Number of household appliances (micro-wave; 
dish-washer)
1 no household appliances
2 one household appliance
3 both household appliances

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.12 p < .05
1993
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.15 p < .05
1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyBoelhouwer & Stoop (1999): study NL 1974
TitleMeasuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 51 - 75
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006931028334
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of hobby articles
Page in Source 62
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Number of hobby articles (videorecorder; cd-player; 
personal computer)
1 no hobby articles
2 one or more hobby-articles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.07 p < .05
1993
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.19 p < .05
1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyJol (1985a): study NL 1974
TitleLiever Samen dan Alleen? Veranderingen in Levensomstandigheden én Welbevinden van Alleenstaanden, 1974-1983. (Better together than Alone? Changes in Life Situations ánd Well-Being of Singles,1974-1983).
SourceC.B.S. Select, Nr. 3, Central Bureau of Statistics, 1985, The Hague, Netherlands, 171 - 184
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1983
Sample
Non-Response1974: 28%, 1983: 43%
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelExpensive goods
Page in Source 177/178
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Sum of at most 20 expensive goods.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta= ns
Singles 1983 (N = 484)
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta= ns
All 1983 (N = 3931)
ß controlled for sex and age.
Results 1974 not significantly different.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyRule (2007): study ZA 2004
TitleReligiosity and Quality of Life in South Africa.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007. Vol. 81, 417 - 434
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9005-2
PublicAdults, general public, South Africa, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2799

Correlate
Author's labelModern conveniences
Page in Source 426
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Possession of modern conveniences such as: microwave 
oven, washing machine,  built-in kitchen sink, hot 
running water
0 none
1 one
2 two
3 three
4 four or more
Observed distributionN: 0: 52,1%; 1: 12,0%; 2: 8,6%. 3: 7,6%,; 4: 19,7%; Mean 1,3
Error EstimatesCronbach's Alpha reliability 0,896

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-gr=+.39 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyKeng & Wu (2014): study TW 1989
TitleLiving Happily Ever After? The Effect of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on the Happiness of the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 583 - 808
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9449-4
PublicElderly, Taiwan, folowed 14 years 1989-2003, before and after change health insurance law in 1995
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response<10%
Respondents N =4049

Correlate
Author's labelHouse
Page in Source 787-788, 793-798
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
1 Own house
0 Rented house

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aOPRC=+.05 p < .05
OPRC=+.053
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.05 ns
OPRC=+.049

OPRC controlled for:
- health insurance history
- Social background
  - age
  - sexe
  - education
  - income
  - marital status
  - Origin
    - native
    - mainland
- possessions
  - Stock
- health history, ever had..
  - asthma
  - stroke
  - heart
  - disbetes
- life style
  - drinks
  - smokes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyKeng & Wu (2014): study TW 1989
TitleLiving Happily Ever After? The Effect of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on the Happiness of the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 583 - 808
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9449-4
PublicElderly, Taiwan, folowed 14 years 1989-2003, before and after change health insurance law in 1995
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response<10%
Respondents N =4049

Correlate
Author's labelStock
Page in Source 787-788, 793-798
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
1 Own stock
0 Do not own stock

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aOPRC=+.05 ns
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.07 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- health insurance history
- Social background
  - age
  - sexe
  - education
  - income
  - marital status
  - Origin
    - native
    - mainland
- possessions
  - house
- health history, ever had..
  - asthma
  - stroke
  - heart
  - disbetes
- life style
  - drinks
  - smokes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelTechnical Self Reliance
Page in Source 192
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Index calculated by multiplying tools or technology, 
possessed by a respondent by the efficiency rating 
claimed for the particular technology, resulting in the 
sum of the efficiency rating for each of the 25 tools.

The tools are: 1.garden, 2. greenhouse, 3.root cellar, 
4.fish pond, 5. solar heat, 6.pigs, 7.wood lot, 8.wood 
stove heat, 9.wood stove cooking, 10.composting privy, 
11.hydro-electric system, 12.graywater(waste water) 
13.solar water heater, 14.chickens, 15.goats, 16.beef 
cattle, 17.milk cow(s) 18.sheep, 19.wind power, 
20.weeder geese, 21.bees, 22.fruit trees, 23.butcher 
larger anaimals, 24.photo voltaic power, 45.work 
horses.

Efficiency is evaluated by asking the respondents about 
the effectiveness of the tool items of 'providing your 
family with independence or self-reliance from a one 
(not at all effective) to four(very effective point 
sequence. 
The TSR index-scores have a theoretical range between 
0-100
Remarks
Named technological Self Rliance (TSR)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-ar=+.05
Ss, who value technical self reliance high, 
irrespectible of their performance (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.26 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=+.27 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.18 p<.005

Ss, who value Homestead Food Production high, 
irrespectable their performance, (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.32 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=+.32 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.22 p<.005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyLuttmer (2005): study US 1987
TitleNeighbors as Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being.
SourceQuarterly Journal of Economics, 2005, 963-1002
URLhttp://www.nber.org/~luttmer/relative.pdf
Public19+ aged couples, United States, followed 6 years, 1987-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8944

Correlate
Author's labelln value of home
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Current value of the respondent's home if the 
respondent is a home-owner. Answer to the question: 
''How much do you think your home would sell for now?''
Observed distributionM: 10.871USD; SD: 0.81USD

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.07 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- Income relative to neighborhood
- Household income
- Renter
- Usual working hours
- Employment status
- Gender
- Age
- Race
- Years of education
- Household size
- Religion


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyWilkening & McGranahan (1978): study US Wisconsin 1974 /1
TitleCorrelates of Subjective Well-Being in Northern Wisconsin.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 211 - 234
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352930
Public18+ aged, general public, NW Wisconsin-residents, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response12%
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of living
Page in Source 221
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Level of living index: question concerning the 
posession of 15 goods  
(central heating, dish washer, etc.)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.10 p < .05
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.08 ns
ß controlled for 1+2+3+4+5 :                
1: education, occupation, income.
2: live alone, married, children, contact with
   relatives, contact with friends, church 
   attendance, organizational membership. 
3: health problems, recent move, separated/   
   divorced, unemployed.                       
4: retired,widowed.
5: urban living, rural living, female.

ß in different age groups:
under 30: +.01 (ns)    30-49   : +.07 (ns)
50 64   : +.02 (ns)    over 64 : +.13 (05)
                                   
              
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.12 p < .01
ß controlled for 1 only:
interaction with age: ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific possessions

StudyGordon (1975): study US 1973
TitleThe Effects of Interpersonal and Economic Resources upon Values and the Quality of Life.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, Dept. of Social Psychology, Temple University, 1975, Pennsylvania, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Temple University, Pennsylvania, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =346

Correlate
Author's labelGoods
Page in Source 85, 87
Our classificationSpecific possessions
Operationalization
Direct question: "I own a fashionable wardrobe and many 
luxuries now". Rated on a 9-point scale ranging from 
1='not at all, never, lowest' to 9='completley, always, 
highest'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-ar=+.24
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-arpc= .00
rpc controlled for selfperceived receipt of: love, 
services, financial security, sex, information, 
status and money


Correlational finding on Happiness and Business assets

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2011): study CN 2002
TitleDoes Economic Growth Raise Happiness in China?
SourceOxford Development Studies, 2011, Vol. 39, 1 - 24
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13600818.2010.551006
DOIDOI:10.1080/13600818.2010.551006
PublicAdults, China, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8872

Correlate
Author's labelProfit or loss of enterprise
Page in Source 9-10
Our classificationBusiness assets
Operationalization
Self-reported profit or loss of enterprise:
A Enterprise made high profit
B Enterprise made loss
Remarks
Only urban respondents

Question and ratings not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=+/-
Enterprise:             b
A Made high profit    +.03(ns)
B Made loss           -.08(10)

b's controlled for:
- basic variables:
  - gender
  - age and age squared
  - marital status
  - health
- conventional economic variables
  - log of p.c. household income
  - net wealth
  - working hours (100's per year)
- comparison variables 
  - fairness income distribution in China/city
  - living standard in city
  - expected change in income in next 5 years
  - log average p.c. provincial income 
- insecurity variables 
  - unemployed
  - peceived most social problems
  - laid off work sometime 2002


Correlational finding on Happiness and Business assets

StudyShifa & Leibbrandt (2018): study ET 2004
TitleRelative Economic Position and Subjective Well-Being in a Poor Society: Does Relative Position Indicator Matter?
SourceSocial lndicators Research, 2018, Vol. 139, 611-630
DOIdoi: org/10. 1007/sl 1205-017-1739-5
Public18+ aged, rural population of poor communities Ethiopia. Folowed 4 years 2004-2009
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1375

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold land holdings
Page in Source 627
Our classificationBusiness assets
Operationalization
in hectares
Observed distributionMean 0.5, SD 0.46

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=+.15 p < .050
b controlled for:
- Relative economic position
  - Mean village consumption
  - Mean village asset index
  - Perceived relative wealth
  - Household living standard measures
  - Household size and composition
  - Maximum education in a house
  - Access to off-farm income
  - Social capital
  - Family health
- Respondent characteristics
  - Age
  - Gender
  - Literate
  - Do not relz on neighbours
  - Do not trust neighbours
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aOPRC=+.12 p < .050
OPRC controlled for:
- Relative economic position
  - Mean village consumption
  - Mean village asset index
  - Perceived relative wealth
  - Household living standard measures
  - Household size and composition
  - Maximum education in a house
  - Access to off-farm income
  - Social capital
  - Family health
- Respondent characteristics
  - Age
  - Gender
  - Literate
  - Do not relz on neighbours
  - Do not trust neighbours
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab-fix=+.21 p < .000
MLM (ordered probit) controlled for

Relative economic position
- Mean village consumption
- Mean village asset index
- Perceived relative wealth
- Household living standard measures
- Household size and composition
- Maximum education in a house
- Access to off-farm income
- Social capital
- Family health

Respondent characteristics
- Age
- Gender
- Literate
- Do not relz on neighbours
- Do not trust neighbours
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab-fix=+.19 p < .000
MLM (linear) controlled for:
- Relative economic position
  - Mean village consumption
  - Mean village asset index
  - Perceived relative wealth
  - Household living standard measures
  - Household size and composition
  - Maximum education in a house
  - Access to off-farm income
  - Social capital
  - Family health
- Respondent characteristics
  - Age
  - Gender
  - Literate
  - Do not relz on neighbours
  - Do not trust neighbours


Correlational finding on Happiness and Business assets

StudySabatini (2011): study IT 2008
TitleCan a Click buy a Little Happiness? The Impact of Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce on Subjective Well-Being.
SourceMPRA Paper no. 32393, 2011, München, Germany
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/eei/rpaper/eeri_rp_2011_12.html
PublicGeneral public, Italy, 2008
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4130

Correlate
Author's labelWork status
Page in Source Table 1 & Table 2
Our classificationBusiness assets
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about occupation now 
(full text not reported)
a. Blue-collar worker
b. White-collar worker
c. Teacher
d. Manager, official
e. Member of professions
f. Entrepreneur
g. Owner of member of family business
h. Working shareholder, partner
Observed distributiona: M = .15; SD = .36; b: M = .11; SD = .31; c: M = .02; SD = .14; d: M = .02; SD = .15 e: M = .02; SD = .13; f: M = .01; SD = .10; g: M = .01; SD = .09; h: M = .01; SD = .08

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=-.02 ns
Blue-collar worker                 (vs other)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.04 ns
White-collar worker                (vs other)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.06 ns
Teacher                            (vs other)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.01 ns
Manager, official                  (vs other)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.09 p < .1
Member of professions              (vs other)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.22 p < .01
Entrepreneur                       (vs other)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.04 ns
Owner of member of family business (vs other)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=-.15 ns
Working shareholder, partner       (vs other)

B's controlled for:
-E-shopping
-Social background
 -Gender
 -Marital status
 -Age
 -Health condition
 -Education 
-Income position
 -Ownership of the house of residence
 -Household income
 -Mortgage loan 
-Neighbourhood 
 -CO2 emissions
 -Public parks and gardens
 -Environmental crimes
 -Social assistance
 -Cultural supply
 -Micro-criminality
 -Dirtiness of the local area
 -Regional poverty
 -Noise in the local area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Land owned

StudyJoarder et al. (2017): study BD 2012 /1
TitleRemittances and Happiness of Migrants and Their Home Households: Evidence Using Matched Samples
SourceThe Journal of Development Studies, 2017, Vol. 53, No. 3, 422 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1080/00220388.2016.1178380
Public25+ aged, intimates left behind after migration, Bangladesh, 2012 - 2013.
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelLand ownership
Page in Source 433
Our classificationLand owned
Operationalization
1= Land ownership yes
0= otherwise

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-fcOPRC=+/- p < .01
Migrant to Malyasia    OPRC  .20 (.01)
Migrant to UK          OPRC -.04 (ns)

Controlled for:

HOME HOUSEHOLD
- age
- gender
- muslim religion
- household size
- number of dependents
- education level
- health state
- log income
- living environment
- log remittances
- home ownership
- change in socio-economic status
- employment status
HOME HOUSEHOLD REPORTING ON MIGRANT
- birth position of migrant
- migrant child of household head
- number of visits migrant
- number of migrants in household
MIGRANT SELF REPORT:
-years abroad
-spouse/children left behind
-stay forever
-too poor at origin
-parents/family insisted


Correlational finding on Happiness and Land owned

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /2
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, two poor rural villages, Garhwal area, Northern India, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response341
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelJoint land
Page in Source 270
Our classificationLand owned
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.20 p < .001
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+.06 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Land owned

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /2
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, two poor rural villages, Garhwal area, Northern India, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response341
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelOwn land
Page in Source 270
Our classificationLand owned
Operationalization
own land
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=-.02 ns
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=-.10 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Land owned

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelProperty size
Page in Source 164
Our classificationLand owned
Operationalization
self reported amount of acres of mini-farm
Observed distributionrange 0-1000; M=10.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.09 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Livestock

StudyShifa & Leibbrandt (2018): study ET 2004
TitleRelative Economic Position and Subjective Well-Being in a Poor Society: Does Relative Position Indicator Matter?
SourceSocial lndicators Research, 2018, Vol. 139, 611-630
DOIdoi: org/10. 1007/sl 1205-017-1739-5
Public18+ aged, rural population of poor communities Ethiopia. Folowed 4 years 2004-2009
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1375

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold lifestock holdings
Page in Source 627
Our classificationLivestock
Operationalization
Tropical Livestock Units (TLU)
Observed distributionMean 4, SD 4.4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=+.05 p < .000
b controlled for:
  - Relative economic position
  - Mean village consumption
  - Mean village asset index
  - Perceived relative wealth
  - Household living standard measures
  - Household size and composition
  - Maximum education in a house
  - Access to off-farm income
  - Social capital
  - Family health
- Respondent characteristics
  - Age
  - Gender
  - Literate
  - Do not relz on neighbours
  - Do not trust neighbours
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aOPRC=+.04 p < .000
OPRC controlled for:
- Relative economic position
  - Mean village consumption
  - Mean village asset index
  - Perceived relative wealth
  - Household living standard measures
  - Household size and composition
  - Maximum education in a house
  - Access to off-farm income
  - Social capital
  - Family health

Respondent characteristics
- Age
- Gender
- Literate
- Do not relz on neighbours
- Do not trust neighbours
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab-fix=+.06 p < .000
MLM (linear) controlled for
- Relative economic position
  - Mean village consumption
  - Mean village asset index
  - Perceived relative wealth
  - Household living standard measures
  - Household size and composition
  - Maximum education in a house
  - Access to off-farm income
  - Social capital
  - Family health
- Respondent characteristics
  - Age
  - Gender
  - Literate
  - Do not relz on neighbours
  - Do not trust neighbours
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab-fix=+.05 p < .000
MLM (ordered probit) controlled for
- Relative economic position
  - Mean village consumption
  - Mean village asset index
  - Perceived relative wealth
  - Household living standard measures
  - Household size and composition
  - Maximum education in a house
  - Access to off-farm income
  - Social capital
  - Family health
- Respondent characteristics
  - Age
  - Gender
  - Literate
  - Do not relz on neighbours
  - Do not trust neighbours


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communication devices

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ Aged General Public in 120 Nations 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =301516

Correlate
Author's labelAccess to information and communication technology
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCommunication devices
Operationalization
Self report of home access to
a: Landline phone
b: Cell phone
c: TV
d: Internet
Observed distributiona; 49% b: 81% c 85% d: 35%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=+.30 p < .01
a. Landline in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=+.38 p < .01
b. Cell Phone in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=+.54 p < .01
c. TV in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.62 p < .01
d. Internet in Home

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Female
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies

The associations are most positive in the poorer 
regions of the world where the technologies are 
scarcest, and negligible in those places where 
they were most common.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communication devices

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ North America 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public, North America, 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelAccess to information and communication technology
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCommunication devices
Operationalization
Self report of home access to
a: Landline phone
b: Cell phone
c: TV
d: Internet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
a. Landline in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
b. Cell Phone in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
c. TV in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
d. Internet in Home

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Female
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies

The associations are most positive in the poorer 
regions of the world where the technologies are 
scarcest, and negligible in those places where 
they were most common.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communication devices

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Latin America 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public , Latin American countries, 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelAccess to information and communication technology
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCommunication devices
Operationalization
Self report of home access to
a: Landline phone
b: Cell phone
c: TV
d: Internet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
a. Landline in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
b. Cell Phone in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
c. TV in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
d. Internet in Home

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Female
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies

The associations are most positive in the poorer 
regions of the world where the technologies are 
scarcest, and negligible in those places where 
they were most common.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communication devices

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public, Sub-Sahara African countries, 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelAccess to information and communication technology
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCommunication devices
Operationalization
Self report of home access to
a: Landline phone
b: Cell phone
c: TV
d: Internet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
a. Landline in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
b. Cell Phone in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
c. TV in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
d. Internet in Home

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Female
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies

The associations are most positive in the poorer 
regions of the world where the technologies are 
scarcest, and negligible in those places where 
they were most common.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communication devices

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Various nation sets 2010 /1
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public. Middle East and North African nations 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000000

Correlate
Author's labelAccess to information and communication technology
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCommunication devices
Operationalization
Self report of home access to
a: Landline phone
b: Cell phone
c: TV
d: Internet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
a. Landline in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
b. Cell Phone in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
c. TV in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
d. Internet in Home

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Female
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies

The associations are most positive in the poorer 
regions of the world where the technologies are 
scarcest, and negligible in those places where 
they were most common.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communication devices

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ East Asia 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public, East Asian countries, 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelAccess to information and communication technology
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCommunication devices
Operationalization
Self report of home access to
a: Landline phone
b: Cell phone
c: TV
d: Internet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
a. Landline in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
b. Cell Phone in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
c. TV in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
d. Internet in Home

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Female
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies

The associations are most positive in the poorer 
regions of the world where the technologies are 
scarcest, and negligible in those places where 
they were most common.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communication devices

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ South Asia 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public, South Asian countries, 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelAccess to information and communication technology
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCommunication devices
Operationalization
Self report of home access to
a: Landline phone
b: Cell phone
c: TV
d: Internet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
a. Landline in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
b. Cell Phone in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
c. TV in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
d. Internet in Home

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Female
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies

The associations are most positive in the poorer 
regions of the world where the technologies are 
scarcest, and negligible in those places where 
they were most common.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communication devices

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ South East Asia 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public, South East Asian countries, 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelAccess to information and communication technology
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCommunication devices
Operationalization
Self report of home access to
a: Landline phone
b: Cell phone
c: TV
d: Internet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
a. Landline in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
b. Cell Phone in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
c. TV in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
d. Internet in Home

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Female
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies

The associations are most positive in the poorer 
regions of the world where the technologies are 
scarcest, and negligible in those places where 
they were most common.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communication devices

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Australia and New Zealand 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public, Australia and New Zealand, 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6000

Correlate
Author's labelAccess to information and communication technology
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCommunication devices
Operationalization
Self report of home access to
a: Landline phone
b: Cell phone
c: TV
d: Internet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
a. Landline in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
b. Cell Phone in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
c. TV in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
d. Internet in Home

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Female
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies

The associations are most positive in the poorer 
regions of the world where the technologies are 
scarcest, and negligible in those places where 
they were most common.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communication devices

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Commonwealth of Independant States 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public, Commonwealth of Independant States, 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelAccess to information and communication technology
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCommunication devices
Operationalization
Self report of home access to
a: Landline phone
b: Cell phone
c: TV
d: Internet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
a. Landline in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
b. Cell Phone in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
c. TV in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
d. Internet in Home

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Female
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies

The associations are most positive in the poorer 
regions of the world where the technologies are 
scarcest, and negligible in those places where 
they were most common.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communication devices

StudyGraham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Various nation sets 2010
TitleDoes Access to Information Technology make People Happier? Insights from Well-Being Surveys from Around the World
SourceJournal of Socio Economics, 2013, Vol 44, 126 -139
DOIdoi:/10.1016/j.sosec.2013.02.025
Public15+ aged general public, Eurppean nations, other than EU and Balkans, 2010- 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelAccess to information and communication technology
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCommunication devices
Operationalization
Self report of home access to
a: Landline phone
b: Cell phone
c: TV
d: Internet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
a. Landline in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
b. Cell Phone in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRCs=
c. TV in Home
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=
d. Internet in Home

OLRCs controlled for 
- Individual charecetics:
  - Age
  - Age squared/100
  - Female
  - Married
  - Married and female
  - Education: highschool or higher
  - Household income
  - Employed full time
  - Urban area
  - Child in household
  - Household size
  - Learned or did something interesting yesterday
- Regional and Year Dummies

The associations are most positive in the poorer 
regions of the world where the technologies are 
scarcest, and negligible in those places where 
they were most common.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communication devices

StudyKavetsos & Koutroumpis (2011): study ZZ EU28 2005
TitleTechnological Affluence and Subjective Well-Being
SourceJournal of Economic Psychology, 2011, Vol. 32, 742 - 753
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.joep.2011.05.004
Public15+ aged general public, 29 EU countries, 2005- 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =28000

Correlate
Author's labelTechnological amenities
Page in Source 746, Table 1
Our classificationCommunication devices
Operationalization
Self reported home access to:
a: Fixed phone
b: Mobile phone
c: TV
d: TV with DVD
e: CD
f: PC without internet
g:PC with internet
Observed distributiona: 72% b: 79% c: 42% d: 56% e: 61% f: 11% g: 44%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.06 p < .001
a. Fixed phone
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.07 p < .001
b. Mobile phone
Stronger in nations with higher mobile 
penetration.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.03
c. TV
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.01
d.  TV with DVD
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.04 p < .01
e. CD
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.03 p < .01
f. PC without internet
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.05 p < .01
g. PC with internet
stronger in nations with higher broadband 
penetration.

s controlled for 
- Nation characteristics:
  - log GDP per capita
  - Year effects
  - Country effects
- Community characteristics:
  - Community size
- Personal characteristics:
  - Age
  - Age squared
  - Male
  - Marital status
  - Employement status
  - Education level
  - Financial situation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Internet at home

StudySchmeets (2001a): study NL 1998
TitleZijn Internetters Eenzaam? (Are Internet Users Lonely?)
SourceIndex, 2001, March, 30 - 32
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/schmeets_h_2001B.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1998-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =19000

Correlate
Author's labelinternet available at home
Page in Source 30
Our classificationInternet at home
Operationalization
0: internet not available at home
1: internet available at home
Observed distribution0: 60% 1: 40%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=+ ns
                      very happy   not happy

No internet at home       19%         3%
Internet at home          26%         1%

Difference disappears when controlled for
-income
-age
-availablity of technical equipment at home
-health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelTelevision
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationTv
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution0: M = 0,023 SD = 0,151
Remarks
In original: Lack of television. Order reversed by WDH 
team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.03 ns
PROBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
  - accomodation
- personality traits
- absolute lack of
  - savings
  - facilities   (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables     (car, telephone, etc)
  - health       (bad health, disabled etc) 

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.004 (ns)

No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.08 p < .05
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health 

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.027 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.05 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack of
  - social life

Fixed effects. Random effects: B = +.068 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv

StudyPelham (2008): study ZZ 2006
TitleTV Ownership may be good for Well-Being.
SourceThe Gallup Poll/105850, 2008, Washington DC, USA.
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/105850/ownership-may-good-wellbeing.aspx
Public15+ aged, general public, 114 nations, 2006-2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =114000

Correlate
Author's labelTV ownership
Page in Source 1-3
Our classificationTv
Operationalization
0: No telivision in household
1: Television in household
Observed distributionN Europe = 0: 810, 1: 40.267

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+
Europe:
- No TV:   M = 5,07  CI95 [4,80-5,26] 
- TV       M = 5,80  CI95 [5,78-5,82]  
difference =+0,73
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+
The America's:
- No TV:   M = 4,47
- TV       M = 6,07 
difference    +1,60
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+
Africa:
- No TV:   M = 3,93
- TV       M = 4,99 
difference    +1,06
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+
Asia:
- No TV:   M = 4,20
- TV       M = 5,38 
difference    +1,18
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Telephone

StudyHaisken-DeNew & Sinning (2010): study DE West Germany 2000
TitleSocial Deprivation of Immigrants in Germany.
SourceReview of Income and Wealth, 2010, Vol 56, 715 -733
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4991.2010.00417.x
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, Germany, followed 5 years, 2000-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =33186

Correlate
Author's labelTelephone
Page in Source 723, 725
Our classificationTelephone
Operationalization
1: Having a telephone
0: Not having a telephone
Observed distribution1: 94.3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.19 p < .01
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in possession of a 
telephone

B controlled for:
- age and age squared
- children in household
- employment status
- education
- having a car 
- relative income
- appreciation of housing surface
- quality of house
- having a PC/stereo/dishwasher
- health
- marital status
- cultural participation
- religious participation
- active in sports


Correlational finding on Happiness and Telephone

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelTelephone
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationTelephone
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution0: M = 0,009 SD = 0,094
Remarks
In original: Lack of telephone. Order reversed by WDH 
team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.10 p < .05
PROBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
  - accomodation
- personality traits
- absolute lack of
  - savings
  - facilities   (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables     (car, telephone, etc)
  - health       (bad health, disabled etc)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.095 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.14 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life

Fixed effects. Random effects: B = +.124 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.06 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health 

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.072 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.14 p < .05
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack of
  - social life

Fixed effects. Random effects: B = +.092 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Telephone

StudyMorawetz (1977): study IL 1976
TitleIncome Distributions and Self-Rated Happiness: Some Empirical Evidence.
SourceThe Economic Journal, 1977, Vol. 87, 511 - 522
PublicAdults, two villages (one equal in incomes, one unequal), Israel, 1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =109

Correlate
Author's labeltelephone
Page in Source 518
Our classificationTelephone
Operationalization
0 no telephone
1 has telephone
Observed distributionN = 0: 32,2%, 1: 67,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab= ns
B controlled for:
- years lived in moshav
- religion
- place of birth
- age
- sex
- education
- not married
- children at home
- rooms per house
- no car
- agricultural work
- income per standard adult
- Moshav
Unaffected by kind of community
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=
B controlled for the above variables with income 
left out


Correlational finding on Happiness and Telephone

StudyRotondi et al. (2016): study IT 2016
TitleConnecting Alone: Smartphone Use, Quality of Social Interactions and Well-Being.
SourceWorking Paper: Politecno di Milano and University of Milan Bicocca, Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering (DIG), 2016, Italy
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 2016
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =144809

Correlate
Author's labelSmartphone use
Page in Source 6,9,11
Our classificationTelephone
Operationalization
Single question:
" Do you use your mobile phone to surf the web?"
1 Yes
0 No
Observed distribution13% yes; 87% no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.22 p < .01
Beta's controlled for:
- time spent with friends
- gender
- education
- employment
- marital status
- volunteering
- religiousness

When controlling for 'time with friends: at least 
once a week' instead of all categories beta=+.15 
(p<.01). 
When controlling for 'time with friends: more than 
once a week' instead of all categories beta=+.10 
(p<.01).
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-ab-iv=+12 p < .01
b-iv= +12.8

b-iv controlled for:
- availibility of 4G network
- satisfaction with friends
- time spent with friends
- interaction effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Telephone

StudyPosel & Casale (2011): study ZA 2008
TitleRelative Standing and Subjective Well-Being in South Africa: The Role of Perception, Expectations and Income Mobility.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 104, 195 - 223
URLhttp://econrsa.org/home/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=295&Itemid=67
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-010-9740-2
Public17+ aged general public, South-Africa., 2008
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =28000

Correlate
Author's labelOwns a cellular phone
Page in Source 203,208,212
Our classificationTelephone
Operationalization
Owns a cellular phone:
1 yes
0 no
Observed distributionM = 0.68 SE = 0.007

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=+.10 p < .01
All
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=+.10 p < .01
Africans only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=+.21 p < .05
Whites only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-I
OPRC's controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - ethnicity
  - head
  - age
  - years of schooling
  - sexe
  - marital status
  - health status
- household characteristics
  - number of children
  - number of pensioners
  - quality dwelling place
- social capital variables
  - involved in religious activities
  - neigbours help out
  - neigbours are aggressive
  - crime in neighbourhood
  - member of a group
- income variables
  - per capita household income (Rands)
  - actual rank in SA (richest, middle, poorest)
  - percieved rank in SA (richest, middle, 
poorest)
  - percieved rank in village/suburb (richest, 
middle, poorest)
  - percieved to be better/same/worse than at age 
15
  - expect to be better/same/worse off 2 years 
hence


Correlational finding on Happiness and Telephone

StudyMoller (2007a): study ZA 2002
TitleSatisfied and Dissatisfied South Africans: Results From The General Household Survey in the International Comparison.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 81, 389 - 415
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9004-3
PublicAdults, general public, South Africa, 2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26000

Correlate
Author's labelTelephones
Page in Source 400-2
Our classificationTelephone
Operationalization
a:Landline telephone
b:Cellular phone

1: has
0: has not
Observed distributiona:13%, b:27%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cD%=+
                 % happy   %Neutral % unhappy
Landline telephone   59       12          29
Cellular phone       59       12          29


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household appliances

StudyMollenkopf & Kaspar (2005): study DE 2000
TitleAgeing in Rural Areas of East and West Germany: Increasing Similarities and Remaining Differences.
SourceEuropean Journal of Aging, 2005, Vol. 2, 120 - 130
DOIdoi:10.1007/s10433-005-0029-2
Public55+ aged, general public, rural areas, East and West Germany, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response41,6%
Respondents N =762

Correlate
Author's labelBasic household features
Page in Source 125,127
Our classificationHousehold appliances
Operationalization
Sum score of basic housing amenities (range 0-3)
Observed distributionWest Germany: M=2,8; SD=0,5; East Germany: M=2,6; SD=0,6; p<0,004

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=-.03 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Socio-demographic: 
   - sex
   - age
   - satisfaction with finances
- Health-related:
   - activities of daily living
   - visu-motoric coordination
   - affect balance score
   - satisfaction with health
- Social network:
   - household type
   - network variety
- Housing:
   - home ownership
   - satisfaction with housing
- Living area:
   - available services
   - neighbourhood features
   - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
   - car use as passenger
   - car use as driver
   - satisfaction with public transport
   - satisfaction with mobility
- Leisure time activities:
   - outdoor leisure activities
   - satisfaction with leisure activities

No interaction with region (East/West Germany)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household appliances

StudyRichards (2001): study ZA ZA: Eastern Cape 2001
TitleHow to Measure Quality of Life in Diverse Population.
SourcePaper 4th Conference International Society for Quality of Life Studies, 2001, Washington DC, USA
PublicAdults, general public, Buffalo City, South Africa, 2001
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2477

Correlate
Author's labelEnergy for Cooking
Page in Source 20
Our classificationHousehold appliances
Operationalization
Self report on energy used for cooking:
a electricity
b gas
c paraffin
d wood
e other

1: yes
0: no
Observed distributionN= a:651, b:18, c: 161, d:43, e:1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-gD%=
% happy
a: 49.7
b: 30.5
c: 17.9
d: 22.9
e: 12.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household appliances

StudyRichards (2001): study ZA ZA: Eastern Cape 2001
TitleHow to Measure Quality of Life in Diverse Population.
SourcePaper 4th Conference International Society for Quality of Life Studies, 2001, Washington DC, USA
PublicAdults, general public, Buffalo City, South Africa, 2001
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2477

Correlate
Author's labelEnergy for Lighting
Page in Source 20
Our classificationHousehold appliances
Operationalization
Self-report on energy used for lighting:
a electricity
b gas
c paraffin
d candles
1: yes
0: no
Observed distributionN= a:786, b:3, c:84, d:1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-gD%=
% happy
a: 42.3
b: 25.0
c: 14.2
d: 33.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household appliances

StudyRichards (2001): study ZA ZA: Eastern Cape 2001
TitleHow to Measure Quality of Life in Diverse Population.
SourcePaper 4th Conference International Society for Quality of Life Studies, 2001, Washington DC, USA
PublicAdults, general public, Buffalo City, South Africa, 2001
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2477

Correlate
Author's labelWater Source
Page in Source 20
Our classificationHousehold appliances
Operationalization
self-report on water source:
a piped full pressure
b piped from roof tank
c ground tanks next to house
d standpipes
e borehole/rainwater tank/well
f dam/river/stream/spring
g other
Observed distributionN= a:639, b:31, c:1, d:182, e:6, f: 10, g: 3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-gD%=
% happy
a: 45.6
b: 48.4
c:  9.1
d: 21.0
e: 50.0
f: 12.5
g: 15.0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dishwasher

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelDishwasher
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationDishwasher
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution0: M = 0,254 SD = 0,435
Remarks
In original: Lack of dishwasher. Order reversed by WDH 
team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.00 ns
PROBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
  - accomodation
- personality traits
- absolute lack of
  - savings
  - facilities   (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables     (car, telephone, etc)
  - health       (bad health, disabled etc)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.002 (ns)

No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life
- relative lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health 
  - social life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Micro wave

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelMicrowave
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationMicro wave
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution0: M = 0,248 SD = 0,432
Remarks
In original: Lack of microwave. Order reversed by WDH 
team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03 p < .01
PROBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
  - accomodation
- personality traits
- absolute lack of
  - savings
  - facilities   (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables     (car, telephone, etc)
  - health       (bad health, disabled etc)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.053 (01)

Not significant when B additionally controlled 
for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life
- relative lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health 
  - social life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Washer

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelWasher
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationWasher
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution0: M = 0,051 SD = 0,220
Remarks
In original: Lack of washer. Order reversed by WDH 
team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03 ns
PROBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
  - accomodation
- personality traits
- absolute lack of
  - savings
  - facilities   (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables     (car, telephone, etc)
  - health       (bad health, disabled etc) 

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.036 (ns)

No significant change when B additionaly controled 
for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life
- relative lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health 
  - social life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelAvailability of a car
Page in Source 114,T42
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
Single direct question:
0 No
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study FI 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Finland, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =610

Correlate
Author's labelCar in household
Page in Source 13,28
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: 
0: no car present in household
1: car present in household
Observed distribution1: Urban:=60,3%; Rural= 71,3%; p<.01

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - homeownership
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - Income per person
- Health:
  - ADL
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Rural areas

When Beta's are additionally controlled for 
subjective indicators, all the coefficients stay 
insignificant.

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study DE 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Germany, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1

Correlate
Author's labelCar in household
Page in Source 13,28
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: 
0: no car present in household
1: car present in household
Observed distributionGermany West: Urban:=57.7%; Rural= 69.5%; p<.001 Germany East: Urban:=57.6%; Rural= 65.4%; p<.05

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Germany West
-urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
-rural areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db= ns
Germany East
-urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.16 p < .05
-rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - Income per person
- Health:
  - ADL
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Germany West
-urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
-rural areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Germany East
-urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
-rural areas

When Beta's are additionally controlled for 
subjective indicators, all the coefficients become 
not significant.

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyHaisken-DeNew & Sinning (2010): study DE West Germany 2000
TitleSocial Deprivation of Immigrants in Germany.
SourceReview of Income and Wealth, 2010, Vol 56, 715 -733
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4991.2010.00417.x
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, Germany, followed 5 years, 2000-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =33186

Correlate
Author's labelCar in household
Page in Source 723, 725
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
1: Car in household
0: No car in household
Observed distribution1: 83.8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.23 p < .01
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in having a car

B controlled for:
- age and age squared
- children in household
- employment status
- education
- having a telephone
- relative income
- appreciation of housing surface
- quality of house
- having a PC/stereo/dishwasher
- health
- marital status
- cultural participation
- religious participation
- active in sports


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelCar
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution0: M = 0,10 SD = 0,30
Remarks
In original: Lack of car. Order reversed by WDH team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 p < .05
PROBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
  - accomodation
- personality traits
- absolute lack of
  - savings
  - facilities   (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables     (car, telephone, etc)
  - health       (bad health, disabled etc)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.03 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.08 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life

Fixed effects. Random effects: B = -.078 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.08 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health 

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.056 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.11 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack of
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.085 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study HU 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Hungary, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =605

Correlate
Author's labelCar in household
Page in Source 13,28
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: 
0: no car present in household	
1: car present in household
Observed distributionUrban = 36,5%; Rural = 17,4%; p<.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - Income per person
- Health:
  - ADL
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.17 p < .05
Rural areas

When Beta's are additionally controlled for 
subjective indicators, rural areas's coefficient 
becomes significant.

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyMorawetz (1977): study IL 1976
TitleIncome Distributions and Self-Rated Happiness: Some Empirical Evidence.
SourceThe Economic Journal, 1977, Vol. 87, 511 - 522
PublicAdults, two villages (one equal in incomes, one unequal), Israel, 1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =109

Correlate
Author's labelno car
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
0 no car
1 owning or jointly owning car
Observed distributionN = 0: 34,5%, 1: 65,5 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=-.25 ns
B controlled for:
- years lived in moshav
- religion
- place of birth
- age
- sex
- education
- not married
- children at home
- rooms per house
- rooms per person
- telephone
- agricultural work
- income per standard adult
- Moshav
unaffected by kind of community
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=-.27 p < .05
B controlled for the above variables with income 
left out


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study IT 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Italy, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =600

Correlate
Author's labelCar in household
Page in Source 13,28
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: 
0: no car present in household	
1: car present in household
Observed distribution1: Urban:=82,2%; Rural= 83,0%; ns

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.17 p < .05
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - Income per person
- Health:
  - ADL
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Rural areas

When Beta's are additionally controlled for 
subjective indicators, all the coefficients become 
not significant.

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyZhang (2012a): study JP 2010
TitleHouseholds' Multidimensional Mobilities Over Life Course and QOL: A case Study in Japan
SourcePaper presented at ISQOLS conference 2012, Track 43 "Multidimensional and Longitudinal Analyses of Well-Being and Qualityof Life"
Public18+ aged, general public, major cities, Japan, 2010
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response5.7%
Respondents N =943

Correlate
Author's labelCar ownership mobility/Car number
Page in Source 9, 11, 15
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How many times did you change your car (including sell 
or buy) which continued at least one year? (Full 
question was not reported, assumed)
1: zero
2: once
3: twice
4: three times
5: >= four times
Observed distributionM = 1.6, 1: 36%; 2: 21%; 3: 11%; 4: 9%; 5: 23% Average duration of car ownership: 9.7 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.00 ns
TIMES CAR CHANGED
OPRC = -.004
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=-.01 ns
OPRC’s controlled for:
-Times change in
 -Residential mobility
 -Household structure mobility
 -Employment mobility 
-Residential environment
-Objective living standard
 -House property
 -Household annual income
 -Car number
-Household attributes
 -Household size
 -Single/Couple
 -Number of children
 -Number of elders
 -Worker
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.02 ns
NUMBER OF CARS IN HOUSEHOLD
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=-.02 ns
OPRC’s controlled for:
-Times change in
 -Residential mobility
 -Household structure mobility
 -Employment mobility 
 -Car ownership mobility 
-Residential environment
-Objective living standard
 -House property
 -Household annual income
-Household attributes
 -Household size
 -Single/Couple
 -Number of children
 -Number of elders
 -Worker


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyDuarte et al. (2010): study ZZ Various nation sets 2007
TitleNew Approaches in transporting Planning: Happiness and transport Economics.
SourceNetnomics, 2010, Vol. 11, 5 - 32
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11066-009-9037-2
Public18+ aged, general public, multiple nations, 2007
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1084

Correlate
Author's labelCar ownership
Page in Source 20
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
0: No
1: Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-dDM=+ ns
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyGagliardi et al. (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2000
TitleAssociations of Personal and Mobility Resources with Subjective Well-being Among Older Adults in Italy and Germany.
SourceArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 2010, Vol. 50, 42 -47
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494309000326
Public55+ aged, Germany and Italy, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2118

Correlate
Author's labelDriving car
Page in Source 44
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution% Yes: Germany: 45% (N=1518) Italy: 48% (N=600)
Remarks
Full question not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=1.21 p < .246
Germany: CI95 [0.9-1.7]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=1.11 p < .691
Italy: CI95 [0.7-1.8]

The authors divided life satisfaction into two 
groups of high and low life satisfaction for 
logistic regression, with the 75th percentile 
being the cut-off point.

OR is adjusted for:
- age
- gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study NL 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Netherlands, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =616

Correlate
Author's labelCar in household
Page in Source 13,28
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: 
0: no car present in household
1: car present in household
Observed distributionUrban = 53,1%; Rural = 68,5%; p<.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.18 p < .05
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - Income per person
- Health:
  - ADL
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Rural areas

When Beta's are additionally controlled for 
subjective indicators, all the coefficients become 
not significant.

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyBoelhouwer & Stoop (1999): study NL 1974
TitleMeasuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 51 - 75
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006931028334
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelCar ownership
Page in Source 62
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
Car owner?
1 No
2 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.12 p < .05
1993
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.17 p < .05
1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyBreslin et al. (2013): study GB 2009
TitleSocio-Demographic and Behavioural Differences ans Associations with Happiness for Those Who Are in Good and Poor Health.
SourceInternational Journal of Happiness and Development, 2013, Vol. 1, 142 - 154
URLhttps://doi.org/10.1504/IJHD.2013.055641
Public16+ aged general public Northern Ireland, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response45,4%
Respondents N =4663

Correlate
Author's labelAccess to a car
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question; Over the ladst 12 month 
would you say your health has been
5 very good
4  good
3  average
2  poor
1  very poor

Dichotomized 1 (5+4), 0 (3+2+1)
Observed distributionGood health 60%, poor health 40%
Remarks
Order reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-hOR=1.25 p < .05
Access to a car/all respondents
CI95[1.05-1.75]

OR for respondents with poor health 1.41
CI95[1.13-1.71]

OR's controled for:
- age
- social class

Happiness dichotomized: <7 vs 7 or more


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyAnand et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCapabilties and Well-Being: Evidence based on the Sen-Nussbaum Approach to Welfare.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 9 - 55
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-6518-z
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12040

Correlate
Author's labelBodily integrity
Page in Source 26-29
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
Do you normally have access to a car or van that you 
can use whenever you want to?
1: Yes
0: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-br=-.03 ns
Females
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-br=+.07 p < .01
Males


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn et al. (2015): study US 2011
TitleLuxury Car Owners are not Happier than Frugal Car Owners
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 121 - 141
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0223-2
Public18+ aged, general public, the US, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8907

Correlate
Author's labelCar Ownership
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
Selfreport on own a car or not.
1. yes
0. no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ir=+.15 p < .001
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.08 p < .05
B controlled for
-Total family income
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.02 ns
B additionally controlled for
-Rent a dwelling
-Other than own/rent a dwelling
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.11 p < .01
B additionally controlled for
-Number of children in household
-Health status
-Gender
-Marital status
-Age
-State dummy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn et al. (2015): study US 2011
TitleLuxury Car Owners are not Happier than Frugal Car Owners
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 121 - 141
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0223-2
Public18+ aged, general public, the US, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8907

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of cars
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Altogether, how many vehicles do you (and your family 
living there) own or lease (for your personal use)?
Observed distribution0 car = 16%; 1 car = 34%; 2 cars = 33%; 3 cars = 12%; 4 cars or more = 5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ir=-.03 ns
1 car
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ir=+.26 p < .001
2 cars
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ir=+.30 p < .001
3 cars
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ir=+.22 p < .001
4 or more cars
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.05 ns
1 car
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.20 p < .001
2 cars
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.05 ns
2 cars
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.22 p < .001
3 cars
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.12 p < .05
4 or more cars

B's controlled for
-Total family income
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.09 p < .05
1 car
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.10 p < .05
2 cars
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.10 p < .05
3 cars
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.01 ns
4 or more cars

B's additionally controlled for
-Rent a dwelling
-Other than own/rent a dwelling
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.13 p < .001
1 car
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.02 ns
3 cars
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.15 p < .05
4 or more cars

B's additionally controlled for
-Number of children in household
-Health status
-Gender
-Marital status
-Age
-State dummy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Car

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn et al. (2015): study US 2011
TitleLuxury Car Owners are not Happier than Frugal Car Owners
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 121 - 141
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0223-2
Public18+ aged, general public, the US, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8907

Correlate
Author's labelPrice of cars
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationCar
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
What was t e total price of the vehicle?-FIRST VEHICLE
a. $0-5k
b. $5-15k
c. $15-23k
d. $23-35k
e. $>35k

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ir=-.03 ns
Car $0-5k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ir=+.11 p < .05
Car $5-15k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ir=+.23 p < .001
Car $15-23k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ir=+.33 p < .001
Car $23-35k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ir=+.36 p < .001
Car $>35k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.03 ns
Car $0-5k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.15 p < .01
Car $23-35k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.00 ns
Car $15-23k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.09 ns
Car $5-15k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.19 p < .001
Car $15-23k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.27 p < .001
Car $23-35k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.24 p < .01
Car $>35k

B's addtionally controlled for
-Total family income
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.06 ns
Car $0-5k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.02 ns
Car $5-15k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.09 ns
Car $15-23k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.11 ns
Car $>35k

B's additionally controlled for
-Rent a dwelling
-Other than own/rent a dwelling
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.05 ns
Car $0-5k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.05 ns
Car $5-15k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.03 ns
Car $23-35k
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.05 ns
Car $>35k

B's additionally controlled for
-Number of children in household
-Health status
-Gender
-Marital status
-Age
-State dummy
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.26 p < .001
Car $0-5k   (vs Car $15-23k)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.13 p < .01
Car $5-15k  (vs Car $15-23k)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.10 p < .05
Car $23-35k (vs Car $15-23k)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.12 ns
Car $>35k   (vs Car $15-23k)

B's controlled for
-Year in which acquired first car
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.23 p < .001
Car $0-5k   (vs Car $15-23k)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.11 p < .05
Car $5-15k  (vs Car $15-23k)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.08 ns
Car $23-35k (vs Car $15-23k)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.05 ns
Car $>35k   (vs Car $15-23k)

B's additionally controlled for
-Total family income
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.16 p < .01
Car $0-5k   (vs Car $15-23k)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.07 ns
Car $5-15k  (vs Car $15-23k)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.05 ns
Car $23-35k (vs Car $15-23k)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.02 ns
Car $>35k   (vs Car $15-23k)

B's additionally controlled for
-Rent a dwelling
-Other than own/rent a dwelling
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.06 ns
Car $0-5k   (vs Car $15-23k)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.05 ns
Car $5-15k  (vs Car $15-23k)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.05 ns
Car $23-35k (vs Car $15-23k)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.01 ns
Car $>35k   (vs Car $15-23k)

B's additionally controlled for
-Number of children in household
-Health status
-Gender
-Marital status
-Age
-State dummy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyBecchetti & Conzo (2010): study AR Buenos Aires 2009
TitleMicrofinance and Happiness.
SourceUniverstiy of Rome ''tor Vergata'', Working Paper, 2010, No. 69
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/ris/aiccon/2010_069.html
Public18+ aged, low income households, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =360

Correlate
Author's labelMicrofinance loan
Page in Source 23,24
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
1: having a microfinance loan
0: no
Remarks
The sample was composed of:
150 clients of a microfinance organization
150 eligible, but non clients
60 dropouts (past clients of microfinance organization)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=+.44 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.38 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=+.41 p < .05
MICORFINANCE LOAN AT PRESENT OR IN THE PAST
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.35 p < .01
Bs and OPRCs controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - village
  - education
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyBecchetti & Conzo (2010): study AR Buenos Aires 2009
TitleMicrofinance and Happiness.
SourceUniverstiy of Rome ''tor Vergata'', Working Paper, 2010, No. 69
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/ris/aiccon/2010_069.html
Public18+ aged, low income households, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =360

Correlate
Author's labelcredit cycle
Page in Source 24
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
cycle of current credit
Observed distributionM = 6,61 SD = 8,68
Remarks
The sample was composed of:
150 clients of a microfinance organization
150 eligible, but non clients
60 dropouts (past clients of microfinance organization)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=+.04 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.03 p < .05
B and OPRC controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - village
  - education
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
dropouts included in the sample for B and OPRC


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelLoan
Page in Source B122
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Single question:Do you have a loan?
0: No
1: Yes
Observed distributionN = 0: 1105; 1 : 802

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=- p < .133
0 Mt = 7,81; SD = 1,80
1 Mt = 7,70; SD = 1,52
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=- p < .036
0 Mt = 7,58; SD = 1,87
1 Mt = 7,41; SD = 1,72


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelLoan
Page in Source B122
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Single question: Do you have a loan?
0: No
1: Yes
Observed distributionN = 0: 1990, 1: 1743
Remarks
Combined Survey 9 & 11

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=- p < .006
0 Mt = 7,84; SD = 1,78
1 Mt = 7,69; SD = 1,56
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt= p < .036
0 Mt = 7,58; SD = 1,87
1 Mt = 7,41; SD = 1,42


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of Debt
Page in Source B123
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Single question:
Can you please give me an idea of the size of your 
debt?
1: <$ 5000
2:  $ 5000-  $10000
3:  $11000-  $50000
4:  $51000-  $100000
5:  $101000- $200000
6: >$201000- $500000
7: >$500000
Observed distributionN = 1:62, 2: 64, 3: 173, 4: 158, 5: 179, 6: 131, 7: 35
Remarks
Survey 11: Ss with loan only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt= p < .127
1 Mt = 7,39; SD = 1,56
2 Mt = 7,58; SD = 1,78
3 Mt = 7,52; SD = 1,54
4 Mt = 7,68; SD = 1,49
5 Mt = 7,83; SD = 1,38
6 Mt = 7,92; SD = 1,44
7 Mt = 7,89; SD = 1,83
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT= ns
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt= p < .602
1 Mt = 7,18; SD = 2,18
2 Mt = 7,56; SD = 1,67
3 Mt = 7,27; SD = 1,68
4 Mt = 7,38; SD = 1,74
5 Mt = 7,57; SD = 1,58
6 Mt = 7,41; SD = 1,78
7 Mt = 7,57; SD = 1,42
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bBMCT= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of Debt
Page in Source B124
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Single question:
Can you please give me an idea of the size of your 
debt?
1: <$10000
2:  $10000-  $50000
3:  $51000-  $100000
4:  101000-  $200000
5:  $201000- $500000
6: >$500000
Observed distributionN = 1: 62, 2: 173, 3: 158, 4: 179, 5: 131, 35
Remarks
Survey 9: Ss with loan only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+ p < .093
1 Mt = 7,48; SD = 1,67
2 Mt = 7,52; SD = 1,54
3 Mt = 7,68; SD = 1,49
4 Mt = 7,83; SD = 1,38
5 Mt = 7,92; SD = 1,44
6 Mt = 7,89; SD = 1,83
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT= ns
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt= p < .633
1 Mt = 7,37; SD = 1,94
2 Mt = 7,27; SD = 1,68
3 Mt = 7,38; SD = 1,74
4 Mt = 7,57; SD = 1,58
5 Mt = 7,41; SD = 1,78
6 Mt = 7,57; SD = 1,42
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bBMCT= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyCummins et al. (2004c): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Report 9.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Effects of Household Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1897

Correlate
Author's labelLoan
Page in Source 163
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Single question:
Do you have a loan?
0: No
1: Yes
Observed distributionN = a: 885, b: 941

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cDMt=- p < .014
0 Mt = 7,88; SD = 1,77
1 Mt = 7,69; SD = 1,59


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyCummins et al. (2004c): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Report 9.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Effects of Household Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1897

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of debt
Page in Source 164
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Single question:
Can you please give me an idea of the size of your 
debt?
1: <$15000
2:  $10000- $50000
3:  $51000- $100000
4:  $101000-$200000
5:  $201000-$500000
6: >$500000
Observed distributionN = 1: 1: 235, 2: 207, 3: 136, 4: 179, 5: 96, 6: 26
Remarks
Ss with a loan only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cDMt=+
1 Mt = 7,47; SD = 1,65
2 Mt = 7,56; SD = 1,76
3 Mt = 7,58; SD = 1,53
4 Mt = 7,80; SD = 1,61
5 Mt = 8,10; SD = 1,29
6 Mt = 8,54; SD = 0,86


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study AU 2002
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Australia 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11755

Correlate
Author's labelNet worth
Page in Source 10, 16
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Estimates based on responses to detailed questions on 
assets and debts. Household networth is assets minus 
debts. The natural logarithm is used since wealth is 
highly skewed towards the top end

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-er=+.14
Only reported in original Discuusion paper
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.65 p < .001
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eBeta=+.08 p < .001
B and Beta are controlled for
- gender
- age
- partnered
- education
- income (equivalized)
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyBrown & Gray (2014): study AU 2002
TitleHousehold Finances and Well-Being: An Empirical Analysis of Comparison Effects.
SourceSERPS, 2014, No. 2014015, 1 - 39, Sheffield, UK.
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp8530.pdf
Public16-93 aged general public, Australia, 2002, 2006, 2010
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =27530

Correlate
Author's labelLn(Total Debt) = Ln(Secured Debt) + Ln(Unsecured Debt)
Page in Source 29
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
A: Value of total debt (ln)
= summation of secured and unsecured debt

B: Total value of secured debt (ln)
(any debt secured against a property)

C: Total value of unsecured debt (ln)
(includes all other debt held by the household, apart 
from any debt secured against a property)
Observed distributionA: M = 7.806; SD = 5.249 B: M = 5.389; SD = 5.954 C: M = 5.312; SD = 4.860

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.01 p < .000
TOTAL DEBT
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.05
Beta-fix calculated by WDH team

b-fix and Beta-fix controled for:
- income
- ln(total aseets)
- age
- educational attainment
- ln(household size)
- marital status
- employment status
- self-reported health status
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.00
SECURED DEBT

b-fix  = -0,000477,se = 0,00453
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.00
Beta-fix calculated by the WDH team

b-fix and Beta-fix controled for:
- income
- ln(unsecured debt)
- age
- educational attainment
- ln(household size)
- marital status
- employment status
- self-reported health status
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.02 p < .000
UNSECURED DEBT
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.06
Beta-fex calculated by the WDH team

b-fix and Beta-fix controled for:
- income
- ln(secured debt)
- age
- educational attainment
- ln(household size)
- marital status
- employment status
- self-reported health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyCheng et al. (2013): study CN 2011
TitleHousing and Subjective Wellbeing in Urban China.
SourceMonash University, Department of Economics, Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 39, Melbourne, Australia.
PublicAdult, general public, China, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5229

Correlate
Author's labelHome loan
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Selfreport on whether has home loan
1. yes
0. no (reference)
Observed distribution1. 10.08%; 0. 89.92%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.49 p < .01
B controlled for:
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -gender
 -age
 -schooling
 -marital status
 -household size
 -rural hukou
 -Party member
 -social insurance
 -income
-Homeownership
 -homeownership
 -homeownership property status
 -property tenure
 -property size
 -number of homeownership
 -source of homeownership
-Loan
 -type of home loan
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.49 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
-Perceive better local public safety
-Express lower risk aversion
-Expect
 -better economy
 -higher house price
 -higher commodity price
 -higher interest rate


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyCheng et al. (2013): study CN 2011
TitleHousing and Subjective Wellbeing in Urban China.
SourceMonash University, Department of Economics, Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 39, Melbourne, Australia.
PublicAdult, general public, China, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5229

Correlate
Author's labelType of home loan
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
When your family purchased this home what kind of bank 
loans did you take?
a. housing provident fund loan
b. commercial loan
c. portfolio loan (reference)
Observed distributiona. 1.87%; b. 92.67%; c. 5.46%
Remarks
Portfolio loan: combination of housing provident fund 
and commercial bank loans.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.55 p < .01
Housing provident fund loan (vs portfolio loan)
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.50 p < .01
Commercial loan             (vs portfolio loan)

B's controlled for:
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -gender
 -age
 -schooling
 -marital status
 -household size
 -rural hukou
 -Party member
 -social insurance
 -income
-Homeownership
 -homeownership
 -homeownership property status
 -property tenure
 -property size
 -number of homeownership
 -source of homeownership
-Loan
 -home loan
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.55 p < .01
Housing provident fund loan (vs portfolio loan)
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.52 p < .01
Commercial loan             (vs portfolio loan)

B's addtionally controlled for:
-Perceive better local public safety
-Express lower risk aversion
-Expect
 -better economy
 -higher house price
 -higher commodity price
 -higher interest rate


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyWang et al. (2015): study CN 2010 /3
TitleDoes Consuming More Make You Happier? Evidence from Chinese Panel Data.
SourceMonash DOE Working Paper, 2015, No. 29, 1 - 26
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/277004500_Does_Consuming_More_Make_You_Happier_Evidence_from_Chinese_Panel_Data
PublicAdult general public, China, 2010-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =68047

Correlate
Author's labelMortage
Page in Source 23
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Annual expenses per 100.000 RMB.
Observed distributionM = 0.18 SD = 1.93
Remarks
Paper presents b per 100.000 RMB. WDH team changed to 
10.000 RMB, thus moving the coefficients 1 decimal. 
10.000 RMB equals US $ 1500

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jb=+.00 ns
All
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jBeta=+.01
Beta calculated by WDH team
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jb=+.00 ns
Males only
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jBeta=+.00
b's and beta controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - socio-demographic
    - age
    - marital status
    - education
    - hukou (urban or rural)status
    - employment
    - occupation
    - work hours
  - Health
    - self perceived
    - perceived change
  - Perceived local position
    - relative income 
    - social status
  - Attitudes
    - confidence in the future
    - experience of unfair treatment
    - evaluation of governmnt performance
- characteristics of living environment
  - Housing
    - home owner
    - size of home
- characteristics of community
  - location; in city, town, village, suburb
  - type; residential or village
  - economic prosperity
  - socio-economic homogeneity
  - spaciousness
  - distance to nearest busioness center
  - region
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jb=+.00 ns
Females only
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jBeta=+.01
Beta calculated by WDH team
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jb=+.00 ns
Urban residents
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jBeta=+.01
Beta calculated by WDH team
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jb=-.00 ns
Rural residents
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jBeta=-.00
Beta calculated by WDH team
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jb=+.00 ns
Urban locals
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jBeta=+.00
Beta calculated by WDH team
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jb=+.00 ns
Urban migrants
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jBeta=+.01
Beta calculated by WDH team

b's en Beta's controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - socio-demographic
    - age
    - marital status
    - education
    - hukou (urban or rural)status
    - employment
    - occupation
    - work hours
  - Health
    - self perceived
    - perceived change
  - Perceived local position
    - relative income 
    - social status
  - Attitudes
    - confidence in the future
    - experience of unfair treatment
    - evaluation of governmnt performance
- characteristics of living environment
  - Housing
    - home owner
    - size of home
- characteristics of community
  - location; in city, town, village, suburb
  - type; residential or village
  - economic prosperity
  - socio-economic homogeneity
  - spaciousness
  - distance to nearest busioness center
  - region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2014a): study CN 2002
TitleMemory and Anticipation: New Empirical Support for an Old Theory of the Utility Function.
SourceOxford Department of Economics Discussion Paper Series, 2014, Nr. 721, UK
URLhttp://www.econbiz.de/Record/memory-and-anticipation-new-empirical-support-for-an-old-theory-of-the-utility-function-knight-john/10010402988
PublicAdult general public, rural areas, China, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9500

Correlate
Author's labelLog of household debt
Page in Source 25-29
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Not reported
Observed distributionM = 0.22

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ib=-.01 ns
b controlled for:
- Economic variables
  - income
  - financial assets
  - working hours
- Conditioning variables
  - age (squared)
  - gender
  - marital status
  - education
  - mood
  - health
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ib=+.00 ns
b = 0.0034
b additionally controlled for:
- Relative income to village
- Expected income next 5 years
- Perception of income 5 years ago

b unaffected by additional control for:
- province (dummies)
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ib=-.02 p < .10
b controlled for:
Economic variables
  - household consumption
  - financial assets
  - working hours
Conditioning variables (as above)


Results do not change substantially if province 
dummies are included in the model, but b becomes 
statistically insignificant.
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ib=-.01 ns
b addionally controlled for:
- Relative income to village
- Expected income next 5 years
- Perception of income 5 years ago
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ib=+.00 ns
b = 0.0041
b controlled for:
Economic variables
  - income
  - financial assets
  - working hours
- Conditioning variables (as above)
- Relative income to village
- Expected income next 5 years
- Perception of income 5 years ago
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ib-iv=-.01 ns
b-iv (-0.0049) when instrumented for:
-  expected future income change
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ib-iv=+.05 p < .10
b-iv (0.0479) when instrumented for:
-  perceived past income change

b-iv's controled for
- log real per capita household income
- log of household debts
- working hours per year
- relative household income in village


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyLiu & Shang (2012): study CN 2002
TitleIndividual Well-Being in Urban China: The Role of Income Expectations.
SourceChina Economic Review, 2012, Vol. 23, 833 - 849
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1043951X12000272
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.chieco.2012.04.004
PublicAdult general public, urban areas, China, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2304

Correlate
Author's labelLog(net debts), Log(net housing debts), Log(net business debts)
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Net debts: absolute value of household net worth if it 
is negative, and 0 if the net worth is positive;
Net housing debts: Interaction of log(net debts) and a 
dummy variable indicating that the household has bank 
loads or other borrowings for building or purchasing 
houses;
Net business debts: Interaction of log(net debts) and a 
dummy variable indicating that the household has bank 
loads or other borrowings for business

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db=-.01 ns
NET DEBTS
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dBeta=-.18
Beta calculated by WDH team
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db-iv=-.05 p < .10
b-iv instrumented for income

b, Beta and b-iv controled for:
- household income
- average household income (city)
- individual-specific characteristics
  - gender
  - age
  - have local Hukou (dummy)
  - minority 
  - education
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - working hours
  - disabled
  - health status
- household-specific characteristics  
  - assets
  - household size
  - No. of kids
- city specific characteristics
- province (dummies)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db=-.04 p < .10
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db-iv=-.06 p < .05
b and b-iv additionally controled for:
- perceived income
- city (dummies)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db=-.00 ns
b (-.004) controled for:
- household consumption
- average household consumption (city)
- individual-specific characteristics(as above)
- household-specific characteristics(as above)
- city specific characteristics
- province (dummies)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db=+.05 p < .05
NET HOUSING DEBTS
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.05
Beta calculated by WDH team
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db=+.04 ns
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db-iv=+.04 p < .10
b and b-iv controled for:
- household income
- average household income (city)
- individual-specific characteristics
  - gender
  - age
  - have local Hukou (dummy)
  - minority 
  - education
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - working hours
  - disabled
  - health status
- household-specific characteristics  
  - assets
  - household size
  - No. of kids
- city specific characteristics
- province (dummies)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db=+.05 p < .05
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db-iv=+.05 p < .05
b-iv when instrumented for income

b and b-iv additionally controled for:
- perceived income
- city (dummies)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db=+.06 p < .000
b controled for:
- household consumption
- average household consumption (city)
- individual-specific characteristics(as above)
- household-specific characteristics(as above)
- city specific characteristics
- province (dummies)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db-iv=+.04 ns
b and b-iv controled for:
- household income
- average household income (city)
- individual-specific characteristics
  - gender
  - age
  - have local Hukou (dummy)
  - minority 
  - education
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - working hours
  - disabled
  - health status
- household-specific characteristics  
  - assets
  - household size
  - No. of kids
- city specific characteristics
- province (dummies)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db=+.04 ns
NET BUSINESS DEBTS
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dBeta=-.02
Beta calculated by WDH team
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db-iv=+.04 ns
b Beta and b-iv additionally controled for:
- perceived income
- city (dummies)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-db=+.04 ns
b and Beta and b-iv controled for:
- household consumption
- average household consumption (city)
- individual-specific characteristics(as above)
- household-specific characteristics(as above)
- city specific characteristics
- province (dummies)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyGökdemir (2014): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2011
TitleFactors that Influence the Life Satisfaction of Women Living in the Northern Cyprus.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 115, 1071 - 1085
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0265-3#page-1
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-013-0265-3
Public18+ aged women, Northern Cyprus, 2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelFinancial status
Page in Source 1077,1082
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Question asked is the following: Which one decribes 
your financial status in preceding year?:
1. I got into debt
2. I didn't get into debt but I used my savings 
accounts as money.
3. I didn't get into debt, I didn't use my savings 
accounts as money but I couldn't save money.
4. I saved money.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acBeta=+.26
Beta controled for:
- religion
- health
- education
- marital status
- age
- household income
- social reference income
- paricipation in household expenditure
- being a victim domestic violence
- witnessing domestic violence
- gender discrimination
- employment
- housewife
- perception of government performance
- political preference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelBeing heavily indebted
Page in Source 261
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Have you experienced being heavily indebted
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answer:  No (=0) or Yes (=1)
Observed distributionNever: 2046 Ever in your life: N = 360

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.25
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.24
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.95
ever in your life:       M = 3.41
95% CI for difference:   [0.45 ; 0.63]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelGone banktrup (or been near)
Page in Source 261
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Have you experienced gone bankrupt (or been near)
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2252 Ever in your life: N = 100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.14
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.15
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.91
ever in your life:       M = 3.32
95% CI for difference:   [0.39 ; 0.79]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyChristoph (2010): study DE 2007 /1
TitleThe Relation between Life Satisfaction and the Material Situation: A Re-Evaluation using Alternative Measures.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 475 - 499
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9552-4
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2007
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11424

Correlate
Author's labelDebt (in 10,000 Euro)
Page in Source 492
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Loans and consumer credits
Observed distributionM=1.5
Remarks
Wealth indicator on the household level was transformed 
into available wealth 'per capita' before being logged

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRCs=-.11 p < .001
OLRC-S and OLRC controlled for:
- household income
- savings
- East Germany (dummy)
- nationality
- gender
- age
- marital status
- education
- health
- employment status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.05 p < .001
No controls
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.04 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRCs=-.08 p < .001
OLRC-S and OLRC additionally controlled for:
- deprivation index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyChristoph (2010): study DE 2007
TitleThe Relation between Life Satisfaction and the Material Situation: A Re-Evaluation using Alternative Measures.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 475 - 499
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9552-4
PublicWorking aged, general public, Germany, 2007/2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response69.5%
Respondents N =9408

Correlate
Author's labelDebt (in 10,000 Euro)
Page in Source 493
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Item asking respondents for categorized information
Observed distributionM=1.5
Remarks
Values in each category were replaced

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRC=-.04 p < .001
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRCs=-.08 p < .001
OLRC-S and OLRC controlled for:
- household income
- savings
- East Germany (dummy)
- nationality
- gender
- age
- marital status
- education
- health
- employment status
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRC=-.03 p < .05
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRCs=-.05 p < .05
OLRC-S and OLRC additionally controlled for:
- deprivation index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyHochman & Skopek (2013): study DE 2006
TitleThe Impact of Wealth on Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of Three Welfare-State Regimes.
SourceResearch in Social Stratification and Mobility, 2013, Vol. 34, 127 - 141
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562413000280
Public50+ aged general public, Germany, 2006
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2390

Correlate
Author's labelDebts
Page in Source 7
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Household debts in log Euro PPP. 
Operationalization 'debt' not reported
Observed distributionM = 13

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=+.00 ns
Beta controlled for:
  - gender
  - household size
  - age
   -migrant status
  - married
  - education
  - child
  - employed, unemployed,
  - homemaker
  - health
  - income
  - wealth controlled for debts
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=+.00 ns
Beta additionally controled for:
- subjective economic hardship


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyGray (2014): study DE 2002
TitleFinancial Concerns and Overall Life Satisfaction: A Joint Modelling Approach.
SourceSheffield Economic Research Paper Series, 2014, No. 2014008
URLhttps://www.sheffield.ac.uk/economics/research/serps/articles/2014_008
PublicHeads of households, Germany, 2002, 2007
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =7712

Correlate
Author's labelDebt
Page in Source 25,27
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
A: Total Debt
B: Secured debt
C: Unsecured debt

Self report on 2 questions.
B: "If you still have a loan taken out on your 
house/apartment, how high is the remaining debt 
(excluding interests)?"
C: " Leaving aside any mortgages on house or property 
or house-building loan: Do you currently still owe 
money on loans that you personally  were granted by a 
bank, other organization, or private individual, and 
for which you personally are liable? How high are your 
outstanding debts?
A: B+C
Observed distributionA: M = 35,989 SD = 136,960; B: M = 33,072 SD = 123,073; C: M = 5,586 SD = 57,018
Remarks
All financial variables are inflated to the 2007 price 
levels

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.01 ns
FIXED EFFECTS analysis

Total debt
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.02 p < .01
Unsecured debt
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.00 ns
Secured debt
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.00 ns
BIVARIATE analysis (Joint modelling of Life 
satisfaction and Financial concerns)

Total debt
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.00 ns
Unsecured debt
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.00 ns
Secured debt

OPRCs controlled for:
- financial sitiation
  - financial concerns
  - total assets
  - household income
  - net wealth
- social situation
  - marital status
  - household size
  - employment
  - education
- age
- health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study DE 2002
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9958

Correlate
Author's labelNet worth
Page in Source 10,16
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Estimates based on responses to detailed questions on 
assets and debts. Household networth is assets minus 
debts. The natural logarithm is used since wealth is 
highly skewed towards the top end

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.19
Only reported in original Discuusion paper
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.48 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.12 p < .001
B and Beta controlled for
- gender
- age
- education
- income (equivalized)
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelInvestment behavior
Page in Source 39
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Self-report on multiple questions:
A: "Do you own stocks or bonds?"
B: "Do you have savings accounts?"
C: "Do you have operating assets?"
D: "Do you have life insurance?"

Rated as:
1: Yes
0: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.95
STANDARD OLS

Owning stocks or bonds
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03
Owning saving accounts
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.11
Owning operating assets
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.08
Owning private life insurance contracts
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-11
INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLE REGRESSION

Owning stocks and bonds
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.38
Owning saving accounts
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+10
Owning operating assets
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.69
Owning private life insurance contracts

Instrument for happiness:
- regional yearly cloud cover average

Bs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - health status
  - income
  - number of children
  - household size
  - age
  - race
- state
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study HU 1996
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3055

Correlate
Author's labelNet worth (ln)
Page in Source 10,16
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Estimates based on responses to detailed questions on 
assets and debts. Household networth is assets minus 
debts. The natural logarithm is used since wealth is 
highly skewed towards the top end

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fr=+.14
Only reported in original Discuusion paper
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fb=+.32 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fBeta=+.06 p < .001
B and Beta controlled for
- gender
- age
- partnered
- education
- income (equivalized)
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyHochman & Skopek (2013): study IL 2006 /1
TitleThe Impact of Wealth on Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of Three Welfare-State Regimes.
SourceResearch in Social Stratification and Mobility, 2013, Vol. 34, 127 - 141
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562413000280
Public50+ aged, general public, Israel, 2006
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1849

Correlate
Author's labelDebts
Page in Source 7
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Household debts in log Euro PPP
Operationalization ' debt' not reported
Observed distributionM = 13

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=-.01 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
-gender
-household size
-age
-migrant status
-married
-education
-child
-employed, unemployed
-homemaker
-health
-income
-wealth controlled for debts
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=-.01 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
-subjective economic hardship


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyBecchetti & Pisani (2014): study IT 2010
TitleFamily Economic Well-Being, and (Class) Relative Wealth: An Emperical Analysis of Life Satisfaction of Secundary School Students in Three Italian Cities.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 503 -525
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9433-z
Public17-18 aged , secondary school students, Italy, 2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2124

Correlate
Author's labelMortgage
Page in Source Table 1 - Table 5
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Selfreport on whether your parents has a mortgage:
1. yes
0. no
Observed distributionM = .35; SD = .48

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.32 p < .05
TYPE OF SCHOOL FIXED EFFECT

OLRC controlled for:
 -single parent
 -repeated at least one school year
 -residence location
 -gender
-Household economic condition
 -houseownership
 -current account
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.31 p < .05
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-School performance
 -final grade in Italian
 -final grade in maths
 -final grade at middle school
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.31 p < .05
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-parental jobs
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.28 p < .05
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-Relationship
 -trust in family
 -friends

With SCHOOL FIXED EFFECTS and CLASS FIXED EFFECT, 
the results are nearly the same.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudySabatini (2011): study IT 2008
TitleCan a Click buy a Little Happiness? The Impact of Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce on Subjective Well-Being.
SourceMPRA Paper no. 32393, 2011, München, Germany
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/eei/rpaper/eeri_rp_2011_12.html
PublicGeneral public, Italy, 2008
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4130

Correlate
Author's labelMortgage loan
Page in Source Table 1 & Table 2
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Full question was not reported
Observed distributiona: M = .15; SD = .36

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.01 ns
B controlled for:
-E-shopping
-Social background
 -Gender
 -Marital status
 -Age
 -Health condition
 -Education 
-Income position
 -Ownership of the house of residence
 -Household income
 -Work status
-Neighbourhood 
 -CO2 emissions
 -Public parks and gardens
 -Environmental crimes
 -Social assistance
 -Cultural supply
 -Micro-criminality
 -Dirtiness of the local area
 -Regional poverty
 -Noise in the local area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyNiimi (2018): study JP 2013
TitleWhat Affects Happiness Inequality? Evidence from Japan.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2018, Vol. 19, 521 - 543
URLhttps://doi .org/l 0.1007 /s10902-016-9835-9
Public20-69 aged, general public, Japan, 2013
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3257

Correlate
Author's labelHas loans
Page in Source 534-535,541
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
1 Has loan
0 Has no loan
Remarks
Question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
D-LS-c-sq-n--ab-rif=+.69 p < .01
b-rif controlled for:
- age
- gender
- marital status
- has child(ren)
- education
- household size
- poor health
- household income
- homeownership
- unemployed
- not in labor force
- altruistic
- risk lover
- low time preference
- major city
D-LS-c-sq-n--ab-rif=+.68 p < .01
b-rif additionally controlled for:
- irregular job
- likely unemployed
- public pension
D-LS-c-sq-n--ab-rif=+.59 p < .01
b-rif additionally controlled for:
- relatively poor
- relatively rich


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyHochman & Skopek (2013): study SE 2006
TitleThe Impact of Wealth on Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of Three Welfare-State Regimes.
SourceResearch in Social Stratification and Mobility, 2013, Vol. 34, 127 - 141
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562413000280
Public50+ aged general public, Sweden, 2006
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2572

Correlate
Author's labelDebts
Page in Source 7
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Household debts in log Euro PPP.
Operationalization ' debt'  not reported.
Observed distributionM = 37

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=.0 ns
Beta controlled for:
-gender
-household size
-age
-migrant status
-married
-education
-child
-employed, unemployed,
-homemaker
-health
-income
-wealth controlled for debts
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cBeta=.0 ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
-subjective economic hardship


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyGray et al. (2008a): study TH Thailand North 2005
TitleThe Determinants of Happiness among Thai People: Some Evidence from Chai Nat and Kanchanaburi
SourceThammasat Economic Journal, 2008, Vol. 26, 72 - 86
URLhttp://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.514.214&rep=rep1&type=pdf
PublicAdults, aged >=20, Thailand
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5360

Correlate
Author's labelDebt
Page in Source 81,82
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
3 Yes, a very big burden(reference)
2 Yes, a burden to some extent
1 Yes, but not a burden at all
0 None
Remarks
Question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-eb=+ p < .001
Chainat
                               b    p<.
Yes, a very big burden(ref.)
Yes, a burden to some extent +0.33  05
Yes, but not a burden at all +0.40  05
None                         +0.62  001
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-eb=+ p < .001
Kanchanaburi
                               b    p<.
Yes, a very big burden(ref.)
Yes, a burden to some extent +0.72  001
Yes, but not a burden at all +0.91  001
None                         +1.01  001

b's controlled for:
- age
- gender
- marital status
- education
- income
- house ownership
- perceived neighbourhood quality
- sickness last month
- feeling of relative poverty

Results of Model 5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyBorooah (2006): study GB Northern Ireland 2002
TitleWhat Makes People Happy? Some Evidence from Northern Ireland.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 7, 427 - 465
DOIdoi:10.1007/s10902-006-9008-3
PublicAdult general public, Northern Ireland, 2002
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3039

Correlate
Author's labelOwner-occupier: no mortgage and mortgage
Page in Source 440-441
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Having no-mortgages
Having mortgages

Exact operationalization is not reported by the authors

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-cm-sq-v-6-bOLRC=-.10 ns
NO-MORTGAGES
Marginal probability of being happy (z-score): 
2.3% (5.4%)
O-HP-cm-sq-v-6-bOLRC=+.16 ns
MORTGAGES
Marginal probability of being happy (z-score): 
-3.6% (9.1%)

OLRC controled for:
- gender
- age
- income
- marital status
- employment status
- educational attainment
- mortgages
- being a parent
- public sector tenant
- health status
- religion
- redidential area (village/small town/ big town)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study GB 2000
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14101

Correlate
Author's labelNet worth (ln)
Page in Source 10, 16
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Estimates based on responses to detailed questions on 
assets and debts. Household networth is assets minus 
debts. The natural logarithm is used since wealth is 
highly skewed towards the top end

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.13
Only reported in original Discuusion paper
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.53 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.08 p < .001
B and Beta controlled for
- gender
- age
- partnered
- education
- income (equivalized)
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyTay et al. (2017a): study US 2012
TitleDebt and Subjective Well-being: The Other Side of the Income-Happiness Coin
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2017, Vol. 18, 90-3 - 937
URLhttps://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10902-016-9758-5.pdf
DOIdoi: 10.1007/s10902-016-9758-5
Public18+ aged employed collage graduates with Internet access, USA, 201?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2781

Correlate
Author's labelLoans (logged)
Page in Source tables 4 and 5
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Student Loan Amount: was assessed via an open-ended 
numerical entry blank were participants entered in 
their raw dollar loan amount. As the data indicated 
very large kurtosis and skew values, a 
log10-transformation was applied to remove this 
non-normality.
Observed distributionM = 3.42; SD = 1.19

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.13 p < .05
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cBeta=-.05 p < .05
Lavaan structural equation model

Beta controled for:
- gender
- marital status
- employment status
- household income
- financial worry
- financial worry x household income
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Debts

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelHaving debts
Page in Source 100
Our classificationDebts
Operationalization
Single direct question.
1. no debts
2. debts: could pay off
3. debts: could not pay off without
          borrowing.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=±
Data T3.

Happiness level in average ridits (RT).
                no        could     could
                debts     pay       not pay
income:
- <5000         .36       .41       .41  (ns)
- 5000-6999     .52       .58       .49  (05)
- 7000-9999     .57       .55       .51  (ns)
- >10000        .58       .58       .57  (ns)
                (05)      (05)      (05)

Ridit analysis compares distribution in category 
with distribution in total sample. RT above .50 
means relative high level, RT below .50 relative 
low level.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Availability of credit

StudyLundberg & Kristenson (2008): study SE 2006
TitleIs Subjective Status influenced by Psychosocial Factors?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 89, 375 - 390
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9238-3
Public45-69 aged, South-East, Sweden, 2006
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =795

Correlate
Author's labelCash reserve
Page in Source 379,384
Our classificationAvailability of credit
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: If you would need about 
2000 euros on short notice, would you be able to get in 
within a week?
Rated:
1 = yes
0 = no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-arpc=-.24 p < .001
rpc controlled for:
- age 
- sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Availability of credit

StudyBerlin & Kaunitz (2015): study SE 1991
TitleBeyond Income: The Importance for Life Satisfaction of Having Access to a Cash Margin.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2015, Vol. 16, 1557 - 1573
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10902-014-9575-7
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-014-9575-7
Public18-75 aged general public, Sweden, followed 9 years1991, 2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =6406

Correlate
Author's labelHas a cash margin
Page in Source 1565-1566
Our classificationAvailability of credit
Operationalization
1 Has cash margins
0 No cash margins (reference)
Observed distribution1: 92%; 0: 8%
Remarks
Order reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-eD%=+
% has cash margin
- most happy   94%
- medium happy 89% 
- least happy  80%
O-SLC-u-sq-v-5-cb=+.58 p < .000
Cash margins     (vs. no cash margins)
O-SLC-u-sq-v-5-cb-fix=+.52 p < .000
Cash margins     (vs. no cash margins)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-eb=+.33 p < .000
Cash margins     (vs. no cash margins)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-eb-fix=+.31 p < .000
Cash margins     (vs. no cash margins)

b and b-fix controled for:
- income
- sex
- age
- education attainment
- symptom index
- cohabitationg (parent)
- single parent 
- employment status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Availability of credit

StudyBerlin & Kaunitz (2015): study SE 1991
TitleBeyond Income: The Importance for Life Satisfaction of Having Access to a Cash Margin.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2015, Vol. 16, 1557 - 1573
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10902-014-9575-7
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-014-9575-7
Public18-75 aged general public, Sweden, followed 9 years1991, 2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =6406

Correlate
Author's labelSource of cash margin
Page in Source 1565-1566
Our classificationAvailability of credit
Operationalization
If a situation suddenly arose where you had to come 
come up with 10,000 kr, could you manage it? (yes/no) 
If yes, where the cash margin comes from?

1 Own saving (reference)
0 Another source
  a  Loan from family
  b  Loan from friend
  c  Bank loan
  d  Other
Observed distribution1: 72%: 0a: 4%; 0b: 7%; 0c: 7%; 0d: 1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-u-sq-v-5-cb=-.11 ns
Loan from family   (vs. own saving)
O-SLC-u-sq-v-5-cb=-.23 p < .000
Loan from friend   (vs. own saving)
O-SLC-u-sq-v-5-cb=-.33 p < .000
Bank loan          (vs. own saving)
O-SLC-u-sq-v-5-cb=-.11 ns
Other              (vs. own saving)
O-SLC-u-sq-v-5-cb-fix=-.08 ns
Loan from family   (vs. own saving)
O-SLC-u-sq-v-5-cb-fix=-.18 p < .1
Loan from friend   (vs. own saving)
O-SLC-u-sq-v-5-cb-fix=-.34 p < .000
Bank loan          (vs. own saving)
O-SLC-u-sq-v-5-cb-fix=+.11 ns
Other              (vs. own saving)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-eb=-.07 ns
Loan from family   (vs. own saving)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-eb=-.15 p < .000
Loan from friend   (vs. own saving)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-eb=-.14 p < .000
Bank loan          (vs. own saving)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-eb=-.08 ns
Other              (vs. own saving)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-eb-fix=-.16 ns
Loan from family  (vs. own saving)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-eb-fix=-.20 p < .05
Loan from friend   (vs. own saving)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-eb-fix=-.13 ns
Bank loan          (vs. own saving)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-eb-fix=-.12 ns
Other              (vs. own saving)

b and b-fix controled for:
- income
- sex
- age
- education attainment
- symptom index
- cohabitationg (parent)
- single parent 
- emplozment status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mortgage (on home)

StudyHerbers & Mulder (2017): study ZZ Europe 2012
TitleHousing and Subjective Well-Being of Older Adults in Europe.
SourceJournal of Housing and the Built Environment, 2017, Vol. 32, 533 - 558
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10901-016-9526-1
Public50+ aged, general public, 16 European nations, 2012
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =36015

Correlate
Author's labelHousing tenure
Page in Source table 2
Our classificationMortgage (on home)
Operationalization
a Homeowner (reference)
b Homeowner with mortgage
c Homeowner, mortgage status unknown
d Renter
e Other tenure

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cb=-.17 p < .01
homeowner with mortgage            (vs. homeowner 
without mortgage)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cb=-.13 p < .05
homeowner, mortgage status unknown (vs. homeowner 
without mortgage)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cb=-.32 p < .01
renter                             (vs. homeowner 
without mortgage
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cb=-.00 ns
other tenure                       (vs. homeowner 
without mortgage (b= -.002)

b's controlled for:
housing situation
  - dwelling size
  - household composition
personal characteristic
  - education level
  - labour-market status
  - skill levels
  - gender
  - age
environment
  - degree of urbanization
  - self-reported health
country


Correlational finding on Happiness and Insurances

StudyCheng et al. (2013): study CN 2011
TitleHousing and Subjective Wellbeing in Urban China.
SourceMonash University, Department of Economics, Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 39, Melbourne, Australia.
PublicAdult, general public, China, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5229

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of social insurance
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationInsurances
Operationalization
Selfreport on number of social insurance schemes 
participated
Observed distributionM = 1.61

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.04 p < .01
B controlled for:
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -gender
 -age
 -schooling
 -marital status
 -household size
 -rural hukou
 -Party member
 -income
-Homeownership
 -homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.04 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
 -homeownership property status
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.05 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
 -property tenure
 -property size
 -number of homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.05 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
 -source of homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.05 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
-Loan
 -home loan
 -type of home loan
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.06 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
-Perceive better local public safety
-Express lower risk aversion
-Expect
 -better economy
 -higher house price
 -higher commodity price
 -higher interest rate


Correlational finding on Happiness and Insurances

StudyCheng et al. (2014a): study CN 2011
TitleHousing Property Rights and Subjective Wellbeing in Urban China.
SourceMonash University Discussion Paper, 2013, No 44, 1 - 24
URLhttp://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1550&context=buspapers
PublicAdults, urban areas, age range not reported, China, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5229

Correlate
Author's labelNo. of social security schemes participated
Page in Source 20-21
Our classificationInsurances
Operationalization
Number of social security schemes participated
Observed distributionM=1,61

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rb=+.04 p < .001
b controlled for:
- age and age squared
- schooling
- married
- household size
- CCP party member
- rural/urban
- income(ln)
- homeownership

b not significantly affected when additionally 
controlled for:
- partial homeownership
- full homeownership
- minor homeownership
- home loan
- full homeownership x home loan
- property tenure
- property size
- no. of partial home ownership properties
- no. of full homeownership properties
- no. of minor homeownership properties
- source of homeownership
- type of home loan
- perceived local public safety
- express lower risk aversion
- expect better economy
- expect higher house price
- expect better commodity price
- expect higher interest rate
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Insurances

StudyAppleton & Song (2008): study CN 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction in Urban China: Components and Determinants.
SourceWorld Development, 2008, Vol. 36, 2325 - 2340
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.04.009
PublicAdults, general public, urban areas, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6977

Correlate
Author's labelMedical insurance coverage
Page in Source 2553
Our classificationInsurances
Operationalization
Self-report:
a) Medical insurance-serious illness coverage
b) Self-paid medical insurance
c) No medical insurance
d) Other medical insurance
e) Medical treatment covered by the state agents 
(reference)
Observed distributiona) 36%, b) 2%, c) 30%, d) 4%, e) 28%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nOPRC=-.09 p < .01
MEDICAL INSUREANCE-SERIOUS ILLNESS COVERAGE (vs 
covered by state agents)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nOPRC=-.13 ns
SELF-PAID MEDICAL INSURANCE (vs covered by state 
agents)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nOPRC=-.25 p < .01
NO MEDICAL INSURANCE (vs covered by state agents)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nOPRC=+.17 p < .05
OTHER MEDICAL INSURANCE (vs covered by state 
agents)

OPRC's controlled for:
- Fall in household income
- Household income
- Age (squared)
- Gender
- Unemployed
- Sociability
- Marital status
- Belief in religious tolerance
- Dependent relatives
- Health
- Political factors
- Occupation type
- Hukou location
- Province


Correlational finding on Happiness and Insurances

StudyPontarollo et al. (2018): study EC 2015
TitleThe Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in A Developing Country: The Ecuadorian Case.
SourceJCR Report, 2018, Nr. 109319, European Commission, Luxembourg
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ipt/iptwpa/jrc109319.html
DOIdoi: 10.2760/858865
PublicAdults, Ecuador, 2015
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21265

Correlate
Author's labelHealth insurance
Page in Source 8,12
Our classificationInsurances
Operationalization
1 Has health insurance
0 No health insurance
Observed distributionHas health insurance: 31%; SD= .46
Error Estimatesb and OLRC: SE=.03
Remarks
Details measure not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-nb=
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-nOLRC=
b and OLRC controlled for:
Aggregate variables:
- regional economy dependent on oil production
- VGA pc (log regional income)
- income inequality
- natural hazard risk
- urban/rural area
Individual variables:
- urban/rural
- gender
- age and age squared
- marital status
- importance of religion
- leisure time
- institutional trust
- indigenous
- education
- employed
- socio-economic status
- walls in good condition
- internet access
- home-owner
- household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Insurances

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelInvestment behavior
Page in Source 39
Our classificationInsurances
Operationalization
Self-report on multiple questions:
A: "Do you own stocks or bonds?"
B: "Do you have savings accounts?"
C: "Do you have operating assets?"
D: "Do you have life insurance?"

Rated as:
1: Yes
0: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.95
STANDARD OLS

Owning stocks or bonds
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03
Owning saving accounts
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.11
Owning operating assets
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.08
Owning private life insurance contracts
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-11
INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLE REGRESSION

Owning stocks and bonds
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.38
Owning saving accounts
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+10
Owning operating assets
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.69
Owning private life insurance contracts

Instrument for happiness:
- regional yearly cloud cover average

Bs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - health status
  - income
  - number of children
  - household size
  - age
  - race
- state
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Insurances

StudyNiimi (2018): study JP 2013
TitleWhat Affects Happiness Inequality? Evidence from Japan.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2018, Vol. 19, 521 - 543
URLhttps://doi .org/l 0.1007 /s10902-016-9835-9
Public20-69 aged, general public, Japan, 2013
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3257

Correlate
Author's labelPublic pensions
Page in Source 534-535,542
Our classificationInsurances
Operationalization
Public pension as a % of hh income???? Ask author
1   0-10%
2   10-20%
3   20-30%
4   30-40%
5   40-50%
6   50-60%
7   60-70%
8   70-80%
9   80-90%
10 >=90%
Remarks
Question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
D-LS-c-sq-n--ab-rif=-.01 p < .05
b-rif controlled for:
- age
- gender
- marital status
- has child(ren)
- education
- household size
- poor health
- household income
- homeownership
- has loans
- not in labor force
- unemployed
- risk lover
- low time preference
- irregular job
- likely unemployed future
- major city

b-rif not significantly affected when additionally 
controlled for:
- relatively poor
- relatively rich


Correlational finding on Happiness and Insurances

StudyGraham (2008): study ZZ Latin America 2004
TitleHappiness and Health: Lessons-And Questions-For Public Policy.
SourceHealth Affairs, 2008, Vol. 27, 72 - 87
DOIDOI:10.1377/hlthaff.27.1.72
Public18+ aged, general public, Latin America, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =19605

Correlate
Author's labelHealth insurance
Page in Source 83
Our classificationInsurances
Operationalization
Posses public or private health insurance
1: Yes
0: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.12
OLRC controlled for:
- country
- age
- gender
- marrital status
- wealth index
- education
- employement status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Insurances

StudyKeng & Wu (2014): study TW 1989
TitleLiving Happily Ever After? The Effect of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on the Happiness of the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 583 - 808
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9449-4
PublicElderly, Taiwan, folowed 14 years 1989-2003, before and after change health insurance law in 1995
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response<10%
Respondents N =4049

Correlate
Author's labelNational Health Insurance in 1995
Page in Source 787-788,793-798
Our classificationInsurances
Operationalization
1 : Insured NHI bofore 1995
0 : Not insured NHI before 1995
Remarks
Assessed at:: T0: 1989, T1: 1993, T2: 1995, T3: 1999

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aDM=+ p < .01
LEVEL of happiness before change of law in 1995
Insured:     M=1.54
Not insured: M=1.20
-  difference= +.34
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bDM=+ p < .01
Insured:     M=1.23
Not insured: M=0.94
-  difference= +.29
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-ab=+.14 p < .10
CHANGE average happiness after change of law among 
initially uninsured
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bb= ns
B's controlled for
- change happiness of originally insured
- socio-demographic background
  - age
  - education
  - marital status
- health
  - illness
  - health behavior
- ethnicity 

Most gain in happiness among the initially least 
healthy uninsured

Similar across
- gender
- education
- income
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aOPRC=-.02 ns
LEVEL of happiness before change of law in 1995
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bOPRC=-.05 ns
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aOPRC=+.26 p < .05
LEVEL of happiness after change of law in 1995
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.30 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- Age
- Social background
  - sexe
  - education
  - income
  - marital status
  - origin
    - native
    - mainland
- possessions
  - house
  - stock
- health history, ever had..
  - asthma
  - stroke
  - heart
  - disbetes
- life style
  - drinks
  - smokes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Insurances

StudyFerre (2008): study UY 2007
TitleQuality of Life in Montevideo.
SourceWorking Paper: #R-561, i.o.o. Inter American Development Bank, 2008, Washington D.C., USA
URLhttp://www.iadb.org/research/pub_desc.cfm?language=English&PUB_ID=R-561
Public18+ aged, general public, Montevideo, Uruguay, 2007
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response35.1 %
Respondents N =801

Correlate
Author's labelAccess to private health care
Page in Source 18, 47
Our classificationInsurances
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
Full text not reported.
1 Yes
2 No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fb=.001 ns
B controlled for:
PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS:
- age
- gender
- partner
- family size
- years education
- body mass index
- sociable
- workaholic
- practice sports
- hours of leisure
- work hours (workers only)
- work hours quadratic (workers only)
- monthly home income
NEIGHBORHOOD
- distance to Promenade
- rooms
- bathrooms
- walls not in good condition
- roof not in good condition
- floor not in good condition
- kitchen exclusive for household
- access to running water system
- access to sewerage
- access to draining pipe
- sidewalks in OK concdition
- public street lighting
- many trees in block
- vandalism in neighborhood
- gangs in  neighborhood
- garbage problems in neighborhood
- pollution in neighborhood
SATISFACTION WITH LOCAL FACILITIES
- satisfaction with public parks and green areas
- satisfaction with public transportation
- satisfaction with public sports infrastructure
- high medium and high stratum area
- other areas

Workers: B= +.01
Nonworkers: B= -.12


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyBecchetti & Conzo (2010): study AR Buenos Aires 2009
TitleMicrofinance and Happiness.
SourceUniverstiy of Rome ''tor Vergata'', Working Paper, 2010, No. 69
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/ris/aiccon/2010_069.html
Public18+ aged, low income households, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =360

Correlate
Author's labelSavings
Page in Source 23,24
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
Montly savings in pesos
Remarks
The sample was composed of:
150 clients of a microfinance organization
150 eligible, but non clients
60 dropouts (past clients of microfinance organization)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.00 ns
B and OPRC controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - village
  - education
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size

No significant change when B and OPRC additionally 
controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present)
- microfinance loan (present or past)
- credit cycle


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyBrown & Gray (2014): study AU 2002
TitleHousehold Finances and Well-Being: An Empirical Analysis of Comparison Effects.
SourceSERPS, 2014, No. 2014015, 1 - 39, Sheffield, UK.
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp8530.pdf
Public16-93 aged general public, Australia, 2002, 2006, 2010
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =27530

Correlate
Author's labelLn(Total Assets)
Page in Source 7 + 29
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
monetary  total level of assets
= the summation of the household’s financial and 
tangible assets
Observed distributionM = 12.765, SD = 1.861

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.06 p < .000
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.07 p < .000
Beta-fix calculated by the WDH team

b-fix and Beta-fix controled for:
- income
- ln(total debt)
- age
- educational attainment
- ln(household size)
- marital status
- employment status
- self-reported health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyNidup et al. (2018): study BT 2012
TitleImproving Well-Being in Bhutan: A Pursuit of Happiness or Poverty Reduction?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2018, Vol. 140, 79 - 100
URLhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-017-1775-1
PublicAdults, age range not rpeorted, Bhutan, 2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response11,5%
Respondents N =8847

Correlate
Author's labelSavings account
Page in Source 85-88,93
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
Any member of household has savings account:
1 Yes
0 No
Error EstimatesS.E.=.0322
Remarks
Question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-fOPRC=+.11 p < .01
OPRC controlled for:
- Income poverty
- Self-perceived poverty
- Poverty index
- Household size
- Nationality of hh head
- Dependent hh members
- Number of rooms in house
- Literacy
- Education
- Unemployed
- Marital status
- Member of farmers cooperative
- Trust in neighbours
- Believe in local deity
- Togetherness
- House ownership 
- Urban (lives in city)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyAbbott et al. (2016): study CN 2012
TitleThe Quality of Society and Life Satisfaction in China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2016, Vol. 127, 653 - 670
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-015-0989-3
DOIdoi:10.1007/sl 1205-015-0989-3
Public18-75 aged, general public, China, 2012-13
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelSave money
Page in Source 660, 663
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
1 saves money
0 spends savings/spends all income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aV= p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
Beta controled for:
- Socio-economic security
  - income
- Social cohesion
  - most people can be trusted
  - would people take advantage (or try to be 
fair)
  - civil society confidence
  - media confidence
  - government institutions confidence
  - trust: your family
  - trust: your neighbourhood
  - trust: people you know personally
- Social inclusion
  - married
  - part of chinese nation
  - part of local community
- Social empowerment
  - education
  - state of subjective health
  - freedom of choice and control over life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2009): study CN 2003
TitleIncome, Aspirations and the hedonic Treadmill in a poor Society.
SourceDepartment of Economic Discussion Paper Series ref. 468, 2009, Unversity of Oxford, Uk
URLhttp://www.economics.ox.ac.uk/materials/working_papers/paper468.pdf
PublicAdult general public, rural areas, China, 2003
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9500

Correlate
Author's labelNet financial assets (1000 Yuan)
Page in Source 27-28
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
Not reported
Observed distributionM = 5.52

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-eb=+.00 p < .05
b (+0.001798) controlled for:
- income
- age
- gender
- marital status
- ethnic minority dummy
- education
- working hours
- self-reported health status
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-eb=+.00 p < .05
b (+0.001576) additionally controlled for:
- minimum income needed
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-eb=+.00 p < .10
b (+0.001384) additionally controlled for:
- lived outside township
- expect big (small) income increase
- agreement that money is important
- Household income much above village average
- Household income above village average 
- Household income below village average 
- Household income much below village average 
- Living standards better than 5 years ago
- Living standards worse than 5 years ago


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged rural-urban migrants, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1930

Correlate
Author's labelNet financial assets
Page in Source 116
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
Total financial assets:
Amount at the end of 2002:
.. (Yuan)
Observed distributionM=16.51

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.00 ns
B controlled for:
- Future income expectations
- Gender
- Marital Status
- Interaction gender*marital status
- Education
- Household income
- Unemployment
- Working hours
- Health
- Duration of urban residence
- Regional income
- Living with family members
- Remittances
- Area of house
- Living in own house
- Heating
- Child left behind
- Number of friends/relatives in city


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2014a): study CN 2002
TitleMemory and Anticipation: New Empirical Support for an Old Theory of the Utility Function.
SourceOxford Department of Economics Discussion Paper Series, 2014, Nr. 721, UK
URLhttp://www.econbiz.de/Record/memory-and-anticipation-new-empirical-support-for-an-old-theory-of-the-utility-function-knight-john/10010402988
PublicAdult general public, rural areas, China, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9500

Correlate
Author's labelLog of financial assets
Page in Source 25-29
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
Not reported
Observed distributionM = 1.04

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ib=+.05 p < .000
b controled for:
- Economic variables
  - income
  - debt
  - working hours
- Conditioning variables
  - age (squared)
  - gender
  - marital status
  - education
  - mood
  - health
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ib=+.05 p < .000
b additionally controled for:
- Relative income to village
- Expected income next 5 years
- Perception of income 5 years ago
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ib=+.07 p < .000
b controled for:
- Economic variables
  - household consumption
  - debt
  - working hours
Conditioning variables (as above)
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ib=+05 p < .001
b addionally controled for:
- Relative income to village
- Expected income in the next 5 years 
- Perception of past income variables

b unaffected by additional control for:
- province (dummies)
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ib-iv=+.06 p < .001
b-iv(+0,057) when instrumented for:
- expected future income change
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ib-iv=+.05 p < .001
b-iv (+0,048) when instrumented for:
- perceived past income change

b-iv's controled for
- log real per capita household income
- log of household debts
- working hours per year
- relative household income in village


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyGökdemir (2014): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2011
TitleFactors that Influence the Life Satisfaction of Women Living in the Northern Cyprus.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 115, 1071 - 1085
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0265-3#page-1
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-013-0265-3
Public18+ aged women, Northern Cyprus, 2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelFinancial status
Page in Source 1077,1082
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
Question asked is the following: Which one decribes 
your financial status in preceding year?:
1. I got into debt
2. I didn't get into debt but I used my savings 
accounts as money.
3. I didn't get into debt, I didn't use my savings 
accounts as money but I couldn't save money.
4. I saved money.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acBeta=+.26
Beta controled for:
- religion
- health
- education
- marital status
- age
- household income
- social reference income
- paricipation in household expenditure
- being a victim domestic violence
- witnessing domestic violence
- gender discrimination
- employment
- housewife
- perception of government performance
- political preference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyChristoph (2010): study DE 2007 /1
TitleThe Relation between Life Satisfaction and the Material Situation: A Re-Evaluation using Alternative Measures.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 475 - 499
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9552-4
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2007
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11424

Correlate
Author's labelSavings (in 10,000 Euro)
Page in Source 492
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
Real estate (incl. loans), investments (e.g. stocks) 
and savings, insurances (e.g. life or private pension 
insurance), business property, private possessions 
(e.g. jewelry, art etc.) and consumer credits.
Observed distributionM=9.2
Remarks
Wealth indicator on the household level was transformed 
into available wealth 'per capita' before being logged

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRCs=+.14 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.06 p < .001
OLRC-S and OLRC controlled for:
- household income
- debt
- East Germany (dummy)
- nationality
- gender
- age
- marital status
- education
- health
- employment status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRCs=+.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.04 p < .001
OLRC-S and OLRC additionally controled for:
- deprivation index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyChristoph (2010): study DE 2007
TitleThe Relation between Life Satisfaction and the Material Situation: A Re-Evaluation using Alternative Measures.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 475 - 499
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9552-4
PublicWorking aged, general public, Germany, 2007/2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response69.5%
Respondents N =9408

Correlate
Author's labelSavings (in 10,000 Euro)
Page in Source 493
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
Item asking respondents for categorized information
Observed distributionM=1.5
Remarks
Values in each categorie were replaced by the mean (ln) 
of each category

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRCs=+.22 p < .001
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRC=+.13 p < .001
OLRC-S and OLRC controlled for:
- household income
- debt
- East Germany (dummy)
- nationality
- gender
- age
- marital status
- education
- health
- employment status
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRCs=+.08 p < .05
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gOLRC=+.05 p < .05
OLRC-S and OLRC additionally controlled for:
- deprivation index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelLn (household savings)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
in Euros
Observed distributionM = 368,95 SD = 823,084

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03 p < .01
PROBIT ADAPTED OLS.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.12
Beta computed by WDH team
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.02 p < .01
b-fix random
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.08
Beta-fix computed by WDH team

b, Beta, b-fix and Beta-fix controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - income
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
- personality traits
- accomodation
- absolute lack of
  - facilities (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables   (car, telephone, etc)
  - health     (bad health, disabled etc)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.12
Beta calculated by WDH team
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.02 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.08
Beta-fix calculated by WDH team

b, Beta, b-fix and Beta fix additionally controled 
for:
- absolute lack of 
  - social life
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.12
Beta computed by WDH team
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.12
Beta calculated by WDH team
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.0 p < .01
b-fix random
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.12
Beta-fix calculated by WDH team

b, Beta, b-fix abd Beta fix controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- absolute lack
- relative lack

Random effects. Fixed effects: b = +.021 (.01)
Beta-fix = +.08 (calculated by the WDH team)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.12
Beta calculated by WDH team
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.02 p < .01
b-fix random effects
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.07
Beta-fix calculated by WDH team

b, Beta, b-fix and Beta-fix additionally controled 
for
- social life (absolute and relative lack of)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.08
Beta-fix calculated by WDH team

b, Beta, b-fix and Beta-fix additionally 
controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyObucina (2013): study DE 1994
TitleThe Patterns of Satisfaction Among Immigrants in Germany
Source Social Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 113, 1105 - 1127.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-012-0130-9
Public18-65 aged general public, Germany, followed 16 years, 1994-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =209989

Correlate
Author's labelSavings
Page in Source 1116
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Do you usually have an amount of money left over at the 
end of the month that you can save for larger 
purchases, emergency expenses or to acquire wealth? If 
yes, how much?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.23 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Relative deprivation
- Household income
- Household composition
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Education
- Country of birth
- Employment status
- Living in West- vs East-Germany
- House ownership
- Health
- Year controls


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelInvestment behavior
Page in Source 39
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
Self-report on multiple questions:
A: "Do you own stocks or bonds?"
B: "Do you have savings accounts?"
C: "Do you have operating assets?"
D: "Do you have life insurance?"

Rated as:
1: Yes
0: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.95
STANDARD OLS

Owning stocks or bonds
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03
Owning saving accounts
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.11
Owning operating assets
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.08
Owning private life insurance contracts
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-11
INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLE REGRESSION

Owning stocks and bonds
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.38
Owning saving accounts
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+10
Owning operating assets
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.69
Owning private life insurance contracts

Instrument for happiness:
- regional yearly cloud cover average

Bs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - health status
  - income
  - number of children
  - household size
  - age
  - race
- state
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyHowell et al. (2006): study MY 2003
TitleDoes Wealth Enhance Life Satisfaction for People Who Are Materially Deprived? Exploring the Association among the 'Orang Asli' of Peninsular Malaysia.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 76, 499 - 524
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-3107-0
PublicHeads of households, Malaysia, 2003
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response4,6%
Respondents N =307

Correlate
Author's labelLog of savings
Page in Source 508
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
Self-reported estimate of money saved in a bank or 
elsewhere. Due to the skewed nature of the savings 
responses log-values were used.
Observed distributionM=1,61 SD=1,28

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-br=+.16 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyBecchetti et al. (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006
TitleInside the Life Satisfaction Blackbox.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.2, 1 - 36
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2198303
Public50+ aged, general public, Europe, 2006,2007
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30325000

Correlate
Author's labelLeaving inheritance
Page in Source 18, 14, 17, 9
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
Respondents answer to the question: including property 
and other valuables, what are the chances that you or 
your husband/wife/partner will leave an inheritance 
totalling 50.000 eur or more?
Answer range from 0 to 100 %.
Observed distributionM = 0.58, SD = 0.43; N = 31428.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.32 p < .01
b controlled for:
- gender
- years of education
- household size
- number of children
- number of grandchildren
- marital status
- age
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyBerlin & Kaunitz (2015): study SE 1991
TitleBeyond Income: The Importance for Life Satisfaction of Having Access to a Cash Margin.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2015, Vol. 16, 1557 - 1573
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10902-014-9575-7
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-014-9575-7
Public18-75 aged general public, Sweden, followed 9 years1991, 2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =6406

Correlate
Author's labelHas a cash margin
Page in Source 1565-1566
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
1 Has cash margins
0 No cash margins (reference)
Observed distribution1: 92%; 0: 8%
Remarks
Order reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-eD%=+
% has cash margin
- most happy   94%
- medium happy 89% 
- least happy  80%
O-SLC-u-sq-v-5-cb=+.58 p < .000
Cash margins     (vs. no cash margins)
O-SLC-u-sq-v-5-cb-fix=+.52 p < .000
Cash margins     (vs. no cash margins)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-eb=+.33 p < .000
Cash margins     (vs. no cash margins)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-eb-fix=+.31 p < .000
Cash margins     (vs. no cash margins)

b and b-fix controled for:
- income
- sex
- age
- education attainment
- symptom index
- cohabitationg (parent)
- single parent 
- employment status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Savings

StudyGökdemir (2015): study TR 2010
TitleConsumption, Savings and Life Satisfaction: the Turkish Case
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 183 - 196
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0227-y
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response4.79%
Respondents N =955

Correlate
Author's labelSaving
Page in Source Table 4, 5, 6
Our classificationSavings
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions:
At the end of a typical month, does your household have 
anything left over to put into savings? Approximately 
how much does your household save in a typical month?
Remarks
Expressed in natural logarithm (ln)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbb=+.09 p < .01
ALL
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbb=+.05 ns
FEMALES
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbb=+.12 p < .05
MALES

B's controlled for:
-Age
-Household size
-Gender (just for the whole sample)
-Health
-Education
-Income ladder
-Marital status
-Employment status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbb=+.10 p < .05
AGE 18-30
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbb=+.08 ns
AGE 31-50
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbb=+.08 ns
AGE 51 OR OVER

B's controlled for:
-Household size
-Gender (just for the whole sample)
-Health
-Education
-Income ladder
-Marital status
-Employment status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbb=+.11 p < .01
INCOME LADDER 1-5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbb=+.09 ns
INCOME LADDER 6-10

B's controlled for:
-Age
-Household size
-Gender (just for the whole sample)
-Health
-Education
-Marital status
-Employment status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Bank account

StudyBecchetti & Pisani (2014): study IT 2010
TitleFamily Economic Well-Being, and (Class) Relative Wealth: An Emperical Analysis of Life Satisfaction of Secundary School Students in Three Italian Cities.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 503 -525
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9433-z
Public17-18 aged , secondary school students, Italy, 2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2124

Correlate
Author's labelBank account
Page in Source Table 1 - Table 5
Our classificationBank account
Operationalization
Selfreport on whether you has a current account:
1. yes
0. no
Observed distributionM = .30; SD = .46

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.22 ns
TYPE OF SCHOOL FIXED EFFECT

OLRC controlled for:
 -single parent
 -repeated at least one school year
 -residence location
 -gender
-Household economic condition
 -houseownership
 -mortgage
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.23 ns
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-School performance
 -final grade in Italian
 -final grade in maths
 -final grade at middle school
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.21 ns
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-parental jobs
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.22 ns
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-Relationship
 -trust in family
 -friends

With SCHOOL FIXED EFFECTS and CLASS FIXED EFFECT, 
the results are nearly the same.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Liquidity

StudyLundberg & Kristenson (2008): study SE 2006
TitleIs Subjective Status influenced by Psychosocial Factors?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 89, 375 - 390
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9238-3
Public45-69 aged, South-East, Sweden, 2006
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =795

Correlate
Author's labelCash reserve
Page in Source 379,384
Our classificationLiquidity
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: If you would need about 
2000 euros on short notice, would you be able to get in 
within a week?
Rated:
1 = yes
0 = no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-arpc=-.24 p < .001
rpc controlled for:
- age 
- sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's possessions

StudyPanas (2013): study GR 2009
TitleHomeorhesis and Indication of Association Between Different Types of Capital on Life Satisfaction: The Case of Greeks Under Crisis.
SourceSocial lndicators Research, 2013, Vol. 110, 171 - 186
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-011-9922-6
Public18+ aged general public Greece, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1216

Correlate
Author's labelBuilt Capital
Page in Source 180
Our classificationAttitudes to one's possessions
Operationalization
To what extent do you think that you own or rent (e.g. 
home, car) contribute to your life satisfaction?
1 extremely dissatisfied
..
5 extremely satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cars=+.18 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's possessions

StudyPanas (2013): study GR 2009
TitleHomeorhesis and Indication of Association Between Different Types of Capital on Life Satisfaction: The Case of Greeks Under Crisis.
SourceSocial lndicators Research, 2013, Vol. 110, 171 - 186
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-011-9922-6
Public18+ aged general public Greece, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1216

Correlate
Author's labelFriends and family social capital
Our classificationAttitudes to one's possessions
Operationalization
To what extent do relationships with family and friends 
contribute to your life satisfaction? (FC social 
capital)
1 extremely dissatisfied
..
5 extremely satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cars=+.24 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's possessions

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /2
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, two poor rural villages, Garhwal area, Northern India, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response341
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with amount of land
Page in Source 272
Our classificationAttitudes to one's possessions
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.14 p < .05
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+.17 p < .005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's possessions

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction of material standard of living
Page in Source 277, 279, 284, 290
Our classificationAttitudes to one's possessions
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions on satisfaction with aspects 
of Kibbutz life
- material standard of living- level of housing
- level of consumption
- current economic state
- future economic security

Rated 1 (higest or most positive) to 5 (lowest or least 
positive)
Observed distributionM=3.09, SD=.79
Error Estimates?=.74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+.41 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-arpc=+.14 p < .05
rpc controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.21 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- satisfaction with fit of Kibbutz life to won 
aspirations an abilities
- satisfaction with feeling of "belonging" and "at 
home" in Kibbutz
- satisfaction with work domain
- satisfaction with interpersonal relationships in 
Kibbutz
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.20 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- community values
- collectivistic values
- individualistic values
- gender
- years of formal education
- age
- holding central office during the last five yers
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.14 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psycholoical commitment to one's Kibbutz life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's possessions

StudyWilcke et al. (2007): study NL 2007
TitleHet Geluk van Werkend Nederland 2007. (The Happiness of Working People in the Netherlands in 2007).
SourceProjectpaper K0338, Motivaction i.o.o. Randstad (Temp Agency), 2007, Amsterdam, Netherlands
PublicWorking people, the Netherlands, 2007
SampleSemi-probability sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3164

Correlate
Author's labelA person can become rich by taking risks
Our classificationAttitudes to one's possessions
Operationalization
Selfreport on a single question;
"A person can become rich by taking risks"

Rated on a 4-point scale:
4 Completely agree
3 Agree
2 Don't agree
1 Don't agree at all

Reduced to:
1 Agree
0 Don't agree
Observed distributionCompletely agree: 10%; agree: 66%; don't agree 22%; don't agree at all: 2%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bDM=+0.2
              Mean 
Agree         7,4
Don't agree   7,2
- difference +0,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's possessions

StudyKoralewicz & Zagorski (2009): study PL 2007
TitleLiving Conditions and Optimistic Orientation of Poles.
SourceInternational Journal of Sociology, 2009, Vol. 39, 10 - 44
DOIDOI:10.2753/IJS0020-7659390401
PublicAdults, general public, Poland, 2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with material living conditions
Page in Source 15,19
Our classificationAttitudes to one's possessions
Operationalization
Self report on single question; question not reported:
5 very satisfied
4 rather satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
Observed distribution1: 7,2%, 2: 17,0%, 3: 35,5%, 4: 32,7%, 5: 7,6%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.10 p < .001
Beta controlled for satisfaction 
with:
- friends and acquaintances
- chances for the future
- wife/husband
- health
- housing
- locality of residence
- education
- employment
- income
- children


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's possessions

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of money, wealth and luxury
Our classificationAttitudes to one's possessions
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "money, wealth and luxury"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 5,50 SD: 2,25, Non-exercisers: M: 4,99 SD: 2,51
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.18 p < .09
Exercisers only (N=94)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's possessions

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of money, wealth and luxury
Our classificationAttitudes to one's possessions
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "money, wealth and luxury"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 5,55 SD: 2,26
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.03 p < .67


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's possessions

StudyRees et al. (2012): study GB 2008
TitleThe Good Childhood Report 2012. A Review of Our Children's Well-Being.
SourceResearch Paper, The Children's Society, 2012, Leeds, UK
URLhttp://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/tcs/good_childhood_report_2012_final_0.pdf
PublicChildren 8-15, United Kingdom, 2010
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9485

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness with money and possessions
Page in Source 13,15
Our classificationAttitudes to one's possessions
Operationalization
Happiness with thins (money and possessions) rated on a 
11 point scale 0 very unhappy to 11 very happy.
Observed distributionM=7,5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-n-11-ar=+.52


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's possessions

StudyWarr (1978): study GB 1976
TitleA Study of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceThe British Journal of Psychology, 1978, Vol. 6, 111 - 121
PublicSteel workers, 6 months after closure of plant, Manchester, UK, 1976
Sample
Non-Response9 % (4 % ill, 5 % refused), 13 % not contacted
Respondents N =1655

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety about debts
Page in Source 116
Our classificationAttitudes to one's possessions
Operationalization
Single closed question concerning anxiety about Ss 
financial debs, such as HP,mortgage, etc in the past 
few weeks rated on an 11-point scale from 'not at all' 
to 'a great deal'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-ar=-.23


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's possessions

StudyLee et al. (2002): study US 1997
TitleDeveloping a Subjective Measure of Consumers Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Macromarketing, 2002, Vol. 22, 158 - 169
DOIDOI:10.1177/0276146702238219
Public18+ aged, students, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =298

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with product disposition
Page in Source 164,166
Our classificationAttitudes to one's possessions
Operationalization
Selfreport on 7 questions:

For various reasons, people may be more or less happy 
with te disposability of a product. If you use any of 
the following products, please indicate the extent to 
which you are satisfied/dissatisfied with the product 
class when you dispose of the product or its packkage. 
Respond only to items you use.

a. Food (milk, canned foods, cookies, carbonated 
drinks, etc.)
b. Personal care products (toothpaste, shampoo, 
deodorant, etc.)
c. Cleaning and home maintenance products (detergents, 
window sprays, vacuum bags, air fresheners, paint, 
etc.)
d. Paper products
e. Baby care products (diapers, baby wipes, talcum 
powder, Vaseline, etc.)
f. Automotive products (oil, oil filters,antifreeze, 
car wax, batteries, tires, etc.)
g. Lawn and yard (leaves, grass, dead wood, etc.)

Rated:
1=awful
2=bad
3=unsatisfactory
4=neutral
5=satisfactory
6=good
7=wonderful
0=no opinion, missing value

Composite index is average of 7 formative single 
indicators.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.32 p < .01
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.07 ns
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
- job
- family
- finance
- health
- education
- friendships
- leisure
- neighbors
- community
- spiritual
- taxes
- environment
- political situation
- housing
- cultural life
- social life

Unaffected by additional control for satisfaction 
with:
- acquisitions
- possessions
- consumption
- repair services
- do-it-yourself repairs
(consumer well-being)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's possessions

StudyLee et al. (2002): study US 1997
TitleDeveloping a Subjective Measure of Consumers Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Macromarketing, 2002, Vol. 22, 158 - 169
DOIDOI:10.1177/0276146702238219
Public18+ aged, students, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =298

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with possessions
Page in Source 164
Our classificationAttitudes to one's possessions
Operationalization
Selfreport on 6 questions: 

If you own any of the following items, please indicate 
the extent to which you are satisfied/dissatisied with 
possessing or owning them. 

a. House or condominium
b. Consumer electronis (CD player, TV, VCR, computers, 
etc.)
c. Furniture and/or appliances
d. Private transportation (cars, trucks, 
motorcycles,and bicycles)
e. clothing accessories, and jewelry
f. Savings and investments

Rated:
1=awful
2=bad
3=unsatisfactory
4=neutral
5=satisfactory
6=good
7=wonderful
0=no opinion, missing value

Composite index is average of 6 formative single 
indicators.
Remarks
Interview instructions:
Note that persons might like owning something - a 
classic car or a piece of property - even though thay 
never use it. Or they might be pleased both to own and 
to use the thing. On these items, indicate only how you 
feel about owning the item, not how you feel using or 
consuming it. Respond only to the items you own.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.82 p < .01
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.49 p < .01
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
- job
- family
- finance
- health
- education
- friendships
- leisure
- neighbors
- community
- spiritual
- taxes
- environment
- political situation
- housing
- cultural life
- social life

Unaffected by additional control for satisfaction 
with:
- acquisitions
- consumption
- repair services
- do-it-yourself repairs
- disposition
(consumer well-being)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's possessions

StudyCampbell (1981): study US 1978
TitleThe Sense of Well-Being in America.
SourceMcGraw-Hill, 1981, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-Responseabout 20 %
Respondents N =3692

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with savings
Page in Source 58
Our classificationAttitudes to one's possessions
Operationalization
Single closed question on amount of 
satisfaction with savings, rated on a
7-point scale ranging from completely dissatisfied to 
completely satisfied.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.38


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's possessions

StudyZautra (1975): study US Utah 1970
TitleQuality of Life: The Communication of Satisfaction.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1975, USA
Public18+ aged, men and women, Salt Lake County, USA, 1973-1974
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =454

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic Well-Being
Page in Source 58,67
Our classificationAttitudes to one's possessions
Operationalization
Factors derived from responses on the following 
questions:
a How do you feel about your standard of living …?
b How do you feel about your house or apartment?
c How do you feel about the income you have and your 
family have?
d Positive affect
e How do you feel about yourself, what you are 
accomplishing, and how you handle problems?

Rated
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted
Observed distributionPositvie
Remarks
Factor 12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.34 ns
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.32 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's possessions

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelWorry about debt
Page in Source 102
Our classificationAttitudes to one's possessions
Operationalization
Single direct question
0 No
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=- p < .05
Data T1.
Happiness level in average ridits:
                worry     no worry
income          
< $ 5000        .34       .44 (05)
5000-6999       .41       .51 (05)
> 7000-9999     .44       .52 (05)
> 10000         .53       .57 (05)
                (05)      (05)

Ridit analysis compares distribution in category 
with distribution in total sample RT above .50 
means relative high level, RT below .50 relative 
low level.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's possessions

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations mentioned
Page in Source 210
Our classificationAttitudes to one's possessions
Operationalization
Open-ended direct question on unfulfilled aspirations: 
0: Not mentioned
1: Mentioned

a: Travel, vacation
b: New home, build home, own home
c: Material possessions (cars, coats)
d: Education, follow a talent 
e: Money
f: New job, business of own
g: Move to country, become farmer
h: Marriage, children, husband
Remarks
Computed for those who have unfulfilled aspirations 
only (N = 1646)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.07 ns
a: Travel
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.01 ns
b: Home
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.11 ns
c: Possessions
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.06 ns
d: Education
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.07 ns
e: Money
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.01 ns
f: Job
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.00 ns
g: Country
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.27 p < .05
h: Marriage


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to saving

StudyGuven & Hoxha (2015): study NL 1993
TitleRain or Shine: Happiness and Risk-Taking.
SourceThe Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 2015, Vol. 57, 1 - 10
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/quaeco/v57y2015icp1-10.html
Public16+ aged, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =32000

Correlate
Author's labelRisk taking for money gain
Page in Source 5
Our classificationAttitude to saving
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
"I am prepared to take the risk to lose money, when 
there is also a chance to gain money"
1 Strongly disagree
.
.
7 Strongly agree
Remarks
Details not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab-iv=-.99 p < .01
b and b-iv controlled for:
- age
- gender
- household income
- marital status
- employment status
- number of children
- health
- household size
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=-.12 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to saving

StudyGuven & Hoxha (2015): study NL 1993
TitleRain or Shine: Happiness and Risk-Taking.
SourceThe Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 2015, Vol. 57, 1 - 10
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/quaeco/v57y2015icp1-10.html
Public16+ aged, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =32000

Correlate
Author's labelView on self-control expenditures
Page in Source 5
Our classificationAttitude to saving
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
"Do you find it difficult to control your 
expenditures?"
Remarks
Ratings not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab-iv=-1.7 p < .01
b-iv= -1.71

b and b-iv controlled for:
- age
- gender
- household income
- marital status
- employment status
- number of children
- health
- household size
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=-.29 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to saving

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelInvestment behavior (risk averseness)
Page in Source 39
Our classificationAttitude to saving
Operationalization
Self-report on single question.
"I would never consider investments in shares because I 
find this too risky"
1: totally disagree
.
.
7: totally agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.02
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab-iv=+4.5
Instrument for happiness:
- yearly cloud cover average

Bs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - household size
  - gender
  - health status
  - age
  - number of children
  - schooling
  - income
- province
- year fixed effects


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bSelfreport on 5 questions:

Now think about the past week and the feelings you have experienced. Please tell me if each of the following was true for you much of the time past week. Much of the time ..
A You were happy
B You enjoyed life
C Yoy felt lonely
D You felt depressed
E You felt sad

Rated:
1 yes
0 no

Computation of state: latent variable
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly excited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

"During the past few months, have you ever felt.....
A Particularly excited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G Depressed or very unhappy?
H That things were going your way?
I Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
3 often
2 sometimes
1 never

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -15 to +12
Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

"What percentage of the time would you say you are....?" (Percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Computation: Net Time Happy (NTH) % time happy - % time unhappy
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (10) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (1) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life for you
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. The top of the ladder '10' represents the best possible life for you and the bottom '0' is the worst possible life for you. In general , where on the ladder do you feel you stand at the moment? Tick the box next to the number that best describes where you stand
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Think about the quality of your life at the present time. I would like you to give a rating where 0 represents the worst possible life for you and 10 represents the best possible life for you.
0 worst possible life
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 best possible life
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question:

How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want out of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none
- don't know
D-LS-c-sq-n--aStandard deviation of 0-10 score on single question "overall, how happy would you say you are currently?"
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy

B How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never

C How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want out of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none

Computation not reported: 0 to 6
M-CO-u-mq-n-11-aSelfreport on five questions:

a: My life is going well
b: My life is just right
c: The things in my life are excellent
d: I have a good life
e: I have all I want in life

Rated:
0: strongly disagree
1
2
3
4.
5
6
7
8
9
10 strongly agree

Computation: (a+b+c+d+e)/5
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 5 statements:

A My life is going well
B My life is just right
C I wish I had a different kind of life
D I have a good life
E I have what I want in life

Rated
0 strongly disagree
1
2
3
4 strongly agree

Shortened Huebner's BMSLSS 'Multidimensional Student Life satisfaction Scale'
(Items left out from original scale are: "My life is better than most young people's" and "I would like to change things in my life)
Name SLSS5
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported
Rated on a 7-step pictorial faces scale, presented on a card
(pictures not shown here)
7 smiling face, very happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 frowning face, very unhappy
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question

Currently, how happy are you feeling?
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very unhappy
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

At present, how are you feeling?
10 happiest
9
8
7
6
5 not unhappy happy and not happy
4
3
2
1
0 unhappiest
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

Now I am going to ask you how you FEEL, not just at the moment, but GENERALLY in your life. How happy do you generally feel? On a scale from o to 10...
0 completely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 completely happy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy do you feel?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 so-so
2 not happy
1 not happy at all
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-daSelf-report on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy do you feel?
4 very happy
3 happy
2 so-so
1 not happy
0 not happy at all
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single questions:

"Please tell me how often you have felt this way during the past week...?"
I was happy
0 rarely or none of the time
1 some or a little of the time
2 occasionally or a moderate amount of time
3 most of the time

Item in CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression) Scale
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Please tell me how often you have felt this way during the past week...?
I enjoyed life...
0 rarely or none of the time
1 some or a little of the time
2 occasionally or a moderate amount of time
3 most of the time

Item in CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression) Scale. Score reversed.
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global life satisfaction'
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Here are some words and phrases. We would like you to use these in describing how you feel about your present life..
1 unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 happy

(originally presented horizontally)

Item in Campbell's semantic differential scale
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Next are some questions about how you see yourself and your life. Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days?
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are...?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-caSelfreport on single question:

Would you say your life at the moment is ....?
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 happy
4 very happy
- don't know
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fSelfreport on single question:

If you were to consider your life in general these days, how happy or unhappy would you say you are, on the whole...?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, do you feel happy nowadays?
0 very unhappy
1 unhappy
2 so-so
3 happy
4 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mSelfreport on single question

All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy
- Don't know
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Generally, how happy are you.....?
1 not at all
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 completely

(Originally presented on a horizontal line scale)
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are..?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
- NA/DK
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are.....?
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5 very happy

Labels of other response options not reported
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

How happy are you with life in general?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 so-so
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-fSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy do you consider yourself to be?
5 very happy
4 moderately happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 moderately unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-iSelfreport on single question

In general, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 so-so
4 happy
5 very happy
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together on a scale of one to 10, how happy would you say you are? Here one means you are very unhappy and 10 means you are very happy
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-dSelfreport on single question:

How happy do you consider yourself in an overall perspective?
10 most happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 least happy
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-hSelf report on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are?
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Labels of scale ends not reported

1. Least happy score
2
3
-
-
10. Most happy score
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking everything into consideration: do you consider your self happy or unhappy?
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Verbal labels not reported
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-nSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel regarding all aspects of your life all together?
10 totally happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

Are you happy with your life?
2 yes
1 no
- don't know
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
3 a little unhappy
4 evenly balanced
5 a little happy
6 somewhat happy
7 very happy
O-HP-cm-sq-v-6-bSelfreport on single question:

How did you feel during the last month? . Were you a happy person?
6: all the time
5: most of the time
4: a good bit of the time
3: some of the time
2: a little of the time
1: none of the time

Last item in a series of questions on self and life
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you think of yourself as.......?
3 happy
2 fairly happy
1 unhappy?
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-HV-u-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel how happy you are.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed (about equally satisfied and dissatisfied)
3 mostly
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your overall quality of life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

'......on general estimate of life-satisfaction...'
(full text not reported)
0 entirely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 fully satisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"....... satisfaction with life ....."
(full question not reported)
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 don't know/satisfied
2 don't know/not satisfied
1 disappointed in life
O-SLC-u-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

We have now been trough a lot of questions about your living conditions in different areas. How do you yourself view your own conditions/ By and large how do you think that your situation is?
5 very good
4 rather good
3 neither good nor bad
2 rather bad
1 very bad
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you currently lead?
5 extraordinary satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question

Taking everything together, how happy are you with the way things are going in your life now?
6 completely satisfied
5 pretty much satisfied
4 slightly satisfied
3 slightly dissatisfied
2 pretty much dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"..... satisfaction with life ......"
(full lead item not reported)

Rated on a wooden miniature ladder, handed to the respondent
[ 5 ] very satisfied
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gSelf report on single question:

How satisfying do you find your life at the moment.....?
1 very dissatisfying
2 quite dissatisfying
3 not satisfying not dissatisfying
4 quite satisfying
5 very satisfying
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-eSelfreport on single question:

Do you usually feel tgat your daily life is a source of personal satisfaction?
3 yes
2 most often, yes
1 sometimes, no
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question

In general, would you say that you are satisfied with your life?
Would you say that you are
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life in general?
5 satisfied
4 somewhat satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
1 dissatisfied
- don't know
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-cSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life?
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, to what extend are you satisfied with your life?
0 the minimum
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 the maximum
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-eSelf report on single question:

Overall, how satisfied (content, happy) are you with your life?
1 very unsatisfied
2 unsatisfied
3 neither unsatisfied nor satisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-iSelfreport on single question:

Overall, are you satisfied with your life?
5. very satisfied
4. satisfied
3. Neutral
2. dissatisfied
1. very dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jSelfreport on single question:

Are you satisfied with your life?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied

Labels of intermediate response options not reported
O-SLu-u-sq-v-6-bSelfreport on single question:

I am satisfied with my life in general
6 strongly agree
5 agree
4 somewhat agree
3 somewhat disagree
2 disagree
1 strongly disagree
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acSelfreport on single question:

If you consider all the aspects of your recent life, in what measure are you satisfied with it?
1 completely unsatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-afSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 extremely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fSelfreport on single question:

All in all, to what degree are you satisfied with your life now?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ISelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbSelfreport on single question;

Now, let's talk about your life as a whole. All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 completely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cSelfreport on single question:

'Taking all tings together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question

Here are some questions about how you feel about your life. Please tick the number which you feel best describes how dissatisfied or satisfied you are with the following aspects of your current situation…

Your life as a whole.
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied

Last item in a list of domain satisfactions
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-faSelfreport on single question:

Please tell me how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with various aspects of your life at the present time... Are you with your life as a whole...?"
5 very satisfied
4 somewhat satisfied
3 about evenly satisfied and dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied

Question preceded by items on satisfaction with aspects of life.
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-fcSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied are you with your current life as a whole?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 neither agree nor disagree
2 fairly dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-gSelfreport on single question:

Taken all things together, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days? On the whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied are you with your life in general? Would you say that you are…?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know
- No opinion
O-SLW-g-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

Are you generally satisfied with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
4 rather satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cSelfreport on single question

All things considered, to what extend are you satisfied with your life?
0 minimum
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 maximum
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used until 2005)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Now here are some questions concerning how satisfied - or dissatisfied - you are with various things about your life, such as your standard of living, your education etc. To indicate this, would you use this card. If you are extremely SATISFIED with something you would call of the highest number, ten. If you are extremely DISSATISFIED you would mention the lowest number, zero. If you are neither extremely satisfied nor extremely dissatisfied, you would mention some number in between zero and ten - the higher the number, the more satisfied, the lower the number the less satisfied.
How satisfied - or dissatisfied - are you with the following? Just read off the number that comes closest to how you feel.
We have talked about various parts of your life. Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-gSelfreport on single question:

I mention several domains of life. Please tell me how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with each of these all in all. …..How satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
0 completely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

Considering the whole situation: how satisfied are you about your daily life?
1 very unsatisfied
2 unsatisfied
3 neither unsatisfied, nor satisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied

Numbering reversed in original (very unsatisfied '5', very satisfied '1')
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-ISelfreport on single question:

Now please think about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with it? Are you..
5 completely satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- don't know
- no answer
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nSelfreport on single question

Considering all aspects of your life, how satisfied are you?
1 very dissatisfied
2 not satisfied
3 not so satisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rSelf report on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole........?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied

Summation: both scores added
Possible range: 2 to 14
O-SQL-?-sq-v-7-aSelf report on single question:

.. satisfaction with quality of life . (full text not reported)
1 extremely dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
4 mixed
5 somewhat satisfied
6 satisfied
7 extremely satisfied
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are....?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 rather happy than unhappy
2 rather unhappy than happy
1 very unhappy
- DK/NA

B When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 rather satisfied than dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied than satisfied
1 fairly dissatisfied
- DK/NA

C How do you feel right now? Is your well-being.....?
5 very high
4 high
3 moderate
2 rather low
1 very low
- DK/NA

Summation: The summed scores were divided in three strata: low, medium and high quality of life
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bSelfreport on five questions:

A I am very content with my life
B Nothing is currently lacking in my life
C When I examine my life as a whole, I feel I am not meeting my aspirations*
D I feel dissatisfied because I'm not doing everything that I want to be doing in my life*

Rating:
1 strongly disagree
.
.
7 strongly agree
* reversed keyed item

Name: Contentment with life assesment Scale (CLASS)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
b-ivREGRESSION COEFFICIENT in regression ananlysis with instrumental variable as one or more explanatory variables
Type: test statistic.
Correlate level: metric, Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

The instrument must be correlated with the endogenous explanatory variables, conditionally on the other covariates. If this correlation is strong, then the instrument is said to have a strong first stage. A weak correlation may provide misleading inferences about parameter estimates and standard errors.
The instrument cannot be correlated with the error term in the explanatory equation, conditionally on the other covariates. In other words, the instrument cannot suffer from the same problem as the original predicting variable. If this condition is met, then the instrument is said to satisfy the exclusion restriction.


See Mardia Kent & Bibby (1979): Multivariate Analysis
b-rifLeast square regression coefficient in RIF-regression, where the dependent variable is th influence on a distributional statistic (f.e. variance, GINI)
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
Beta-fREGRESSION COEFICIENT (standardized) in fixed effects analysis
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMrDIFFERENCE IN MEAN RIDITS
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Happiness ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
Mr < .50: average happiness in this subgroup lower than in the larger population
Mr = .50: average happiness in this subgroup the same as in the larger population
Mr > .50: average happiness in this subgroup higher than in the larger population

'Ridit analysis' compares the distribution of happiness scores in subgroups to its distribution in the entire sample ("Relative to an Identified Distribution")

Testing for significance can be performed through a "BROSS Confidence Interval" (BCI). If all values the BCI for a subgroup are above/below 0.500, the subgroup is significantly more/less happy than the larger population.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
OLRCOLRC: Regression coefficient in ordered categorical logistic regression.
Only the sign of the computed coefficient is informative.

Happiness is an ordered categorical variable. Higher categories correspond to being happier.

OLRC < 0 indicates that the odds of being beyond a chosen happiness category-to- be-ing at or below that category decreases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OLRC > 0 indicates an increase in the odds for both the above cases.
OLRCsStandardized Ordered Logic Regression Coefficient
OPRCOPRC: Regression coefficient in ordered categorical probit regression.
Only the sign of the computed coefficient is informative.

Happiness is an ordered categorical variable. Higher categories correspond to being more happy.

OPRC < 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category decreases and the probability of being at or below that category increases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OLRC > 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category
increases and the probablity of being at or below that category decreases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.
OROR: Odds ratio in binary logistic regression.

Happiness is a binary or dichotomous variable with Happy =1 and Unhappy=0.

OR < 1 indicates that the odds of being happy-to-being unhappy
decreases by a factor OR when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases by one unit
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OR > 1 indicates an increase by a factor OR for both the above cases.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
VCRAMéR's V
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
V = 0 « no association
V = 1 « strongest possible association


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness


A new version of this website is available since 2020 August 1 at the old address worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl
This old website is renamed as worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl and is still maintained.
The new website links to some parts of this old website for the time being.


Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
14971 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 7730 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1354 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12851 distributional findings in the general public, of which 9280 in 173 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3571 findings in 2299 regions and cities in nations.
3068 studies with findings in 175 specific publics.
20128 correlational findings observed in 2592 studies, excerpted from 1898 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Number of Studies
ACTIVITY (how much one does)3
ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)374
AFFECTIVE LIFE81
AGE857
AGGRESSION15
ANOMY35
APPEARANCE (good looks)28
ATTITUDES17
AUTHORITARIANISM4
BIRTH CONTROL2
BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)201
BODY113
CHILDREN13
CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)349
CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN40
CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN19
CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)36
COMMUNAL LIVING16
COMPETENCES21
CONCERNS50
CONSUMPTION174
COPING71
CREATIVENESS8
CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR3
CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)51
DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
DISASTER3
EDUCATION724
EMPLOYMENT 1078
ERA (temporal period)163
ETHNICITY231
EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
EVENTS2
FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)528
FAMILY OF PROCREATION154
FAMILY OF RELATIVES270
FARMING68
FREEDOM59
FRIENDSHIP375
GENDER840
GRIEF1
HABITS2
HANDICAP55
HAPPINESS: BEHAVIOR4
HAPPINESS: CAREER302
HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS20
HAPPINESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS3
HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES397
HAPPINESS: OF OTHERS23
HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS27
HAPPINESS: SEQUALE1
HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS164
HEALTH: BEHAVIOR67
HEALTH: MENTAL308
HEALTH: PHYSICAL966
HEALTH: PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS71
HEALTH: PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT548
HEALTH: TREATMENT MEDICAL201
HELPING19
HOPE38
HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION336
HOUSEHOLD: WORK48
HOUSING389
INCOME1385
INSTITUTIONAL LIVING64
INTELLIGENCE92
INTERNET205
INTERESTS29
INTERVIEW 104
INTIMACY220
LANGUAGE51
LEADERSHIP15
LEISURE470
LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS527
LIFE CHANGE72
LIFE EVENTS149
LIFE GOALS131
LIFE HISTORY12
LIFE STYLE 76
LOCAL: CULTURE11
LOCAL: DEMOGRAPHY38
LOCAL: ECONOMY238
LOCAL: GEOGRAPHY303
LOCAL: LIVABILITY (fit with human needs/capacities)8
LOCAL: POLITICS14
LOCAL: RESIDENCE89
LOCAL: SOCIETY263
LOTTERY13
LOVE-LIFE46
MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER120
MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS1050
MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP197
MARRIAGE: PARTNER84
MEANING35
MEDITATION8
MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY125
MIGRATION: TO OTHER REGION1
MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)54
MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN REGION0
MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
MILITARY LIFE14
MINORITY STATUS0
MODERNITY62
MOOD408
MOTIVATION25
MOBILITY (travel)0
NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONE'S NATION80
NATION: CULTURE191
NATION: DEMOGRAPHY40
NATION: ECONOMY498
NATION: GEOGRAPHY90
NATION: HISTORY7
NATION: JUSTICE61
NATION: LIFESTYLE12
NATION: LIVABILITY (fit with human needs/capacities)70
NATION: NATIONALITY82
NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)88
NATION: POLITICS234
NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION23
NATION: SOCIETY315
NUTRITION184
OCCUPATION262
PERFORMANCE149
PERSONALITY: HISTORY57
PERSONALITY: CHANGE15
PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS864
PERSONALITY: LATER22
PETS4
PLANNING12
POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR320
POPULARITY33
PREFERENCES6
POSSESSIONS274
PRISON3
PROBLEMS40
REGION OF RESIDENCE112
REGION: CULTURE11
REGION: DEMOGRAPHY9
REGION: ECONOMY48
REGION: GEOGRAPHY34
REGION: HISTORY0
REGION: LIVABILITY. Fit environment - human needs/capacities6
REGION: PERSONALITY0
REGION: POLITICS11
REGION: POSITION1
REGION: SOCIETY7
RELIGION548
RESOURCES37
RETIREMENT170
ROLES31
SCHOOL1429
SELF-IMAGE355
SEX-LIFE88
SLEEP19
SOCIAL MOBILITY27
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS114
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS162
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)61
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS211
SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED148
SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED25
SPORTS226
STIMULANTS104
SUICIDE10
SUMMED DETERMINANTS217
SUSTAINABLE BEHAVIOR0
TIME 239
TOLERANCE40
TRAVEL30
TREATMENT0
TRUST71
VALUE DEVELOPMENT8
VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)172
VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)14
VALUES: LIVING UP TO20
VICTIM 47
WAR9
WISDOM1
WORK: CAREER2
WORK: CONDITIONS152
WORK: ATTITUDES466
WORK: PERFORMANCE42
WORRIES60
UNCLASSIFIED31
X0


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
POSSESSIONSParents wealth
POSSESSIONSHouse owned or rented
POSSESSIONSINCOME
POSSESSIONSRESOURCES
POSSESSIONSMaterialisic values
Current possessionsCommunity of property
Business assetsFamily business
Business assetsCurrent involvement in farming
Business assetsEntrepreneur
Communication devicesCommunication
Internet at homeInternet use
Internet at homeon internet
Internet at homeCurrent internet behaviour
Internet at homeInternet, social media
Internet at homeInternet banking in nation
Internet at homeTime spend on internet
TvTv watching, radio listening
TelephoneTelephone
TelephoneTelephone connecctions in vinicity
Household appliancesDurables
Micro waveKinds of consumption
WasherKinds of consumption
PropertyHouse owned or rented
Transport toolsTransport
CarTraveling
CarMOBILITY (travel)
Consumer goodsDurables
Availability of creditPerceived availability of social support
Mortgage (on home)Ownership of current dwelling
Mortgage (on home)Property
InsurancesHEALTH: TREATMENT MEDICAL
InsurancesINCOME
InsurancesPension
InsurancesPublic goods in nation
SavingsRelative to income
SavingsBeing able to save
SavingsConsumption
Attitudes to one's possessionsAttitudes to one's situation
Attitudes to one's possessionsMaterialisic values
Attitude to savingRisk minded

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings