Findings on Happiness and REGION: ECONOMY

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and main subject: REGION: ECONOMY

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Nr of Studieson subject
REGION: ECONOMY
  Development of economic conditions in one's region
    Earlier economic conditions in region
1     Change of economic conditions in region
6       Economic growth/decline in region
      Economic innovation in region
      Change economic security in region
1       Change minimum wage in region
      Change tax regime in region
1           Raise of tobacco tax in region
2       Change unemployment rate in region
    Later economic conditions in region
3   Current economic conditions in one's region
1     Economic affluence in region
5       Average income in region
13       GDP in region
    Economic investments in region
    Employment in region
9       Unemployment in region
2     Income inequality in region
    Industries in region
1       Extraction industry in region
      Industrial mass production in region
      Sustainable energy production in region
      Tourism in region
    Openness of economy in region
    Public goods in region
3       Social security in region
    Socio-economic regime in region
      Economic freedom in region
    Standard of living in region
      Amenities in region
      Consumption in region
      Poverty in region
      Price level in region
    Tax regime in region
    Work conditions in region
      Minimum wage in region
  Attitudes to economic conditions in region
    Satisfaction with price level in region

Appendices
Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
Appendix 2: Statistics used
Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 4: Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 5: Related Subjects

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and REGION: ECONOMY
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=0141
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2021, Netherlands


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change of economic conditions in region

StudyFlavin & Shufeldt (2017): study US 2010
TitleThe State of the Minimum Wage: Federalism, Economic Policy, and Workers' Well-Being.
SourceThe Forum, 2017, Vol. 15, 167 - 187
URLhttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/for.2017.15.issue-1/for-2017-0010/for-2017-0010.xml
DOIdoi: 10.1515/for-2017·0010
Public18+ aged, general public, in 41 states of the USA, 2010-13
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelCombined change: minimum wage + unemployment + economic growth
Page in Source 181-182
Our classificationChange of economic conditions in region
Operationalization
a+b+c:
a change in minimum wage
b change in unemployment rate 
c economic growth

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c
CHANGE INDIVIDUAL happiness by CHANGE in economic 
conditions of the region
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cR²=+.22 ns
LOW income groups
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cR²=+.04 ns
MIDDLE income groups
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cR²=+.07 ns
HIGH income groups


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline in region

StudyGao & Meng (2015): study CN 1998
TitleThe Impact of Government Size on Chinese Elders' Life Satisfaction: 1998-2008
SourceFilomena Maggino, Ed.: "Social Indicators Research Series 57, A New Research Agenda for Impovements in Quality of Life", Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, Swiss, 2015, 135 - 161
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15904-1_7
Public65+ aged, China, followed 10 years, 1998-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =50674

Correlate
Author's labelCapital Formation Rate
Page in Source 138, 146
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline in region
Operationalization
capital formation as % GDP

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.00 ns
Individual happiness by provincial capital 
formation.

OPRC (+0,000919) controlled for:

-provincial characteristics:
 -Real GDP per capita
 -Government medical expenses
 -Government Size

-individual characteristics:
 -Gender
 -Living arrangement
 -Age (groups)
 -Urban (residence)
 -Etnicity (Han = 1)
 -Education
 -White Collar (= 1)
 -Frequency visits by child or sibling
 -Chronic conditions score
 -ADL-score (Physical limitations)

Similar results if addionally controlled for:
-Household income (quartiles)
-Feeling rich or fair


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline in region

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study DE East Germany 1992
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, (East-)Germany, followed 18 years,1992-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81956

Correlate
Author's labelRegional income
Page in Source 31
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline in region
Operationalization
Regional GDP/capita in price level of 1995 (euro)
Observed distributionMean: 16391; SD:3217
Remarks
Significance level based upon asterisks (p-values 
report different significance)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.01 ns
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT regional GDP/capita
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.13 p < .104
CURRENT happiness by PAST regional GDP/capita
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.26 p < .01
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (T-2 to T-1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.70 p < .10
CURRENT Happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (t-2 to t-1)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Household income growth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline in region

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed 24 years,1984-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =318346

Correlate
Author's labelRegional GDP
Page in Source 30
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline in region
Operationalization
Regional GDP/capita in price level of 1995 (euro)
Observed distributionMean: 24941; SD: 5420

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.07 ns
CURRENT HAPPINESS by CURRENT regional GDP/captia
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.13 ns
CURRENT happiness by PAST regional GDP/Capital 
(t-1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.31 ns
CURRENT Happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (T-2 to T-1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.26 p < .10
CURRENT Happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (T-1 to T)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Household income growth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline in region

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1981
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
PublicAdults, general public, Norway, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic level of the county
Page in Source 411
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline in region
Operationalization
Factor loading highly on:
- mean taxable income
- inequality of taxable income
- electoral support for Conservative
  Party
- electoral support for Progress Party 
The capital and the area surrounding it (Oslo and 
akershus) and some of the western counties have 
relatively high scores. The county with the highest 
score on this dimension, Rogaland, has by far the 
greatest income inequality in Norway, and it comes 
thirds in terms of average income.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.12
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 ns
ß controlled for education, income, age, sex, 
household size, number of friends, occupationally 
active, marital status, degree of urbanization.  


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline in region

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study GB 1996
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, United Kingdom, followed 12 years,1996-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =125095

Correlate
Author's labelRegional income
Page in Source 32
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline in region
Operationalization
GVA: Gross Value Added (GDP minus taxes on producs plus 
subsidies on products)
Observed distributionMean: 15443; SD: 3527

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.20 ns
CURRENT HAPPINESS by CURRENT regional GVA/captial 
(ln)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.26 ns
CURRENT happiness by PAST regional GVA/capita
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.28 ns
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GVA/capita growth (T-1 to T)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.68 p < .10
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GVA/capita growth (T-2 to T-1)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic growth/decline in region

StudyFlavin & Shufeldt (2017): study US 2010
TitleThe State of the Minimum Wage: Federalism, Economic Policy, and Workers' Well-Being.
SourceThe Forum, 2017, Vol. 15, 167 - 187
URLhttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/for.2017.15.issue-1/for-2017-0010/for-2017-0010.xml
DOIdoi: 10.1515/for-2017·0010
Public18+ aged, general public, in 41 states of the USA, 2010-13
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic growth
Page in Source 181-182
Our classificationEconomic growth/decline in region
Operationalization
% economic growth in state 2010-2013
Remarks
Low and middle income groups: N=41; high income groups: 
N=32

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c
% economic growth in state by CHANGE in AVERAGE 
happiness (difference of means 2010-2013
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.01 ns
LOW income(<$3000)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.01 ns
MIDDLE income($3000-7500)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.01 ns
HIGH income(>=$7500)

b's controlled for CHANGE in
- minimum wage
- unemployment rate in state


Similar results when CHANGE AVERAGE happiness is 
expressed in % change from 2010 to 2013


Similar results when CHANGE AVERAGE happiness is 
expressed in % change from 2010 to 2013


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change minimum wage in region

StudyFlavin & Shufeldt (2017): study US 2010
TitleThe State of the Minimum Wage: Federalism, Economic Policy, and Workers' Well-Being.
SourceThe Forum, 2017, Vol. 15, 167 - 187
URLhttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/for.2017.15.issue-1/for-2017-0010/for-2017-0010.xml
DOIdoi: 10.1515/for-2017·0010
Public18+ aged, general public, in 41 states of the USA, 2010-13
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelChange in minimum wage per hour in one's state
Page in Source 181-184
Our classificationChange minimum wage in region
Operationalization
% growth between 2010 and 2013
Observed distributionCurrent $5.15 (Georgia) to $11.00 (Massachusetts)
Error Estimateslow income: s.e.= 0.83; middle income: s.e.=0.62

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c
CHANGE INDIVIDUAL happiness by CHANGE in state 
minimum wage
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+1.7 p < .05
LOW income(<$3000)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.27 ns
MIDDLE income($3000-7500)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.02 ns
HIGH income(>=$7500)

b's controlled for CHANGE in
- unemployment rate in state
- economic growth in state

Similar results when CHANGE AVERAGE happiness is 
expressed in % change from 2010 to 2013


Correlational finding on Happiness and Raise of tobacco tax in region

StudyGruber & Mullainathan (2006): study US 1973
TitleDo Cigarette Taxes Make Smokers Happier?
SourceNg, Y.K.;Ho, S.L.;Eds.: ''Happiness and Public Policy'', Palgrave Macmillan, 2006, UK, 109 - 146
Public16+ aged, United States of America, 1973 - 1998
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =36421

Correlate
Author's labelChange tobacco tax rate in state
Page in Source table 6,3
Our classificationRaise of tobacco tax in region
Operationalization
Raise of cigarette tax in US states
Observed distributionAverage tax rate 35%
Remarks
Yearly state cigarette tax taken from publication 'The 
tax burden on tobacco'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab-fix=+/-
Happiness in year by cigarette tax in region/year

            very happy  pretty happy  not happy

All         -.03        -.01          +.03

Split by propensity to smoke
- high       -.01       +.05          -.06
- low        -.01       +.00          +.01

Interaction propensity to smoke * tax raise
             .05       +.11         -.16

Raise of tobacco tax reduced unhappiness among 
people apt to smoke but did not affect other 
Americans
   
b-fix controlled for
- Marital status
- Education
- Parents education
- Income quartile
- Race
- Number of children
- Employment status
- Church attendance

Propensity to smoke was estimated on the basis of 
correlates of smoking. 35% fit this category.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change unemployment rate in region

StudyFleche (2015): study SY 1999
TitleDistaste for Centralization: Evidence from a Quasi-Natural Experiment in Switzerland.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2015, No 1383, 1 - 48, London, UK
URLhttp://eprints.lse.ac.uk/64999/
Public14+ aged general public, Switserland, followed 12 years 1999-2012
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate in canton
Page in Source Table A9
Our classificationChange unemployment rate in region
Operationalization
% unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hb-fix=-.03 ns
CURRENT unemployment rate by individual happiness

b-fix controled for:
- personal characteristics
  - sexe
  - age
  - personal income
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - education
  - religion
  - language
  - political preference
  - foreign born
- Cantonal characteristivs
  - Centralization reform in canton
  - income per capita
- Municipal population size
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hb-fix=+.02 ns
CHANGE in unemployment rate by individual 
happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change unemployment rate in region

StudyFlavin & Shufeldt (2017): study US 2010
TitleThe State of the Minimum Wage: Federalism, Economic Policy, and Workers' Well-Being.
SourceThe Forum, 2017, Vol. 15, 167 - 187
URLhttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/for.2017.15.issue-1/for-2017-0010/for-2017-0010.xml
DOIdoi: 10.1515/for-2017·0010
Public18+ aged, general public, in 41 states of the USA, 2010-13
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelChange in unemployment rate
Page in Source 181-182
Our classificationChange unemployment rate in region
Operationalization
Change in unemployment rate in state 2010-2013

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c
CHANGE in unemployment rate in state by CHANGE in 
AVERAGE happiness (difference of means 2010-2013)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.03 ns
LOW income(<$3000)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.01 ns
MIDDLE income($3000-7500)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=-.02 ns
HIGH income(>=$7500)

b's controlled for CHANGE in
- unemployment rate in state
- economic growth in state

Similar results when CHANGE AVERAGE happiness is 
expressed in % change from 2010 to 2013


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current economic conditions in one's region

StudyPontarollo et al. (2018): study EC 2015
TitleThe Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in A Developing Country: The Ecuadorian Case.
SourceJCR Report, 2018, Nr. 109319, European Commission, Luxembourg
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ipt/iptwpa/jrc109319.html
DOIdoi: 10.2760/858865
PublicAdults, Ecuador, 2015
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21265

Correlate
Author's labelRegional economy dependent on oil production
Page in Source 9,12
Our classificationCurrent economic conditions in one's region
Operationalization
1 Oil dependent canton (district)
0 Other cantons
Error Estimatesb: SE=.17; OLRC: SE=.22

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-nb=-.33 p < .10
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-nOLRC=-.45 p < .05
b and OLRC controlled for:
Aggregate variables:
- per capita GVA (non-oil sectors)
- income inequality
- natural hazard risk
- urban area
Individual variables:
- urban
- gender
- age and age squared
- marital status
- importance of religion
- leisure time
- institutional trust
- indigenous 
- education
- employed
- socio-economic status
- health insurance
- walls in good condition
- internet access
- home-owner
- household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current economic conditions in one's region

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1982
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
Public18-79 aged, general public, Norway, 1982
Sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =972

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic level of the county
Page in Source 412
Our classificationCurrent economic conditions in one's region
Operationalization
Factor loading highly on:
- mean taxable income
- inequality of taxable income
- electoral support for Conservative
  Party
- electoral support for Progress Party

The capital and the area surrounding it (Oslo and 
Akershus) and some of the western counties have 
relatively high scores. The county with the highest 
score on this dimension, Rogaland, has by far the 
greatest income inequality in Norway and it comes third 
in terms of average income.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dBeta=-.02
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.05
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dBeta=-.02 ns
ß controlled for education, income, age, sex, 
household size, occupational prestige, 
occupationally active, marital status, degree of 
urbanization.
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.05 ns
ß controlled for education, income, age, sex, 
household size, occupational prestige, 
occupationally active, marital status, degree of 
urbanization.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current economic conditions in one's region

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1971
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
Public15-64 aged, general public, Norway, 1971
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =854

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic level of the county
Page in Source 411
Our classificationCurrent economic conditions in one's region
Operationalization
Factor loading highly on:
- mean taxable income
- inequality of taxable income
- electoral support for Conservative  
  Party
- electoral support for Progress Party
The capital and the area surrounding it (Oslo and 
Akershus) and some of the western counties have 
relatively high scores. The county with the highest 
score on this dimension, Rogaland, has by far the 
greatest income inequality in Norway, and it comes 
thirds in terms of average income.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dBeta=-.07 p < .05
ß controlled for education, income, age, sex, 
household size, occupational prestige, number of 
friends, occupationally active, marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Economic affluence in region

StudyDekker & DeHart (2007): study NL 2006
TitleNiet zo Gelukkig in de Dapperstraat. (Not so Happy in the Dapperstraat).
SourceSchnabel,P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 106 - 113
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2006
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =159439

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Income
Page in Source 110
Our classificationEconomic affluence in region
Operationalization
Household income (question/scale?)
Observed distribution?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.24 p < .05
Individual happiness by individual household 
income.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.32 p < .05
Average happiness in zipcode areas by average 
household income in zipcode areas.

Figure 1 shows relationship between average 
happiness (vertically) and average wealth 
(horizontally) in 25% rich zipcode areas; 25% poor 
zipcode areas and all zipcode areas.
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.40 p < .05
Average happiness in communities by average 
household income in communities.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.28 p < .05
Average happiness in provinces by average 
household income in provinces.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income in region

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2011): study CN 2002
TitleDoes Economic Growth Raise Happiness in China?
SourceOxford Development Studies, 2011, Vol. 39, 1 - 24
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13600818.2010.551006
DOIDOI:10.1080/13600818.2010.551006
PublicAdults, China, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8872

Correlate
Author's labelAverage p.c. income in province/ in city (log)
Page in Source 9-10
Our classificationAverage income in region
Operationalization
Log average per capita income:
A in province (urban respondents)
B in city (rural-urban migrants)
Observed distributionA:M=8.94; B: M=8.97
Remarks
Measure and source not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=-.17 p < .10
A 

b's controlled for:
- basic variables:
  - gender
  - age and age squared
  - marital status
  - health
- conventional economic variables
  - log of p.c. household income
  - net wealth
  - working hours (100's per year)
- comparison variables 
  - fairness income distribution in China/city
  - living standard in city
  - expected change in income in next 5 years
- insecurity variables 
  - unemployed
  - self-experienced important social problems
  - enterprise profit/loss
  - laid off work sometime 2002
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=-.12 ns
B

b's controlled for:
- basic variables:
  - gender
  - age and age squared
  - marital status
  - health
- conventional economic variables
  - log of p.c. household income
  - net wealth
  - working hours (100's per year)
- comparison variables 
  - expected income change over next 5 years
- harshness of life variables
  - living with family members
  - number of family members/friends in city
  - child still in village
  - no heating
  - job satisfaction
  - discrimination
  - easiness/difficulty of finding a job
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=-.13 ns
B

b additionally controlled for:
  - no heating
  - job satisfaction
  - discrimination
  - easiness/difficulty of finding a job


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income in region

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged rural-urban migrants, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1930

Correlate
Author's labelLog of average per capita income in city of current residence
Page in Source 116
Our classificationAverage income in region
Operationalization
Income average reported in 2002 national household 
survey
Observed distributionM=8.97

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.13 ns
B controlled for:
- Future income expectations
- Gender
- Marital Status
- Interaction gender*marital status
- Education
- Financial assets
- Unemployment
- Working hours
- Health
- Duration of urban residence
- Household income
- Living with family members
- Remittances
- Area of house
- Living in own house
- Heating
- Child left behind
- Number of friends/relatives in city

Effect is significantly positive at 90% CI for 
those who migrated longer ago.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income in region

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged rural-urban migrants, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1930

Correlate
Author's labelLog of average rural income in province of origin
Page in Source 116
Our classificationAverage income in region
Operationalization
Income average reported in 2002 national household 
survey
Observed distributionM=7.81

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=+.08 p < .NS
B controlled for:
- Future income expectations
- Gender
- Marital Status
- Interaction gender*marital status
- Education
- Financial assets
- Unemployment
- Working hours
- Health
- Duration of urban residence
- Household income
- Living with family members
- Remittances
- Area of house
- Living in own house
- Heating
- Child left behind
- Number of friends/relatives in city


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income in region

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2012): study ZZ EU 25 1996
TitleIncome and Well-Being Across European Provinces.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 106, 371 - 392
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-011-9812-y
Public15+ aged, general public, 188 West European provinces, 1996
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =65178

Correlate
Author's labelregional disposable income
Our classificationAverage income in region
Operationalization
Disposable income based on final consumption, 
Purchasing Power Standard based on final consumption 
per inhabitant

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.03 p < .01
controlled for:
-person-level:
 -personal income
 -community size
 -unemployment
 -finished education at 15 or earlier
 -married
 -age
 -income
-national level:
 -national income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average income in region

StudyBoelhouwer (2007a): study NL 2004
TitleWaarom zijn Drenthenaren Gelukkiger dan Hollanders? ( Why Happier in Drenthe than in Holland?)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 141 - 146
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelAverage income
Page in Source 144
Our classificationAverage income in region
Operationalization
Average income in province

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region

StudyFeng et al. (2018): study CN 2013
TitleDoes the Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies Improve the Subjective Well-Being of Citizens? A Micro-Level and City-Level Empirical Investigation.
SourceConference Paper, 2018, The 22nd Biennial Conference of the International elecommunications Society: "Beyond the Boundaries: Challenges for Business, Policy and Society", June 24th - 27th, 2018, Seoul, Korea
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/190381
Public18+ aged, adults, China, 2013
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5463

Correlate
Author's labelGross regional product
Page in Source 7-10
Our classificationGDP in region
Operationalization
Gross regional product; final products at market prices 
(million yuan) for city.
Observed distributionM= 56.27; SD= 43.10
Error EstimatesSE= .001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ab=+.00 ns
b controlled for:
- personal characteristics:
  - ICT usage
  - income
  - worktime
  - social activities
  - education
  - gender
  - member of communist party
  - religion
  - immigrant
- local characteristics:
  - capital city vs. not
  - local government expenditures
  - proportion of telephone subscriptions in
-  city
  - proportion of students in city
  - proportion of social workers in city


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region

StudyJiang et al. (2012): study CN 2002
TitleIdentity, Inequality, and Happiness: Evidence from Urban China.
SourceWorld Development, 2012, Vol. 40, 1190 - 1200
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.11.002
Public16+ aged general public, 26 cities, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5630

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita/10^4
Page in Source 1193, 1195
Our classificationGDP in region
Operationalization
GDP per capita/10^4 on city-level in 2002.
Remarks
Data are derived from 'China City Statistical Yearbook 
(National Bureau of Statistics, 1991-2003)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=+.04 ns
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) Rural/urban (Hukou) status
  b) Interaction Rural/urban (Hukou) status* 
  c) Age
  d) Gender
  e) Education
  f) Health
  g) Communist Party Member
  h) Unemployed
  i) Household income
  j) Future income expectations
  k) Marital status
  l) Housing area
- City characteristics
  m) Population growth
  n) City size
  o) Region in country
  p) Gini-coefficient
- Rural migrants vs urbans differences
  q) Between-group inequality
  r) Education difference between urbans and 
     migrants


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region

StudyGao & Meng (2015): study CN 1998
TitleThe Impact of Government Size on Chinese Elders' Life Satisfaction: 1998-2008
SourceFilomena Maggino, Ed.: "Social Indicators Research Series 57, A New Research Agenda for Impovements in Quality of Life", Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, Swiss, 2015, 135 - 161
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15904-1_7
Public65+ aged, China, followed 10 years, 1998-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =50674

Correlate
Author's labelReal GDP per capita
Page in Source 138, 146.
Our classificationGDP in region
Operationalization
Inflation adjusted gdp per capita in 1.000 yuan.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=-.00 ns
Individual happiness by provincial GDP per capita.

OPRC (-0,00289) controlled for:

-provincial characteristics:
 -Government medical expenses
 -Government Size
 -Capital Formation Rate

-individual characteristics:
 -Gender
 -Living arrangement
 -Age (groups)
 -Urban (residence)
 -Etnicity (Han = 1)
 -Education
 -White Collar (= 1)
 -Frequency visits by child or sibling
 -Chronic conditions score
 -ADL-score (Physical limitations)

Similar results if addionally controlled for:
 -Household income (quartiles)
 -Feeling rich or fair


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region

StudyPontarollo et al. (2018): study EC 2015
TitleThe Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in A Developing Country: The Ecuadorian Case.
SourceJCR Report, 2018, Nr. 109319, European Commission, Luxembourg
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ipt/iptwpa/jrc109319.html
DOIdoi: 10.2760/858865
PublicAdults, Ecuador, 2015
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21265

Correlate
Author's labelGVA per capita (log regional income)
Page in Source 8,9,12
Our classificationGDP in region
Operationalization
Gross Value Added (GVA) per capita (non-oil sectors)
Error Estimatesb: SE=.10; OLRC: SE=.14
Remarks
Details not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-nb=-.28 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-nOLRC=-.47 p < .01
b and OLRC controlled for:
Aggregate variables:
- regional economy dependent on oil production
- income inequality
- natural hazard risk
- urban/rural area
Individual variables:
- urban/rural
- gender
- age and age squared
- marital status
- importance of religion
- leisure time
- institutional trust
- indigenous 
- education
- employed
- socio-economic status
- health insurance
- walls in good condition
- internet access
- home-owner
- household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study DE East Germany 1992
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, (East-)Germany, followed 18 years,1992-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81956

Correlate
Author's labelRegional income
Page in Source 31
Our classificationGDP in region
Operationalization
Regional GDP/capita in price level of 1995 (euro)
Observed distributionMean: 16391; SD:3217
Remarks
Significance level based upon asterisks (p-values 
report different significance)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.01 ns
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT regional GDP/capita
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.13 p < .104
CURRENT happiness by PAST regional GDP/capita
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.26 p < .01
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (T-2 to T-1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.70 p < .10
CURRENT Happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (t-2 to t-1)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Household income growth


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed 24 years,1984-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =318346

Correlate
Author's labelRegional GDP
Page in Source 30
Our classificationGDP in region
Operationalization
Regional GDP/capita in price level of 1995 (euro)
Observed distributionMean: 24941; SD: 5420

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.07 ns
CURRENT HAPPINESS by CURRENT regional GDP/captia
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.13 ns
CURRENT happiness by PAST regional GDP/Capital 
(t-1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.31 ns
CURRENT Happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (T-2 to T-1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.26 p < .10
CURRENT Happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GDP/capita (T-1 to T)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Household income growth


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region

StudySabatini & Sarracino (2014): study IT 2010
TitleOnline Networks and Subjective Well-Being
SourceKyklos, 2017, Vol. 70, 456 - 480
URLhttp://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/56436/
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 2010-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =77560

Correlate
Author's labelReal GDP per capita
Page in Source 10,14,18
Our classificationGDP in region
Operationalization
GDP per capita in real euro's of 2005 (x1000)
Observed distributionM= 22.92; 5.746

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=-.08 ns
OPRC's controlled for:
- time spent commuting
- time watching TV
- gender
- age and age squared
- health
- modem
- DSL
- glass fiber
- 3G
- USB
- online networking
- contacts with friends
- social trust
- online networking


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region

StudyFerreira et al. (2013): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction and Air Quality in Europe.
SourceEcological Economics, 2013, Vol. 88, 1-10
URLhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.12.027
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.12.027
Public14+ aged, general public, 23 EU nations 2002-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81326

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita
Page in Source 22.23.26
Our classificationGDP in region
Operationalization
Regional gross domestic product (PPP per inhabitant) by 
NUTS 2 regions
Observed distributionMin=6900; Max=57100 Mean=23117.26; SD=10036.04

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+5.4 ns
	b(5.43) controlled for 
- without health status 
- the size of settlement 
- regional differences in climate (July max 
temperature. Jan min temperature. Mean annual 
precipitation)
- unemployment rate
- population density


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn (2012): study ZZ EU 25 1996
TitleIncome and Well-Being Across European Provinces.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 106, 371 - 392
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-011-9812-y
Public15+ aged, general public, 188 West European provinces, 1996
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =65178

Correlate
Author's labelregional income AND regional disposable income
Our classificationGDP in region
Operationalization
A: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at current market 
prices, Purchasing Power Standard, euro per inhabitant.

B: Disposable income based on final consumption, 
Purchasing Power Standard based on final consumption 
per inhabitant.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.01 p < .05
A, B: controlled for:
-person-level:
 -personal income
 -community size
 -unemployment
 -finished education at 15 or earlier
 -married
 -age
 -income
-national level:
 -national income
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.03


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region

StudyFleche (2015): study SY 1999
TitleDistaste for Centralization: Evidence from a Quasi-Natural Experiment in Switzerland.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2015, No 1383, 1 - 48, London, UK
URLhttp://eprints.lse.ac.uk/64999/
Public14+ aged general public, Switserland, followed 12 years 1999-2012
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome per capita incanton
Page in Source Table A9
Our classificationGDP in region
Operationalization
Ln cantonal income per capita

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hb-fix=+.21 ns
CURRENT income per capita

b-fix controled for:
- personal characteristics
  - sexe
  - age
  - personal income
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - education
  - religion
  - language
  - political preference
  - foreign born
- Cantonal characteristics
  - Centralization reform in canton 
  - cantonal unemployment rate
- municipal population size
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hb-fix=+.23 ns
CHANGE in income per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study GB 1996
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, United Kingdom, followed 12 years,1996-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =125095

Correlate
Author's labelRegional income
Page in Source 32
Our classificationGDP in region
Operationalization
GVA: Gross Value Added (GDP minus taxes on producs plus 
subsidies on products)
Observed distributionMean: 15443; SD: 3527

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.20 ns
CURRENT HAPPINESS by CURRENT regional GVA/captial 
(ln)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.26 ns
CURRENT happiness by PAST regional GVA/capita
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.28 ns
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GVA/capita growth (T-1 to T)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.68 p < .10
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in regional 
GVA/capita growth (T-2 to T-1)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region

StudyAlvarez-Diaz et al. (2009): study US 1985
TitleThe Politics of Happiness: On the Political Determinants of Quality of Life in the American States.
SourceThe Journal of Politics, 2010, Vol. 72, 894 - 905
DOIDOI: 10.1017/S0022381610000241
Public16+ aged, general public, USA, 1985-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelState income
Page in Source 900,902
Our classificationGDP in region
Operationalization
per capita personal income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=-.00 p < .000
AVERAGE HAPPINESS by per capita personal income in 
48 US states

B controlled for state characteristics
- Size
- Income
- Racial diversity
- Social capital
- Culture
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=-.00 p < .000
INDIVIDUAL HAPPINESS by per capita personal income 
in 48 US states

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  - Income
  - Financial Satisfaction
  - Education
  - Employment status
  - Gender
  - Children
  - Age
  - Age squared
  - Marital status
  - Church attendance
  - Ethnicity
  - Interpersonal Trust
  - Health of respondent
- State characteristics
  - Size
  - Income
  - Racial diversity
  - Social capital
  - Culture


Correlational finding on Happiness and GDP in region

StudyAmos et al. (1982): study US Oklahoma 1978
TitleLife Satisfaction and Regional Development: A Case Study of Oklahoma.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1982, Vol. 11, 319 - 331
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00351840
Public18+ aged, general public, Oklahoma, USA, 1978
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2734

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic prosperity of region
Page in Source 322
Our classificationGDP in region
Operationalization
Per capita income:
1:southeastern Oklahoma: $ 5263
2:remainder of Oklahoma: $ 7376
3:USA (1978)           : $ 7854

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-101-aDMt=-
1:Oklahoma, Southeastern: Mt = 8.83
2:Oklahoma, remainder:    Mt = 8.72
3:USA:                    Mt = 7.90
1-2 difference ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment in region

StudyLuechinger et al. (2008): study US 1976
TitleWhy does Unemployment Hurt the Unemployed? Evidence from the Life Satisfaction Gap between the Public and Privat Sector.
SourceWWZ Working Paper 03/008, Center of Business and Economics (WWZ), 2008, University of Basel, Switzerland
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3385.pdf
PublicEmployees public and private sector, USA, 1976-2002.
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =19530

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed in public sector
Page in Source 15,16
Our classificationUnemployment in region
Operationalization
0: Private sector (reference group)
1: Public sector
Observed distribution16192 individuals working in private sector 1338 individuals working in public sector

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
DIFFERENCE (not level) in average happiness of 
enployed people in public and private sector by 
regional unemployment-rate.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.05 ns
a. Public sector compared to private sector. 
difference is greater at higher rates of 
unemployment.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+06 ns
b. Interaction unemployment x public sector.

B's controlled for:
-gender
-age
-white/non-white
-number of children
-working full-time/part-time
-income quartile
-household size
-education
-marital status
-size of town (dummies)
-year and state (fixed effects)

Unemployment has more impact on happiness in 
private sector than in public sector.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment in region

StudyLuechinger et al. (2008): study US 1976
TitleWhy does Unemployment Hurt the Unemployed? Evidence from the Life Satisfaction Gap between the Public and Privat Sector.
SourceWWZ Working Paper 03/008, Center of Business and Economics (WWZ), 2008, University of Basel, Switzerland
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3385.pdf
PublicEmployees public and private sector, USA, 1976-2002.
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =19530

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment at state level
Page in Source 15,30
Our classificationUnemployment in region
Operationalization
Rate of unemployment in state where one lives
Remarks
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
HAPPINESS IN YEAR BY UNEMPLOYMENT-RATE IN YEAR
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=-.03 p < .05
All sectors
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=-.04 p < .05
Private sector
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.07 ns
Public sector

B's controlled for:
-gender
-age
-white/non-white
-number of children
-working full-time/part-time
-income quartile
-household size
-education
-marital status
-size of town (dummies)
-year and state (fixed effects)

Unemployment rate has more (negative) impact on 
happiness in private sector.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment in region

StudyLuechinger et al. (2008): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleWhy does Unemployment Hurt the Unemployed? Evidence from the Life Satisfaction Gap between the Public and Privat Sector.
SourceWWZ Working Paper 03/008, Center of Business and Economics (WWZ), 2008, University of Basel, Switzerland
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3385.pdf
PublicEmployees, private and public sector. West-Germany, 1984-2004.
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20764

Correlate
Author's labelChanges in regional unemployment
Page in Source 10, 28
Our classificationUnemployment in region
Operationalization
Mean adjusted annual unemployment rate in 
Rheinland-Pfalz and Saarland 1984-2004 (weighted by 
their populations)
Observed distributionRange in unemployment rate: 6-11%
Remarks
Source: GSOEP 1984-2004

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Figure 1: more unemployment, lower average 
happiness in private and public sector.
(Germany, Rheinland-Pfalz and Saarland).
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 p < .01
Average happiness of employees in year by 
unemployment rate in region in year.

B controlled for:
-actual working hours
-individual and household income
-persons in household
-having children 
-head of household
-age squared/100
-years of education
-working full-time/part-time
-partner employed/unemployed
-marital status
-state and year (dummies)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment in region

StudyKrause (2013): study DE 2007
TitleDon't Worry, be Happy? Happiness and Reemployment.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013, Vol. 96, 1 - 20
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
Public16+ aged, recently fallen unemployed, Germany, 2007-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2542

Correlate
Author's labelState unemployment rate
Page in Source 7
Our classificationUnemployment in region
Operationalization
Unemployment rate in regioin (Land) in Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.08 ns
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) age and age squared
  b) disabled
  c) marital status
  d) having a partner
  e) employment status spouse
  f) employment status partner
  g) (number of) children in household
  h) education
  i) migrant status
  j) wage in last job
  k) duration of last job
  l) unemployment benefits
  m) reason of termination of last job
  n) gender
- Environmental characteristic:
  o) region/state in Germany
- Interview-specific characteristics:
  p) interview cohort
  q) time between unemployment entry and 
    interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment in region

StudyGalatzer-Levy et al. (2010): study DE 1984
TitleFrom Marianthal to Latent Growth Mixture Modeling: A Return to the Exploration of Individual Differences in Response to Unemployment.
SourceJournal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 2010, Vol. 3, 116 - 125
DOIDOI: 10.1037/a0020077
Public21-60 aged unemployed, before and after jobloss, Germany, 1984-2003
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response30-40%
Respondents N =774

Correlate
Author's labelNational unemployment rate
Page in Source 121
Our classificationUnemployment in region
Operationalization
Unemployment rate around jobloss in:
a: nation (Germany)
b: region (Land in Germany)
Error EstimatesSame year: national s.e.= .05; regional s.e.= .03 Unemployment rate year before unemployment: national: s.e.=.02; regional s.e.=.02

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.05 p < .05
NATIONAL unemployment rate
- in year before jobloss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.05 ns
- in year of jobloss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=-.06 p < .05
REGIONAL umemployment rate
- in year before jobloss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=-.03 ns
REGIONAL umemployment rate
-in year of jobloss


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment in region

StudyFerreira et al. (2013): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction and Air Quality in Europe.
SourceEcological Economics, 2013, Vol. 88, 1-10
URLhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.12.027
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.12.027
Public14+ aged, general public, 23 EU nations 2002-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81326

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 22.23.26
Our classificationUnemployment in region
Operationalization
Unemployment rate by NUTS 2 region
Observed distributionMin=1.3; Max=26.7 Mean=8.30; SD=5.24

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.04 p < .001
	b(-.0404) controlled for 
- without health status 
- the size of settlement 
- regional differences in climate (July max 
temperature. Jan min temperature. Mean annual 
precipitation)
- GDP per capita
- population density


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment in region

StudyBoelhouwer (2007a): study NL 2004
TitleWaarom zijn Drenthenaren Gelukkiger dan Hollanders? ( Why Happier in Drenthe than in Holland?)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 141 - 146
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 142
Our classificationUnemployment in region
Operationalization
% Unemployment in province

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.10 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment in region

StudyFleche (2015): study SY 1999
TitleDistaste for Centralization: Evidence from a Quasi-Natural Experiment in Switzerland.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2015, No 1383, 1 - 48, London, UK
URLhttp://eprints.lse.ac.uk/64999/
Public14+ aged general public, Switserland, followed 12 years 1999-2012
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate in canton
Page in Source Table A9
Our classificationUnemployment in region
Operationalization
% unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hb-fix=-.03 ns
CURRENT unemployment rate by individual happiness

b-fix controled for:
- personal characteristics
  - sexe
  - age
  - personal income
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - education
  - religion
  - language
  - political preference
  - foreign born
- Cantonal characteristivs
  - Centralization reform in canton
  - income per capita
- Municipal population size
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hb-fix=+.02 ns
CHANGE in unemployment rate by individual 
happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment in region

StudyAlesina et al. (2004): study US 1981
TitleInequality and Happiness: Are Europeans and Americans Different?
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2004, Vol. 88, 2009 - 2042
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2003.07.006
PublicAdults, general public, United States, 1981-1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =19895

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 2019, 2023, 2025
Our classificationUnemployment in region
Operationalization
Unemployment rates in US states
Observed distributionN=491, M=0,067, SD=0,023, Range=0,024-0,180
Remarks
Data: Bureau of Labor Statistics US Department of Labor

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
STATE unemployment rate by INDIVIDUAL happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.3 p < .10
All individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.9 p < .05
Political left individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.2 ns
Political right individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-4.2 p < .05
Poor individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-0.3 ns
Rich individuals

OLRC's are controlled income inequality at state 
level and personal characteristics: 
- employment satus
- gender
- age 
- educational level
- marital status
- number of children
- income 
- race 

All OLRC's remain the same when additionally 
controlled for crime rate.

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Relative values denote that the negative 
effect is larger among rich and political right 
individuals. Comparisons of OLRC's are only 
possible if the same control variables are used in 
the regressions.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Income inequality in region

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2011): study CN 2002
TitleDoes Economic Growth Raise Happiness in China?
SourceOxford Development Studies, 2011, Vol. 39, 1 - 24
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13600818.2010.551006
DOIDOI:10.1080/13600818.2010.551006
PublicAdults, China, 2002
SampleSelection from general population sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8872

Correlate
Author's labelGini of household income p.c. at county level
Page in Source 6
Our classificationIncome inequality in region
Operationalization
Gini coefficient of household income p.c. at county 
level
Observed distributionM=0.28
Remarks
Details and source not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeb=+.73 p < .01
b's controlled for:
- basic variables:
  - gender
  - age and age squared
  - marital status
  - health
- conventional economic variables
  - log of p.c. household income
  - net wealth
  - working hours
- comparison variables 
  - household income compared to village mean
  - expected income over next 5 years
  - living standards compared to 5 years ago
- attitudinal variables 
  - degree of harmony among lineages
  - degree of harmony in village
  - agree that money is important
  - importance of family
  - importance of friends


Correlational finding on Happiness and Income inequality in region

StudyAlesina et al. (2004): study US 1981
TitleInequality and Happiness: Are Europeans and Americans Different?
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2004, Vol. 88, 2009 - 2042
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2003.07.006
PublicAdults, general public, United States, 1981-1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =19895

Correlate
Author's labelInequality
Page in Source 2019, 2023, 2025
Our classificationIncome inequality in region
Operationalization
Income inequality in US states in Gini coefficients 
(after-transfer, after-tax monetary income)
Observed distributionN=491, M=0,337, SD=0,032, Range=0,271-0,446
Remarks
Data from: Wu, Perloff and Golan (2002). Other measures 
of inequality gave insignificant results in the 
observed associations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
STATE inequality by INDIVIDUAL happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.9 p < .05
All individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.4 p < .05
Political left individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-3.1 ns
Political right individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.8 ns
Poor individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.9 p < .05
Rich individuals

OLRC's are controlled for personal 
characteristics:
- employment satus
- gender
- age 
- educational level
- marital status
- number of children
- income 
- race
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.1 p < .10
Additionaly controled for unemployment rate at 
state level, all individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-1.4 ns
Political left individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.3 ns
Political right individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-1.3 ns
Poor individuals
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOLRC=-2.8 p < .05
Rich individuals

All OLRC's remain the same when additionally 
controlled for crime rate. 

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Relative values denote that the negative 
effect is larger among rich and political right 
individuals. Comparisons of OLRC's are only 
possible if the same control variables are used in 
the regressions.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraction industry in region

StudyPontarollo et al. (2018): study EC 2015
TitleThe Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in A Developing Country: The Ecuadorian Case.
SourceJCR Report, 2018, Nr. 109319, European Commission, Luxembourg
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ipt/iptwpa/jrc109319.html
DOIdoi: 10.2760/858865
PublicAdults, Ecuador, 2015
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21265

Correlate
Author's labelRegional economy dependent on oil production
Page in Source 9,12
Our classificationExtraction industry in region
Operationalization
1 Oil dependent canton (district)
0 Other cantons
Error Estimatesb: SE=.17; OLRC: SE=.22

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-nb=-.33 p < .10
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-nOLRC=-.45 p < .05
b and OLRC controlled for:
Aggregate variables:
- per capita GVA (non-oil sectors)
- income inequality
- natural hazard risk
- urban area
Individual variables:
- urban
- gender
- age and age squared
- marital status
- importance of religion
- leisure time
- institutional trust
- indigenous 
- education
- employed
- socio-economic status
- health insurance
- walls in good condition
- internet access
- home-owner
- household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social security in region

StudyGao & Meng (2015): study CN 1998
TitleThe Impact of Government Size on Chinese Elders' Life Satisfaction: 1998-2008
SourceFilomena Maggino, Ed.: "Social Indicators Research Series 57, A New Research Agenda for Impovements in Quality of Life", Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, Swiss, 2015, 135 - 161
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15904-1_7
Public65+ aged, China, followed 10 years, 1998-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =50674

Correlate
Author's labelGovernment medical expenses
Page in Source 138, 146.
Our classificationSocial security in region
Operationalization
Per capita expenditure on public health.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.00 p < .01
Individual happiness by provincial expenditures on 
public health.

OPRC (+0,00211) controlled for:

-provincial characteristics:
 -Real GDP per capita
 -Government Size
 -Capital Formation Rate

-individual characteristics:
 -Gender
 -Living arrangement
 -Age (groups)
 -Urban (residence)
 -Etnicity (Han = 1)
 -Education
 -White Collar (= 1)
 -Frequency visits by child or sibling
 -Chronic conditions score
 -ADL-score (Physical limitations)

Similar results if additionally controlled for:
-Household income (quartiles)
-Feeling rich or fair


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social security in region

StudyKotakorpi & Laamanen (2010): study FI 2000
TitleWelfare State and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from Public Health Care.
SourceEconomica, 2010, Vol. 77, 565 - 583
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1468-0335,2008,00769,x
Public18+ aged, general public, Finland, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelExcess expenditure on primary public healthcare in community
Page in Source 9
Our classificationSocial security in region
Operationalization
More expenses for primary public health care than 
expected on the basis of visits to public health 
centres and treatment days in public health care 
(residue variance in regression with expenses as 
dependent variable and visits and treatment days as 
independent variables)
Observed distributionNot reported.
Remarks
Approximately 2/3 of all health care services in 
Finland are provided by the public sector.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.42 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- Individual characteristics:
  - income
  - age
  - gender
  - employment
  - education
  - marital status
  - children
  - religiousness
  - time spend with friends
  - unfit for work
- Municipality level variables: 
  - log of average income
  - unemployement rate
  - log of houseprices
  - log of net expenditures in soc. services & 
administration
  - log of net expenditures in education & culture
  - net expenditures in other sectors
  - excess exenditures in special private 
healthcare


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social security in region

StudyKotakorpi & Laamanen (2010): study FI 2000
TitleWelfare State and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from Public Health Care.
SourceEconomica, 2010, Vol. 77, 565 - 583
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1468-0335,2008,00769,x
Public18+ aged, general public, Finland, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelExcess expenditures on special private healthcare in community
Page in Source 9
Our classificationSocial security in region
Operationalization
More expenses than expected on the basis of treatment 
days in special private health care (residue variance 
in regression with expenses as dependent variable and 
visits and treatment days as independent variables).
Observed distributionNot reported
Remarks
Approximately 1/3 of all health care services in 
Finland are provided in special private health care.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.12 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  - income
  - age
  - gender
  - employment
  - education
  - marital status
  - children
  - religiousness
  - time spend with friends
  - unfit for work
- Municipality level variables: 
  - log of average income
  - unemployement rate
  - log of houseprices
  - log of net expenditures in soc. services & 
administration
  - log of net expenditures in education & culture
  - net expenditures in other sectors
  - excess exenditures in primary public 
healthcare


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-daSelf-report on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy do you feel?
4 very happy
3 happy
2 so-so
1 not happy
0 not happy at all
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel that your life at present is.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aeSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, do you feel happy nowadays?
0 very unhappy
1 unhappy
2 so-so
3 happy
4 very happy
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-nSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel regarding all aspects of your life all together?
10 totally happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unhappy
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you rate your life at present?
1 bad or very bad
2 fair
3 good
4 very good
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aSelfreport on single question:

Ss were asked to rate themselves on an 1 - 10 rating ladder in terms of their self-perceived life satisfaction.
(Full question not reported).
[ 10 ] +
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] --

(labels of scale extremes not reported)
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question

'Taken all together, how satisfied are you with the life you currently lead? Please indicate on this scale. 10 means that you are completely satisfied and 1 means that you are completely dissatisfied.'
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

I am very satisfied with the way things are going in my life these days:
1 definitely disagree
2
3
4
5
6 definitely agree
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

".......satisfaction with life-as-a-whole......"
(Full question not reported.)
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 very satisfied
4 extremely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?
0 extremely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely satisfied
- don't know
- no answer
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-101-aSelfreport on single question:

Ss were asked to indicate their satisfaction in 17 areas of life and with ....."life as a whole"
(Full question not reported)
0 completely dissatisfied
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport on single question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
OLRCOLRC: Regression coefficient in ordered categorical logistic regression.
Only the sign of the computed coefficient is informative.

Happiness is an ordered categorical variable. Higher categories correspond to being happier.

OLRC < 0 indicates that the odds of being beyond a chosen happiness category-to- be-ing at or below that category decreases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OLRC > 0 indicates an increase in the odds for both the above cases.
OPRCOPRC: Regression coefficient in ordered categorical probit regression.
Only the sign of the computed coefficient is informative.

Happiness is an ordered categorical variable. Higher categories correspond to being more happy.

OPRC < 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category decreases and the probability of being at or below that category increases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OLRC > 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category
increases and the probablity of being at or below that category decreases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness


A new version of this website is available since 2020 August 1 at the old address worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl
This old website is renamed as worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl and is still maintained.
The new website links to some parts of this old website for the time being.


Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
14971 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 7730 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1354 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12851 distributional findings in the general public, of which 9280 in 173 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3571 findings in 2299 regions and cities in nations.
3068 studies with findings in 175 specific publics.
20128 correlational findings observed in 2592 studies, excerpted from 1898 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Number of Studies
ACTIVITY (how much one does)3
ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)374
AFFECTIVE LIFE81
AGE857
AGGRESSION15
ANOMY35
APPEARANCE (good looks)28
ATTITUDES17
AUTHORITARIANISM4
BIRTH CONTROL2
BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)201
BODY113
CHILDREN13
CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)349
CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN40
CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN19
CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)36
COMMUNAL LIVING16
COMPETENCES21
CONCERNS50
CONSUMPTION174
COPING71
CREATIVENESS8
CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR3
CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)51
DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
DISASTER3
EDUCATION724
EMPLOYMENT 1078
ERA (temporal period)163
ETHNICITY231
EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
EVENTS2
FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)528
FAMILY OF PROCREATION154
FAMILY OF RELATIVES270
FARMING68
FREEDOM59
FRIENDSHIP375
GENDER840
GRIEF1
HABITS2
HANDICAP55
HAPPINESS: BEHAVIOR4
HAPPINESS: CAREER302
HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS20
HAPPINESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS3
HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES397
HAPPINESS: OF OTHERS23
HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS27
HAPPINESS: SEQUALE1
HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS164
HEALTH: BEHAVIOR67
HEALTH: MENTAL308
HEALTH: PHYSICAL966
HEALTH: PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS71
HEALTH: PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT548
HEALTH: TREATMENT MEDICAL201
HELPING19
HOPE38
HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION336
HOUSEHOLD: WORK48
HOUSING389
INCOME1385
INSTITUTIONAL LIVING64
INTELLIGENCE92
INTERNET205
INTERESTS29
INTERVIEW 104
INTIMACY220
LANGUAGE51
LEADERSHIP15
LEISURE470
LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS527
LIFE CHANGE72
LIFE EVENTS149
LIFE GOALS131
LIFE HISTORY12
LIFE STYLE 76
LOCAL: CULTURE11
LOCAL: DEMOGRAPHY38
LOCAL: ECONOMY238
LOCAL: GEOGRAPHY303
LOCAL: LIVABILITY (fit with human needs/capacities)8
LOCAL: POLITICS14
LOCAL: RESIDENCE89
LOCAL: SOCIETY263
LOTTERY13
LOVE-LIFE46
MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER120
MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS1050
MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP197
MARRIAGE: PARTNER84
MEANING35
MEDITATION8
MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY125
MIGRATION: TO OTHER REGION1
MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)54
MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN REGION0
MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
MILITARY LIFE14
MINORITY STATUS0
MODERNITY62
MOOD408
MOTIVATION25
MOBILITY (travel)0
NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONE'S NATION80
NATION: CULTURE191
NATION: DEMOGRAPHY40
NATION: ECONOMY498
NATION: GEOGRAPHY90
NATION: HISTORY7
NATION: JUSTICE61
NATION: LIFESTYLE12
NATION: LIVABILITY (fit with human needs/capacities)70
NATION: NATIONALITY82
NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)88
NATION: POLITICS234
NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION23
NATION: SOCIETY315
NUTRITION184
OCCUPATION262
PERFORMANCE149
PERSONALITY: HISTORY57
PERSONALITY: CHANGE15
PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS864
PERSONALITY: LATER22
PETS4
PLANNING12
POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR320
POPULARITY33
PREFERENCES6
POSSESSIONS274
PRISON3
PROBLEMS40
REGION OF RESIDENCE112
REGION: CULTURE11
REGION: DEMOGRAPHY9
REGION: ECONOMY48
REGION: GEOGRAPHY34
REGION: HISTORY0
REGION: LIVABILITY. Fit environment - human needs/capacities6
REGION: PERSONALITY0
REGION: POLITICS11
REGION: POSITION1
REGION: SOCIETY7
RELIGION548
RESOURCES37
RETIREMENT170
ROLES31
SCHOOL1429
SELF-IMAGE355
SEX-LIFE88
SLEEP19
SOCIAL MOBILITY27
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS114
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS162
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)61
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS211
SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED148
SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED25
SPORTS226
STIMULANTS104
SUICIDE10
SUMMED DETERMINANTS217
SUSTAINABLE BEHAVIOR0
TIME 239
TOLERANCE40
TRAVEL30
TREATMENT0
TRUST71
VALUE DEVELOPMENT8
VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)172
VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)14
VALUES: LIVING UP TO20
VICTIM 47
WAR9
WISDOM1
WORK: CAREER2
WORK: CONDITIONS152
WORK: ATTITUDES466
WORK: PERFORMANCE42
WORRIES60
UNCLASSIFIED31
X0


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
REGION: ECONOMYLOCAL: ECONOMY
REGION: ECONOMYNATION: ECONOMY
Earlier economic conditions in regionEarlier economy in nation
Change of economic conditions in regionChange in local economic conditions
Change of economic conditions in regionChange of economic conditions in nation
Economic growth/decline in regionGrowth\decline of local economy
Economic growth/decline in regionChange GDP in nation: economic growth/decline
Economic innovation in regionIncome level in vinicity
Change economic security in regionChange of economic conditions in nation
Change economic security in regionSocial security in region
Change minimum wage in regionChange minimum wage in nation
Change minimum wage in regionMinimum wage in region
Change tax regime in regionTax regime in nation
Raise of tobacco tax in regionSpend less on stimulants
Raise of tobacco tax in regionStimulants
Raise of tobacco tax in regionUse of tobacco
Change unemployment rate in regionUnemployment in nation
Change unemployment rate in regionUnemployment in region
Later economic conditions in regionHAPPINESS: SEQUALE
Later economic conditions in regionCultural facilities in vinicity
Later economic conditions in regionLater economic conditions
Economic affluence in regionLOCAL: ECONOMY
Economic affluence in regionEconomic affluence in nation
Average income in regionEconomic affluence in nation
GDP in regionGnp per capita (raw)
GDP in regionPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
GDP in regionGross National Product
Economic investments in regionInvestment price level in nation
Economic investments in regionGlobal competitiveness of nation
Unemployment in regionUnemployed involuntary
Unemployment in regionLOCAL: ECONOMY
Unemployment in regionUnemployment in nation
Unemployment in regionChange unemployment rate in region
Income inequality in regionIncome inequality in nation
Extraction industry in regionIndustries in nation
Industrial mass production in regionIndustries in nation
Sustainable energy production in regionIndustries in nation
Tourism in regionIndustries in nation
Tourism in regionLeisure travel
Openness of economy in regionOpenness of economy in nation
Public goods in regionAmenities in vinicity
Public goods in regionPublic goods in nation
Social security in regionSocial security in nation
Socio-economic regime in regionSocio-economic regime in the nation
Economic freedom in regionEconomic freedom in nation
Standard of living in regionStandard of living in vinicity
Standard of living in regionStandard of living in the nation
Amenities in regionAvailability of amenities in vinicity
Amenities in regionQuality\quantity of facilities in nation
Consumption in regionConsumption in vinicity
Consumption in regionConsumption in nation
Poverty in regionPoverty in vinicity
Poverty in regionPoverty in nation
Price level in regionCosts of living in vinicity
Price level in regionPrice level in nation
Work conditions in regionWork conditions in nation
Work conditions in regionWORK: CONDITIONS
Minimum wage in regionChange minimum wage in region
Satisfaction with price level in regionPrice level in region

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings