Findings on Happiness and NUTRITION

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and main subject: NUTRITION

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Nr of Studieson subject
NUTRITION
10   Nutrition history
    Earlier nutrition
4     Change in nutrition
    Later nutrition
7   Current nutrition
2     How much one eats
2     How much one spends on eating
1     How often one eats
48     What one eats
2     When one eats
49       Breakfast (or not)
      Lunch (or not)
49       Dinner (or not)
      Supper
      Snacking between meals
2     Where one eats
2   Attitudes to one's nutrition
3     Concern about nutrition
3     Satisfaction with one's nutrition

Appendices
Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
Appendix 2: Statistics used
Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 4: Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 5: Related Subjects

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and NUTRITION
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=0122
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2021, Netherlands


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelIron treatment in second half year of life
Page in Source 506
Our classificationNutrition history
Operationalization
Iron treatment in second half year of life as reported 
in medical file
1: second half year, under 1 month
2: second half year, 1-2 months
3: second half year, over 2 months
Observed distributionN: 1:7,1%, 2:12,2%, 3:23,6%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=7.60
2: Mt=7.99
3: Mt=7.64
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ars=-.36 ns
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=7.06
2: Mt=7.70
3: Mt=7.40
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ers=+.02 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=6.79
2: Mt=7.34
3: Mt=6.96
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hars=-.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelDiet shortly after birth
Page in Source 434
Our classificationNutrition history
Operationalization
Diet at day 5 as reported in medical file
a:breast fed
b:breast fed with water supplement
c:breast fed with milk supplement
d:wet nurse milk
e:wet nurse milk with supplement
f:formula
g:other nourishment
h:tube feeding
Observed distributionN all:4534, %:a:67,2, b:2,7, c:16,9, d:1,9, e:1,9, f:5,5, g:0,7, h:3,1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
a:Mt=7.73
b:Mt=7.65
c:Mt=7.75
d:Mt=7.89
e:Mt=7.50
f:Mt=7.68
g:Mt=7.65
h:Mt=7.73
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
a:Mt=7.44
b:Mt=7.15
c:Mt=7.39
d:Mt=7.44
e:Mt=7.19
f:Mt=7.16
g:Mt=7.89
h:Mt=7.46
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
a:Mt=7.03
b:Mt=7.09
c:Mt=7.08
d:Mt=7.11
e:Mt=6.86
f:Mt=6.90
g:Mt=7.05
h:Mt=7.06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelVitamin supplements shortly after birth
Page in Source 436
Our classificationNutrition history
Operationalization
Vitamin supplements, day 5, as reported in medical file 

1:no vitamins
2: vitamin supplements
   2a:E vitamin
   2b:K vitamin
   2c:K vitamin 1 mg
   2d:Etra menadion
Observed distributionN all:4291, 1:82,1%, 2a:1,5%, 2b:13,2%, 2c:3,1%, 2d:0,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1: Mt=7.71
2: Mt=7.77
   2a:Mt=7.78
   2b:Mt=7.78
   2c:Mt=7.75
   2d:Mt=7.86
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1: Mt=7.39
2: Mt=7.49
   2a:Mt=7.78
   2b:Mt=7.43
   2c:Mt=7.61
   2d:Mt=7.50
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1: Mt=7.01
2: Mt=7.07
   2a:Mt=7.28
   2b:Mt=7.05
   2c:Mt=7.14
   2d:Mt=5.71


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelVitamin supplements in first year of life
Page in Source 492
Our classificationNutrition history
Operationalization
Vitamin supplements in  first year of life as reported 
in medical file
1a: no vitamins
1b: no AD vitamins at all or for less than a month
1c: no C vitamins at all or for less than a month
2:irregularly doses of vitamins
2a: AD vitamins irregularly or with a pause of more 
than 3 months
2b: vitamins irregularly or with a pause of more than 3 
months
3: regularly doses of vitamins
3a: AD vitamins, regularly
3b: C vitamins, regularly
3c: D vitamins, supplement
3d: AD vitamins in increased doses
3e: extra calcium
Observed distributionN: 1a:9, 1b:21, 1c:71, 2a:388, 2b:563, 3a:3132, 3b:2878, 3c:19, 3d:452, 3e:20
Remarks
only absolute frequencies are given.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1a: Mt=8.34
1b: Mt=7.50
1c: Mt=7.85
2a: Mt=7.89
2b: Mt=7.84
3a: Mt=7.73
3b: Mt=7.73
3c: Mt=8.29
3d: Mt=7.79
3e: Mt=7.50
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ars=-.02 ns
rs =relation of 1,2,3
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1a: Mt=8.05
1b: Mt=6.90
1c: Mt=7.50
2a: Mt=7.60
2b: Mt=7.55
3a: Mt=7.38
3b: Mt=7.38
3c: Mt=7.90
3d: Mt=7.45
3e: Mt=7.64
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ers=-.02 ns
rs =relation of 1,2,3
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1a: Mt=7.78
1b: Mt=7.03
1c: Mt=7.01
2a: Mt=7.34
2b: Mt=7.29
3a: Mt=6.99
3b: Mt=6.98
3c: Mt=6.84
3d: Mt=7.09
3e: Mt=7.38
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hars=-.05 ns
rs =relation of 1,2,3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelAge when first eggs are eaten
Page in Source 496
Our classificationNutrition history
Operationalization
Age when first eggs are eaten as reported in medical 
file
1: 2th month
2: 3rd month
3: 4th month
4: 5th month
5: 6th month
6: 7th month
7: 8th - 9th month
8: 10 month
Observed distributionN all:2866, 1:0,3%, 2:0,8%, 3:5,0%, 4:12,0%, 5:20,8%, 6:37,8%, 7:17,9%, 8:5,3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=8.75
2: Mt=8.64
3: Mt=7.40
4: Mt=7.70
5: Mt=7.71
6: Mt=7.84
7: Mt=7.69
8: Mt=7.75
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.01 p < .6849
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=8.44
2: Mt=8.30
3: Mt=7.41
4: Mt=7.39
5: Mt=7.29
6: Mt=7.51
7: Mt=7.36
8: Mt=7.38
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.01 p < .6749
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=8.44
2: Mt=7.14
3: Mt=7.10
4: Mt=7.13
5: Mt=6.98
6: Mt=7.08
7: Mt=6.91
8: Mt=7.14
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.02 p < .2930


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelAge when first meat eaten
Page in Source 498
Our classificationNutrition history
Operationalization
Age when first meat eaten as reported in medical file
1: before 4th month
2: 4th month
3: 5th month
4: 6th month
5: 7th month
6: 8th month - 9th month 
7: 10th month
8: 11th - 12th month
Observed distributionN all:3166, 1:0,4%, 2:2,5%, 3:6,7%, 4:10,6%, 5:31,1%, 6:28,7%, 7:16,6%, 8:3,3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=7.89
2: Mt=7.41
3: Mt=7.74
4: Mt=7.76
5: Mt=7.69
6: Mt=7.81
7: Mt=7.84
8: Mt=7.31
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.01 p < .5595
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=7.31
2: Mt=7.29
3: Mt=7.50
4: Mt=7.30
5: Mt=7.40
6: Mt=7.44
7: Mt=7.45
8: Mt=7.26
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 p < .7242
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=6.73
2: Mt=6.88
3: Mt=7.10
4: Mt=7.01
5: Mt=7.01
6: Mt=7.04
7: Mt=7.08
8: Mt=6.90
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.01 p < .7569


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelAge when first solid food eaten
Page in Source 500
Our classificationNutrition history
Operationalization
Age when first solid food eaten as reported in medical 
file
1: 4th month
2: 5th month
3: 6th month
4: 7th month
5: 8th-9th month
6: 10 month
7: 11th-12th month
Observed distributionN all:2966, 1:0,6%, 2:1,8%, 3:4,9%, 4:16,6%, 5:32,9%, 6:36,9%, 7:6,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=6.61
2: Mt=7.50
3: Mt=7.69
4: Mt=7.78
5: Mt=7.79
6: Mt=7.70
7: Mt=7.85
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.02 p < .4073
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=6.48
2: Mt=7.04
3: Mt=7.23
4: Mt=7.50
5: Mt=7.46
6: Mt=7.34
7: Mt=7.49
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 p < .5045
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=5.89
2: Mt=6.80
3: Mt=7.00
4: Mt=7.11
5: Mt=7.03
6: Mt=6.95
7: Mt=7.09
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.01 p < .7731


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelAge when first mashed vegetables eaten
Page in Source 494
Our classificationNutrition history
Operationalization
Age when first  mashed vegetables eaten as reported in 
medical file
1: before 3rd month
2: 3rd month
3: 4th month
4: 5th month
5: 6th month
6: 7th month
7: 8th - 9th month
8: 10th month or later
Observed distributionN all:3445, 1:1,0%, 2:8,0%, 3:37,3%, 4:24,0%, 5:13,4%, 6:11,5%, 7:3,2%, 8:1,6%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=7.28
2: Mt=7.83
3: Mt=7.76
4: Mt=7.61
5: Mt=7.74
6: Mt=7.81
7: Mt=7.86
8: Mt=7.85
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.01 p < .6152
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=7.20
2: Mt=7.41
3: Mt=7.43
4: Mt=7.31
5: Mt=7.46
6: Mt=7.41
7: Mt=7.71
8: Mt=7.59
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 p < .5735
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=6.69
2: Mt=7.09
3: Mt=7.01
4: Mt=6.93
5: Mt=7.00
6: Mt=7.15
7: Mt=7.23
8: Mt=7.10
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.02 p < .2537


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelIron treatment in first half year of life
Page in Source 506
Our classificationNutrition history
Operationalization
Iron treatment in  first half year of life as reported 
in medical file
1: first year, less than 1 month
2: first year, 1 - 2 months.
3: first half year, over 2 months
iron treatment in the child's second half year
Observed distributionN all:1124, 1:9,4%, 2:18,1%, 3:29,5%,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=7.64
2: Mt=7.93
3: Mt=7.61
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ars=-.36 ns
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
1: Mt=7.39
2: Mt=7.60
3: Mt=7.36
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ers=+.02 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
1: Mt=7.08
2: Mt=7.11
3: Mt=6.91
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hars=-.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelAge when breastfeeding was stopped
Page in Source 540,542
Our classificationNutrition history
Operationalization
Age when breastfeeding was stopped as reported in 
medical file
1: 1-2 week
2: 3-4 week
3: 2 month
4: 3 month
5: 4 month
6: 5 month
7: 6-7 month
8: 8 month or later
(a)breastfeeding partially discontinued
(b)breastfeeding completely discontinued
Observed distributionN a all:3769, a1:29,1%, a2:10,4%, a3:17,5%, a4:14,6%, a5:13,3%, a6:6,0%, a7:7,1%, a8:2,0% N b all:3657, b1:22,3%, b2:9,0%, b3:17,5%, b4:15,3%, b5:13,6%, b6:6,2%, b7:8,2%, b8:7,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
a:partially     b:completely
1: Mt=7.74      1:7.76
2: Mt=7.46      2:7.66
3: Mt=7.76      3:7.59
4: Mt=7.76      4:7.81
5: Mt=7.81      5:7.84
6: Mt=7.70      6:7.70
7: Mt=7.86      7:7.71
8: Mt=7.70      8:7.73
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.02 p < .2442
partially
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.00 p < .8161
completely
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
a:partially     b:completely
1: Mt=7.40      1:7.41
2: Mt=7.18      2:7.38
3: Mt=7.30      3:7.18
4: Mt=7.49      4:7.45
5: Mt=7.48      5:7.50
6: Mt=7.51      6:7.48
7: Mt=7.54      7:7.43
8: Mt=7.56      8:7.43
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.03 p < .0721
partially
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 p < .3810
completely
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
a:partially     b:completely
1: Mt=7.06      1:7.04
2: Mt=7.01      2:7.08
3: Mt=6.91      3:6.88
4: Mt=7.03      4:7.06
5: Mt=7.00      5:7.06
6: Mt=7.09      6:6.93
7: Mt=7.11      7:7.05
8: Mt=7.10      8:7.10
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.00 p < .8358
partially
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.01 p < .6575
completely


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in nutrition

StudyMujcic & Oswald (2016): study AU 2007
TitleEvolution of Well-Being and Happiness After Increases in Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables.
SourceAmerican Journal of Public Health, 2016, Vol 106, 1504 - 1510
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27400354
DOIdoi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303260.
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 3 years 2007-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12385

Correlate
Author's labelChange consumption fruits and vegetables
Page in Source table 1 + 2
Our classificationChange in nutrition
Operationalization
Selfreported consumption of fruit and vegetables in 
portions per day in a typical week
1
2
3
4
5
6 or more
Observed distributionM: 3,84; SD: 2,01
Remarks
Change over 3 years: T1: 2007, T2: 2008, T3: 2009

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.03 p < .002
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE portions fruits and 
vegetables
CI95 [+0.01, +0.04] no controls

Meaning: Change from 1 to 6 servings an day would 
correspond with a gain of 0,24 on this 0-10 
happiness scale
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.03 p < .003
Controled for set A
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.02 p < .10
Additionally controled for set B
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab-fix=+.02 p < .003
CI95 [+.001, - +003) no controls
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab-fix=+.02 p < .02
Controled for set A
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab-fix=+.02 p < .017
Additionally controled for set B

Control variables SET A
- socio-demographic characteristics
  - age
  - income
  - education
  - employmeent
- long-term health condition
- number of children under age 4

Control variables SET B
- drinking alcohol
- smoking
- eating behaviors
  - never eat red meat
  - never eat fish
  - drink low fat or skinny milk
  - avoid fat foods
- BMI
- regular exercise

Granger test suggests that causality runs from 
nutrition to happiness and not reversedly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in nutrition

StudyCaligiuri et al. (2012): study CA 2000
TitleChanges in food group consumption and associations with self-rated diet, health, life satisfaction, and menatl and physical functioning over 5 years in very old Canadian men: The Manitoba follow up study
SourceThe Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 2012, 16 (8) 707-712
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/articles/23076513/#affiliation-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12603-012-0055-7
Public79 + aged men, Canada, followed 5 years, 200-2005
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =2061

Correlate
Author's labelChange in food consupmtion
Page in Source 710
Our classificationChange in nutrition
Operationalization
The frequency of consumption has been examined, in 
following food groups:
a. Fruits and vegetables;
b. Grain products;
c. Meat and alternatives;
d. Milk products and alternatives;

Participants were clasified in five categories: not at 
all, rarely, most days, every day, and every meal.
Observed distribution% improved a: 46%, b: 49%, c: 46%, d: 59%
Remarks
Assessed on: T1 2000 and T2 2005

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=1.20 ns
CHANGE in happiness by IMPROVEMENT in consumption 
of vegetables and fruits 
CI95 [0.86 - 1.67]
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=1.22 ns
CHANGE in happiness by IMPROVEMENT in consumption 
of grain products
CI95 [0.87 - 1.70]
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=1.34 ns
CHANGE in happiness by IMPROVEMENT in consumption 
of milk products and alternatives
CI95 [0.98 - 1.85]
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=1.38 ns
CHANGE in happiness by IMPROVEMENT in consumption 
of meat products and alternatives
CI95 [0.98 - 1.96]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in nutrition

StudyWamsteker et al. (2003): study NL 2000
TitleBeleving van Obesitas: Gewichtsverlies en de Kwaliteit van Leven na een Dieetbehandeling met Maaltijdvervangers. (Obesitas: Loss of Weight and the Quality of Life after Diet with Food Replacements).
SourceNederlands Tijdschrift voor Diëtisten, 2003, Vol. 58, 59 - 63
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/wamsteker_em_2003.pdf
PublicObese persons, treated with meal substitutes, The Netherlands, 2000
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =66

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness following diet
Page in Source 61
Our classificationChange in nutrition
Operationalization
Low Calory Diet (LCD) using meal suplements. 800-1000 
kilocalories a day.
Ss visited a dietist every week 
T1: week before diet
T2: week 9
Remarks
Ss lost on average 10% weight between T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aDM=+ p < .007
             M           SD
T1:          75,9        18,2
T2:          80,8        12,9
- difference +5,1
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aD%=+
Been happy person      T1       T2
- all of the time      30.3     24,2
- most of the time     31,8     51,5
- some of the time     10,6     13,6
- a little of the time 25,8      9,1
- none of the time      1,5      1,5
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aD%=
T1-T2 CHANGE of happiness
worse      no change     better
33%          6%           62%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in nutrition

StudyPettay (2008a): study US 2006
TitleHealth Behaviors and Life Satisfaction in college Students.
SourcePhD Thesis, Kansas State University, 2008, USA
PublicUniversity students, Illinois, USA, 2007
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =796

Correlate
Author's labelStage of change in fruit and vegetable consumption
Page in Source 59
Our classificationChange in nutrition
Operationalization
Self report on questions about change for fruit and 
vegetable consumption:
1: precontemplation
2: contemplation
3; preparation
4: action
5: maitenance
Observed distribution1: 48%, 2: 6%, 3: 37%, 4: 2%, 5: 7%
Remarks
Scores derived from the following combinations of 
questions
A: How many servings of fruits and vegetables do you 
usually eat a day? (0 to.6 or more)
B: Do you intend to eat more than 5 servings in the 
next 6 monnths? (yes/no)
C: Do you intend to start eating 5 or more servings in 
the next 30 days? (yes/no)
D: Have you been eating 5 or more servings in the last 
6 months? (yes/no)
1 = A<4 + B no
2 = A,<4 + C no
3 = A <5 + D no
4 = A<5 + D yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcMW=+ ns
Similar for males and females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nutrition

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labeldiet and health
Page in Source 454
Our classificationCurrent nutrition
Operationalization
diet
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither good nor bad
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: All:4547; %:1:17,7; 2:47,9; 3:24,8; 4:8,2; 5:1,4
Remarks
the correlations and M's do give only the relation 
between diet and health
based on the question:
"How are your eating habits ?"
1 I eat what I like
2 I think I eat healthy
3 I think I eat unhealthy
4 I eat few calories because of my weight
5 I eat ready-prepared dishes/fast food at least once a 
week
6 I eat vegetarian food
7 Information campaigns influence my eating habits

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.05 p < .00
1: Ms=7.38
2: Ms=7.73
3: Ms=7.79
4: Ms=7.65
5: Ms=7.98
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.03 p < .02
1: Ms=7.38
2: Ms=7.69
3: Ms=7.70
4: Ms=7.64
5: Ms=7.84
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.03 ns
1: Ms=7.46
2: Ms=7.80
3: Ms=7.75
4: Ms=7.55
5: Ms=8.44


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nutrition

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labeldiet
Page in Source 186
Our classificationCurrent nutrition
Operationalization
Single question:
"How is your diet ?"
a: I eat what I like
b: I think my diet is healthy
c: I don't think my diet is healthy
d: I eat so as to keep my weight down
e: I eat ready-prepared dishes or fast food 
   at least once a week
f: I eat vegatarian
g: Information campaigns influence my 
   dietary habits
Observed distributionN: All; %:a:66,6; b:53,7; c:17,4; d:8,4; e:17,6; f:4,3; g:12,8
Remarks
catagories are not mutually exclusive

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
a: Mt=7.79
b: Mt=7.96
c: Mt=7.09
d: Mt=7.81
e: Mt=7.58
f: Mt=7.61
g: Mt=7.64
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
a: Mt=7.44
b: Mt=7.65
c: Mt=6.76
d: Mt=7.51
e: Mt=7.24
f: Mt=7.21
g: Mt=7.26
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
a: Mt=7.01
b: Mt=7.26
c: Mt=6.50
d: Mt=7.06
e: Mt=6.70
f: Mt=6.73
g: Mt=6.90


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nutrition

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labeldiet
Page in Source 178
Our classificationCurrent nutrition
Operationalization
Single question:
"How is your diet ?"
a: I eat what I like
b: I think my diet is healthy
c: I don't think my diet is healthy
d: I eat so as to keep my weight down
e: I eat ready-prepared dishes or fast food 
   at least once a week
f: I eat vegatarian
g: Information campaigns influence my 
   dietary habits
Observed distributionN: a:833, b:831, c:160, d:180, e:188, f:32, g:153
Remarks
The same respondents may appear in several groups

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
 a: Mt=7.89
 b: Mt=7.88
 c: Mt=7.14
 d: Mt=7.65
 e: Mt=7.63
 f: Mt=8.05
 g: Mt=7.73
All Mt=7.89
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
 a: Mt=7.50
 b: Mt=7.64
 c: Mt=6.55
 d: Mt=7.46
 e: Mt=7.25
 f: Mt=7.83
 g: Mt=7.54
All Mt=7.46
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
 a: Mt=7.00
 b: Mt=7.08
 c: Mt=6.39
 d: Mt=7.10
 e: Mt=6.83
 f: Mt=7.19
 g: Mt=6.95
All Mt=6.98


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nutrition

StudyLauzon-Guillain et al. (2012): study GB East England 2006
TitleBreastfeeding and Infant Temperament at Age Three Months
SourcePloS ONE, www.plosone.org, January 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, e29326
DOIDOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0029326
Public3 months aged infants, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2006-2009
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =316

Correlate
Author's labelMode of Infant Feeding
Page in Source 2, 3,4
Our classificationCurrent nutrition
Operationalization
Mother's report on single question to a research nurse 
administered questionnaire:
a: Formula-fed
b: Mixed-fed
c: Breastfed
Observed distributiona: N=88, 55% males; b: N=91, 54% males; c: N=137, 54% males
Remarks
Assessed at 3 months of age

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-aDM=- p < .05
a Formula-fed: M = 4,8 [CI95 4,6-5,0]
b Mixed-fed:   M = 4,4 [CI95 4,2-4,6] 
c Breastfed:   M = 4,4 [CI95 4,2-4,5]

b, c < a
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abDM=- p < .05
a Formula-fed: M = 5,4 [CI95 5,2-5,6]
b Mixed-fed:   M = 5,0 [CI95 4,8-5,2] 
c Breastfed:   M = 5,1 [CI95 4,8-5,1]

b, c < a
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-baDM=- p < .05
a Formula-fed: M = 5,3 [CI95 5,1-5,5]
b Mixed-fed:   M = 5,1 [CI95 5,0-5,3] 
c Breastfed:   M = 5,0 [CI95 4,8-5,1]

c < a
A-AB-cw-rdf-v-7-a
a Formula-fed: 7.1
b Mixed-fed:   5.7
c Breastfed:   5.4

Affect Balance computed by WDH team


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nutrition

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study GB 2000
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14101

Correlate
Author's labelEquivalised Consumption / 1000
Page in Source 10, 16
Our classificationCurrent nutrition
Operationalization
For consumption the food expenditure (food eaten at 
home and meals out) served as a proxy for total 
non-durables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.06
r only reported in original Discussion paper
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.13 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.01 ns
B and Beta controlled for
- gender
- age
- partnered
- education
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nutrition

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelEating regulary
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent nutrition
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Eating 3 meals a day
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = 3.06

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nutrition

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelSnacking
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent nutrition
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better: 
- Eating frequent snacks during the day or in the 
evening
rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distribution Mean Snacking 3.22

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.12 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and How much one eats

StudyFeller et al. (2013): study DE 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Risk of Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition {EPIC)-Germany.
SourcePLoS ONE 8(8): e73462
URLhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0073462
DOIdoi:10.1371/joumal.pone.0073462
Public35-65 aged, general population, Germany, followed 4 years1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =48976

Correlate
Author's labelTotal energy intake
Page in Source 4
Our classificationHow much one eats
Operationalization
Energy intake in kJ/day based on selfreport of diet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bD%=-
T1 happiness by T1 energy intake

                   kJ/day   SD 
Very satisfied     8.374   2.926       
Rather satisfied   8.620   2.978
Unsatisfied        8.837   3.407


Correlational finding on Happiness and How much one eats

StudyPelham & Nyiri (2009): study ZZ 2006
TitleEating well and Life Satisfaction; a Global View.
SourceThe Gallup Company, 2009, Washington DC, USQA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/113827/eating-well-life-satisfaction-global-view.aspx
Public15+ aged, general public, 114 nations, 2006-2008
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =114000

Correlate
Author's labelHunger
Page in Source 2
Our classificationHow much one eats
Operationalization
Self report on single question: "Have there been times 
in the past 12 months when you or your family have gone 
hungry?" 
0= no
1= yes
Observed distribution% yes: Africa: 56%, Americas: 16%, Asia: 9%, Europe: 3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=-
Africa
0 = no hunger, M = 4,7 
1 = hunger,    M = 3,9
      Difference =-0,8

The Americas
0 = no hunger, M = 6,1 
1 = hunger,    M = 4,6
      Difference =-1,5
Asia
0 = no hunger, M = 5,4
1 = hunger,    M = 4,1
      Difference =-1,3

Europe
0 = no hunger, M = 5,9 
1 = hunger,    M = 4,1
      Difference =-1,8
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and How much one spends on eating

StudyNoll & Weick (2015): study DE 2010
TitleConsumption Expenditures and Subjective Well-Being: Emperical Evidence from Germany
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 101 - 119
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0219-3
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =30000

Correlate
Author's labelExpenditures on nutrition
Page in Source Table 4, 5
Our classificationHow much one spends on eating
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions:
Did you or another household member make any of the 
nutrition expenditures?
If yes: how much in total did these expenditures cost 
your household in 2009?
Remarks
Expressed in natural logarithm (ln)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.01 ns
B controlled for:
-Expenditures on:
 -Clothing
 -Housing and energy
 -Furniture and housing facilities
 -Health
 -Mobility
 -Communication
 -Leisure
 -Education
 -Hotels and restaurants
 -Other
-Household size
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.01 ns
B additionally controlled for
-Household net income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.00 ns
B additionally controlled for
-Region in Germany
-Age
-Marital status
-Education
-Employment status
-Self-rated health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and How much one spends on eating

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study HU 1996
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3055

Correlate
Author's labelEquivalised consumption / 1000
Page in Source 10, 16
Our classificationHow much one spends on eating
Operationalization
For consumption the food expenditure (food eaten at 
home and meals out) served as a proxy for total 
non-durables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fr=+.22
r only reported in original Discuusion paper
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fb=+.19 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fb=+.13 p < .001
B and Beta controlled for
- gender
- age
- partnered
- education
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and How often one eats

StudyLesani et al. (2016): study IR Tehran 2011
TitleEating Breakfast, Fruit and Vegetable intake and their Relation with Happiness in College Students.
SourceEating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 2016, Vol. 21, 645 - 651
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40519-016-0261-0/fulltext.html
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s40519-016-0261-0
PublicMedical students, Teheran, Iran, 2011
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response50,18%
Respondents N =541

Correlate
Author's labelFood pattern
Page in Source A2
Our classificationHow often one eats
Operationalization
5. 3 meals and snacks
4. 3 meals
3. breakfast and 1 meal
2. 2 meals except breakfast
1. 1 meal
Observed distributionN = 5: 149, 4: 115, 3: 52, 2: 71, 1: 154

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-6-aDMa=+
5: 3 meals and snacks       Ma =  4,17
4: 3 meals                  Ma =  3,94
3: breakfast and 1 meal     Ma =  3,82
2: 2 meals except breakfast Ma =  3,71
1: 1 meal                   Ma =  3,77

Dma controled for:
- socio-economic status 
- physical activity
- experience of stress in last 6 months
- cigarette smoking status
O-Sum-u-mq-v-6-aBMCT=+ p < .05
5,4 > 1,2,3


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyMujcic & Oswald (2016): study AU 2007
TitleEvolution of Well-Being and Happiness After Increases in Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables.
SourceAmerican Journal of Public Health, 2016, Vol 106, 1504 - 1510
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27400354
DOIdoi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303260.
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 3 years 2007-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12385

Correlate
Author's labelChange consumption fruits and vegetables
Page in Source table 1 + 2
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreported consumption of fruit and vegetables in 
portions per day in a typical week
1
2
3
4
5
6 or more
Observed distributionM: 3,84; SD: 2,01
Remarks
Change over 3 years: T1: 2007, T2: 2008, T3: 2009

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.03 p < .002
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE portions fruits and 
vegetables
CI95 [+0.01, +0.04] no controls

Meaning: Change from 1 to 6 servings an day would 
correspond with a gain of 0,24 on this 0-10 
happiness scale
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.03 p < .003
Controled for set A
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.02 p < .10
Additionally controled for set B
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab-fix=+.02 p < .003
CI95 [+.001, - +003) no controls
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab-fix=+.02 p < .02
Controled for set A
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab-fix=+.02 p < .017
Additionally controled for set B

Control variables SET A
- socio-demographic characteristics
  - age
  - income
  - education
  - employmeent
- long-term health condition
- number of children under age 4

Control variables SET B
- drinking alcohol
- smoking
- eating behaviors
  - never eat red meat
  - never eat fish
  - drink low fat or skinny milk
  - avoid fat foods
- BMI
- regular exercise

Granger test suggests that causality runs from 
nutrition to happiness and not reversedly


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyMujcic & Oswald (2016): study AU 2007
TitleEvolution of Well-Being and Happiness After Increases in Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables.
SourceAmerican Journal of Public Health, 2016, Vol 106, 1504 - 1510
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27400354
DOIdoi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303260.
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 3 years 2007-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12385

Correlate
Author's labelWhat one eats
Page in Source table 1
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
a: Never eat red meat    
b: Never eat fish 
c: Drink low-fat or skim milk 
d: Avoid fatty foods)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix= ns
Never red meat     b-fix = +.20 CI95[–.16,+.55]
Never fish         b-fix =–+.09 CI05[–.20,+.02]
Low-fat, skim milk b-fix = –.04 CI95[–.12,+.04]
Avoid fatty foods  b-fix = –.05 CI95[–.12,+.01]

b-fix controled for:
- CHANGE daily consumption of fruits and 
vegetables
- CURRENT
  - socio-demographics
    - age
    - income
    - education
    - marital status
    - employment
  - number of young children in household
  - exercise regularly
  - long-term health condition
  - BMI


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyLengyel et al. (2009): study CA 2000
TitleThe Relationships Between Food Group Consumption, Self-Rated Health, and Life Satisfaction of Community-Dwelling Canadian Older Men: The Manitoba Follow-Up Study
SourceJournal of Nutrition for the Elderly, 2009 Vol. 28, 158-173
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21184363
DOIDOI:10.1080/01639360902950182
Public80+ aged World War II veterans, Canada 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response1345
Respondents N =1630

Correlate
Author's labelConsumption of vegetables and fruits
Page in Source 168-169
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreport on question: How often do you NOW eat …fruit 
and vegetables
1 not at all 
2 rarely
3 most days
4 every day
5 every meal

Recoded
Daily (4+5)
Mostly (3)
Rarely (1+2)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=1.61 p < .001
Daily (vs mostly) CI95[1,27-2,04]
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=3,71 p < .02
Daily  (vs rarely) CI95[1,27-10,8]
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=0,13 ns
Mostly  (vs rarely) CI95[078-6,78]

OR's slightly lower after control for:
- socio-demographic characteristics
  - age
  - ever smoked
  - marital status
  - living arrangement
- health
  - mental health
  - physical health
  - earlier hear disease

OR's slightly lower when controled for consumption 
of other food items
- grains
- meat and alternatives
- milk products


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyLengyel et al. (2009): study CA 2000
TitleThe Relationships Between Food Group Consumption, Self-Rated Health, and Life Satisfaction of Community-Dwelling Canadian Older Men: The Manitoba Follow-Up Study
SourceJournal of Nutrition for the Elderly, 2009 Vol. 28, 158-173
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21184363
DOIDOI:10.1080/01639360902950182
Public80+ aged World War II veterans, Canada 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response1345
Respondents N =1630

Correlate
Author's labelConsumption of grain products
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreport on question: How often do you NOW eat…grain 
products
1 not at all 
2 rarely
3 most days
4 every day
5 every meal

Recoded
Daily (4+5)
Mostly (3)
Rarely (1+2)
Remarks
Grain products: pasta, bread, rice…

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=1.46 p < .001
Daily (vs mostly) CI95[1,16-1,85]
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=1.95 p < .06
Daily  (vs rarely) CI95[0,96-3,96]
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=1.33 p < .428
Mostly  (vs rarely) CI95[0,65-2,72]

OR's slightly lower after control for:
- socio-demographic characteristics
  - age
  - ever smoked
  - marital status
  - living arrangement
- health
  - mental health
  - physical health
  - earlier hear disease
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyLengyel et al. (2009): study CA 2000
TitleThe Relationships Between Food Group Consumption, Self-Rated Health, and Life Satisfaction of Community-Dwelling Canadian Older Men: The Manitoba Follow-Up Study
SourceJournal of Nutrition for the Elderly, 2009 Vol. 28, 158-173
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21184363
DOIDOI:10.1080/01639360902950182
Public80+ aged World War II veterans, Canada 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response1345
Respondents N =1630

Correlate
Author's labelConsumption of meat products
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreport on question: How often do you NOW eat…meat 
products
1 not at all 
2 rarely
3 most days
4 every day
5 every meal

Recoded
Daily (4+5)
Mostly (3)
Rarely (1+2)
Remarks
Meat products such i.e. beef or pork.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=1.51 p < .137
Daily (vs mostly) CI95[1,12-2,03]
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=0.82 p < .644
Daily  (vs rarely) CI95[0,36-1,89]
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=0.54 p < .137
Mostly  (vs rarely) CI95[0,24-1,21]  

OR's affected by control for
- socio-demographic characteristics
  - age
  - ever smoked
  - marital status
  - living arrangement
- health
  - mental health
  - physical health
  - earlier hear disease


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyLengyel et al. (2009): study CA 2000
TitleThe Relationships Between Food Group Consumption, Self-Rated Health, and Life Satisfaction of Community-Dwelling Canadian Older Men: The Manitoba Follow-Up Study
SourceJournal of Nutrition for the Elderly, 2009 Vol. 28, 158-173
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21184363
DOIDOI:10.1080/01639360902950182
Public80+ aged World War II veterans, Canada 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response1345
Respondents N =1630

Correlate
Author's labelConsumption of milk products
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreport on question: How often do you NOW eat...milk 
products
1 not at all 
2 rarely
3 most days
4 every day
5 every meal

Recoded
Daily (4+5)
Mostly (3)
Rarely (1+)
Remarks
Milk products include: milk and alternatives (soy 
fortified products, rice, grain beverages), and 
cheese/dairy products.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=1.24 p < .06
Daily (vs mostly) CI95[0,99-1,56]
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=1.25 p < .35
Daily  (vs rarely) CI95[0,78-2,02]
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=1.01 p < .96
Mostly  (vs rarely) CI95[0,63-1,63]  

OR's affected by control for
- socio-demographic characteristics
  - age
  - ever smoked
  - marital status
  - living arrangement
- health
  - mental health
  - physical health
  - earlier hear disease


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFeller et al. (2013): study DE 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Risk of Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition {EPIC)-Germany.
SourcePLoS ONE 8(8): e73462
URLhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0073462
DOIdoi:10.1371/joumal.pone.0073462
Public35-65 aged, general population, Germany, followed 4 years1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =48976

Correlate
Author's labelConsumption of red meat (g/day)
Page in Source 4
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Red meat consumption p.p. in grams/day based on 
selfreport of diet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bD%=-
T1 happiness by T1 red meat consumption

                   g/day   SD 
Very satisfied      92     64       
Rather satisfied    98     65
Unsatisfied        101     71


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFeller et al. (2013): study DE 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Risk of Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition {EPIC)-Germany.
SourcePLoS ONE 8(8): e73462
URLhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0073462
DOIdoi:10.1371/joumal.pone.0073462
Public35-65 aged, general population, Germany, followed 4 years1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =48976

Correlate
Author's labelConsumption of vegetables and fruits (g/day)
Page in Source 4
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Vegetables and fruits in grams/day based on selfreport 
of diet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bD%=+
T1 happiness by T1 vegetables and fruit 
consumption

                   g/day   SD 
Very satisfied      244    139      
Rather satisfied    242    124
Unsatisfied         240    128


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFeller et al. (2013): study DE 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Risk of Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition {EPIC)-Germany.
SourcePLoS ONE 8(8): e73462
URLhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0073462
DOIdoi:10.1371/joumal.pone.0073462
Public35-65 aged, general population, Germany, followed 4 years1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =48976

Correlate
Author's labelConsumption of whole grain bread (g/day)
Page in Source 4
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Whole grain bread consumption  p.p. in grams/day based 
on selfreport of diet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bD%=+
T1 happiness by T1 whole grain bread consumption

                   g/day   SD 
Very satisfied      48     55      
Rather satisfied    46     55
Unsatisfied         44     57


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyLesani et al. (2016): study IR Tehran 2011
TitleEating Breakfast, Fruit and Vegetable intake and their Relation with Happiness in College Students.
SourceEating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 2016, Vol. 21, 645 - 651
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40519-016-0261-0/fulltext.html
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s40519-016-0261-0
PublicMedical students, Teheran, Iran, 2011
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response50,18%
Respondents N =541

Correlate
Author's labelVegetables consumption (per day)
Page in Source A2
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Vegetables consumption (per day):
1. <1 serving
2. 1 serving
3. 2-3 serving
4. >3serving
Observed distribution1: 123, 2: 279, 3: 114, 3: 25

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-6-aDMa=+
1: <1 serving   Ma =  3,81
2: 1 serving    Ma =  3,88
3: 2-3 serving  Ma =  3,97
4: >3 serving   Ma =  4,44

Dma controled for:
- socio-economic status 
- physical activity
- experience of stress in last 6 months
- cigarette smoking status
O-Sum-u-mq-v-6-aBMCT=+ p < .05
1, 2 < 4


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyLesani et al. (2016): study IR Tehran 2011
TitleEating Breakfast, Fruit and Vegetable intake and their Relation with Happiness in College Students.
SourceEating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 2016, Vol. 21, 645 - 651
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40519-016-0261-0/fulltext.html
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s40519-016-0261-0
PublicMedical students, Teheran, Iran, 2011
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response50,18%
Respondents N =541

Correlate
Author's labelFruits consumption (per day)
Page in Source A2
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Fruits consumption (per day):
1. < 1 serving
2. 1 serving
3. 2-3 serving
4. >3 serving
Observed distribution1: 35, 2: 339, 3: 76, 4: 91

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-6-aDMa=+
1: < 1 serving  M =  3,69
2: 1 serving    M =  3,87
3: 2-3 serving  M =  3,91
4: >3 serving   M =  4,16


DMa controled for:
- socio-economic status 
- physical activity
- experience of stress in last 6 months
- cigarette smoking status
O-Sum-u-mq-v-6-aBMCT=+ p < .05
1, 2 < 4


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFararouei et al. (2013): study IR 2008
TitleHappiness and Health Behaviour in Iranian adolescent Girls.
SourceJournal of Adolescence, 2013, Vol. 36, 1187-1192
Public11-19 aged highschool girls, Iran, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9867

Correlate
Author's labelFruit consumption
Page in Source 1190
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Participants were asked how many serving of fruit they 
have a day
4. More than 4 portions
3. 3-4 portions 
2. 1-2 portions
1. some days of week
0: none (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+1.3 p < .0027
More than 4 portions a day (vs none)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+1.3 p < .0013
3-4 portions a day         (vs none)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+1.2 p < .0048
1-2 portions a day         (vs none)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.55 p < .02
some days of the week      (vs none)

b's controled for:
- age
- other physical chartacteristics
  - height
  - weight
  - ill at the moment
- family characteristics
  - father job and education
  - mothers job and education
  - number of sibblings
- school situation
  - grade average
- health behavior
  - physical activity
  - being exposed to smoking
- urban/rural residency


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFararouei et al. (2013): study IR 2008
TitleHappiness and Health Behaviour in Iranian adolescent Girls.
SourceJournal of Adolescence, 2013, Vol. 36, 1187-1192
Public11-19 aged highschool girls, Iran, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9867

Correlate
Author's labelVegetable consumption
Page in Source 1190
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Participants were asked how many serving of vegetables 
they have a day:
4. More than 4 portions
3. 3-4 portions
2. 1-2 portions
1. Some days of week
0: none (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+1.1 p < .001
More than 4 portions a day (vs none)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+1.3 p < .001
3-4 portions a day         (vs none)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.97 p < .001
1-2 portions a day         (vs none)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.86 p < .002
Some days of the week      (vs none)

b's controled for:
- age
- other physical chartacteristics
  - height
  - weight
  - ill at the moment
- family characteristics
  - father job and education
  - mothers job and education
  - number of sibblings
- school situation
  - grade average
- health behavior
  - physical activity
  - being exposed to smoking
- urban/rural residency


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyKye & Park (2014): study KR 2009
TitleHealth-related determinants of Happiness in Korean Adults.
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2014, Vol. 59, 731-738
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00038-014-0588-0
Public30-69 aged, general population, South Korea 2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1530

Correlate
Author's labelHealthy diet
Page in Source tables 1, 2
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions on consuming a diverse, 
well-balanced diet that included sufficient amount of 
fruit and vegetables. 
Full text not reported
1: yes
0: no
Observed distribution1: 63%, 0: 37%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mD%=+ p < .001
Healthy diet     % happy %unhappy  %difference
- yes            66      34        +32
- no             49      51        -2
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mOR=1.53 p < .05
OR CI95[1,19-1,97] controled for:
- socio-demographic factors
  - age
  - marital status
  - income
  - education
- stress
- health behavior
  - smoking
  - regular excercise
- exercise environment
  - parks
  - fitness clubs
  - mountain trails


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyHonkala et al. (2006): study KW 2002
TitleConsumption of Sugar Products and Associated Life- and School- Satisfaction and Self-Esteem Factors among Schoolchildren in Kuwait.
SourceActa Odontologica Scandinavica, 2006, Vol. 64, 79 - 88
DOIDOI: 10.1080/00016350500420048
Public11-13 age, schoolchildren, Kuwait, 2002-2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response9.5%
Respondents N =2556

Correlate
Author's labelConsumption of sugar products
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
More-than-once-a-day consumption (%) of sugar products
a. sweets
b. soft drinks
c. cakes
d. all three products

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cD%=+/- p < .01
SWEETS

very happy: 42%
happy:      39%
not happy:  51%
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cOR= ns
vs not happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cD%=+/- ns
SOFT DRINKS

very happy: 43%
happy:      41%
not happy:  48%
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cOR= ns
vs not happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cD%=+/- p < .001
CAKES

very happy: 34%
happy:      23%
not happy:  36%
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cOR=1.6 p < .05
vs not happy

CI95: [1.25-2.04]
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cD%=+/- p < .001
ALL THREE PRODUCTS

very happy: 20%
happy:      14%
not happy:  25%
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cOR=1.6 p < .05
vs not happy

CI95: [1.18-2.16]


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyPelham & Nyiri (2009): study ZZ 2006
TitleEating well and Life Satisfaction; a Global View.
SourceThe Gallup Company, 2009, Washington DC, USQA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/113827/eating-well-life-satisfaction-global-view.aspx
Public15+ aged, general public, 114 nations, 2006-2008
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =114000

Correlate
Author's labelEating healthy
Page in Source 4
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Self report on single question: "Now, please think 
about yesterday, from the morning until the end of the 
day. Think about where you were, what you were doing, 
who you were with, and how you felt. Did you eat 
healthy all day yesterday?"
0= yes
1= no
Remarks
For the analysis of 'healthy eating' at least 18.000 
responses per region were used.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=-
Africa
0 = healthy,     M = 4,6 
1 = not healthy, M = 3,8
        Difference =-0,8

The Americas
0 = healthy,     M = 6,0 
1 = not healthy, M = 5,4
        Difference =-0,6
Asia
0 = healthy,     M = 5,4
1 = not healthy, M = 5,0
        Difference =-0,4

Europe
0 = healthy,     M = 6,8 
1 = not healthy, M = 6,6
        Difference =-0,2
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFord et al. (2013): study ZZ Anglo-America 2002
TitleIntake of Meditteranean Foods Associated with Positive and Low Negative Affect
SourceJournal of psychosomatic research, 74 (2013) 142 - 148
URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002239991200311X
DOIdoi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.11.002
Public30+ aged, Adventist church atendees, North America 2002-2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =9255

Correlate
Author's labelFresh vegetables
Page in Source 143, 146
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreported  intake of fresh vegatables during the 
last year
1  never or rarely
2  1-3 times per month
3  1-6  times per weelk
4  1-4 times per day
Observed distributionM = males: 127, females 140
Remarks
Assessd usung Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), which 
contains a list of 200 food items.

Fresh vegatables are: Dark green lectuce, iceberg 
lectuce, tomatoes, peppers, carrots, cabage, brussels 
sprouts, kale, collards, mustrart greens, onions, 
avocado, broccili cauliflauwser, spinach, peas

Intake expressed in standard servings in grams
Food intake was energy adjusted using the residual 
method

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dBeta=+ p < .001
positive affect:  Beta = +.12
negative affect:  Beta = -.08

Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- ethnicity
- frequency of vigorous physical activity
- hours sleep
- total energy intake
- use of alcohol

Stronger positive among females


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFord et al. (2013): study ZZ Anglo-America 2002
TitleIntake of Meditteranean Foods Associated with Positive and Low Negative Affect
SourceJournal of psychosomatic research, 74 (2013) 142 - 148
URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002239991200311X
DOIdoi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.11.002
Public30+ aged, Adventist church atendees, North America 2002-2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =9255

Correlate
Author's labelFresh fruits
Page in Source 143-146
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreported  intake of fresh fruits during the last 
year
1  never or rarely
2  1-3 times per month
3  1-6  times per week
4  1-4 times per day
Observed distributionMales: 168, females 171
Remarks
Assessd usung Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), which 
contains a list of 200 food items.

Fresh fruits are: Grapes in season and out of season, 
plum in season and out of season, appricot in season, 
cantaloupe in season and out of season, strawberry in 
season and out of season, blueberry in season and out 
of season, cherry in season and out of season, 
persimmons in season, apples, oranges, grapefruits, 
bananas, fruit salad fresh.

Intake expressed in standard servings in grams
Food intake was energy adjusted using the residual 
method

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dBeta=+ p < .001
positive affect:  Beta = +.06(<.001)
negative affect:  Beta = -.03 (.001)

Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- ethnicity
- frequency of vigorous physical activity
- hours sleep
- total energy intake
- use of alcohol

Stronger positive among females


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFord et al. (2013): study ZZ Anglo-America 2002
TitleIntake of Meditteranean Foods Associated with Positive and Low Negative Affect
SourceJournal of psychosomatic research, 74 (2013) 142 - 148
URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002239991200311X
DOIdoi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.11.002
Public30+ aged, Adventist church atendees, North America 2002-2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =9255

Correlate
Author's labelDairy
Page in Source 143-146
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreported  intake of dairy products during the last 
year
1  never or rarely
2  1-3 times per month
3  1-6  times per week
4  1-4 times per day
Observed distributionMales: 52, females 55
Remarks
Assessd usung Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), which 
contains a list of 200 food items.

Dairy products are: milk whole or 2%, low fat milk 1% 
or skim, low fat cheese, low fat yogurt, regular 
yougurt, cottage cheese.

Intake expressed in standard servings in grams
Food intake was energy adjusted using the residual 
method

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dBeta=+/- ns
positive affect:  Beta =  -.01 (.103)
negative affect:  Beta =  +.00 (.323)

Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- ethnicity
- frequency of vigorous physical activity
- hours sleep
- total energy intake
- use of alcohol

Similar among males and females


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFord et al. (2013): study ZZ Anglo-America 2002
TitleIntake of Meditteranean Foods Associated with Positive and Low Negative Affect
SourceJournal of psychosomatic research, 74 (2013) 142 - 148
URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002239991200311X
DOIdoi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.11.002
Public30+ aged, Adventist church atendees, North America 2002-2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =9255

Correlate
Author's labelOlive oil
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreported  intake of olive oil during the last year
1  never or rarely
2  1-3 times per month
3  1-6  times per week
4  1-4 times per day
Observed distributionMales: 3,8, females 4,3
Remarks
Assessd usung Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), which 
contains a list of 200 food items.

Olive oil: salad dressings, added to breads, foods. 

Intake expressed in standard servings in grams
Food intake was energy adjusted using the residual 
method

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dBeta=
positive affect:  Beta =   +.07 (.001)
negative affect:  Beta =   -.04 (.040)
 
Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- ethnicity
- frequency of vigorous physical activity
- hours sleep
- total energy intake
- use of alcohol

Similar among males and females


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFord et al. (2013): study ZZ Anglo-America 2002
TitleIntake of Meditteranean Foods Associated with Positive and Low Negative Affect
SourceJournal of psychosomatic research, 74 (2013) 142 - 148
URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002239991200311X
DOIdoi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.11.002
Public30+ aged, Adventist church atendees, North America 2002-2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =9255

Correlate
Author's labelNuts
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreported  intake of nuts during the last year
1  never or rarely
2  1-3 times per month
3  1-6  times per week
4  1-4 times per day
Observed distributionM = males: 127, females 140
Remarks
Assessd usung Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), which 
contains a list of 200 food items.

Nuts are: sunflower seeds, walnuts, peanuts, pumpkin 
seeds, mixed nuts, sesame, almonds, cashews.

Intake expressed in standard servings in grams
Food intake was energy adjusted using the residual 
method

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dBeta=+ p < .001
positive affect:  Beta =  +.05 (<.001)
negative affect:  Beta =  -.09 (<.001)

Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- ethnicity
- frequency of vigorous physical activity
- hours sleep
- total energy intake
- use of alcohol

Similar between males and females


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFord et al. (2013): study ZZ Anglo-America 2002
TitleIntake of Meditteranean Foods Associated with Positive and Low Negative Affect
SourceJournal of psychosomatic research, 74 (2013) 142 - 148
URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002239991200311X
DOIdoi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.11.002
Public30+ aged, Adventist church atendees, North America 2002-2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =9255

Correlate
Author's labelFish
Page in Source 143-146
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreported  intake of fish during the last year
1  never or rarely
2  1-3 times per month
3  1-6  times per week
4  1-4 times per day
Observed distributionMmales: 7,6, females 7,4
Remarks
Assessed usung Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), 
which contains a list of 200 food items.

Fish types are: white fish (cod, salt fish, sole, 
haddock catfish), or halibut, snapper, tuna salad, 
salmon and una casserole.

Intake expressed in standard servings in grams
Food intake was energy adjusted using the residual 
method

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dBeta=+ p < .03
positive affect:  Beta =  +.03 (026)
negative affect:  Beta =  +.02 (301)

Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- ethnicity
- frequency of vigorous physical activity
- hours sleep
- total energy intake
- use of alcohol

Significant among males only


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFord et al. (2013): study ZZ Anglo-America 2002
TitleIntake of Meditteranean Foods Associated with Positive and Low Negative Affect
SourceJournal of psychosomatic research, 74 (2013) 142 - 148
URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002239991200311X
DOIdoi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.11.002
Public30+ aged, Adventist church atendees, North America 2002-2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =9255

Correlate
Author's labelLegumes
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreported  intake of legume during the last year
1  never or rarely
2  1-3 times per month
3  1-6  times per week
4  1-4 times per day
Observed distributionMales: 24, females 24
Remarks
Assessed usung Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), 
which contains a list of 200 food items.

Legumes are: navy, red kidney, other red beans Lentils, 
plit peas, Pinto, black Lima, white Chick peas 
(garbanzos), black-eyed.

Intake expressed in standard servings in grams
Food intake was energy adjusted using the residual 
method

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dBeta=+ p < .001
positive affect:  Beta =  +.06 (001)
negative affect:  Beta =  -.03 (017)

Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- ethnicity
- frequency of vigorous physical activity
- hours sleep
- total energy intake
- use of alcohol

Similar among males and females


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFord et al. (2013): study ZZ Anglo-America 2002
TitleIntake of Meditteranean Foods Associated with Positive and Low Negative Affect
SourceJournal of psychosomatic research, 74 (2013) 142 - 148
URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002239991200311X
DOIdoi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.11.002
Public30+ aged, Adventist church atendees, North America 2002-2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =9255

Correlate
Author's labelRed meat
Page in Source 143-146
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreported  intake of red meat during the last year
1  never or rarely
2  1-3 times per month
3  1-6  times per week
4  1-4 times per day
Observed distributionMales: 5,3, females 3,8
Remarks
Assessed usung Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), 
which contains a list of 200 food items.

Red meat types: hamburger, ground beef, beef or lamb as 
main dish (steak, roast, stew, pot pies)

Intake expressed in standard servings in grams
Food intake was energy adjusted using the residual 
method

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dBeta=- s
positive affect:  Beta =  -.05 (.008)
negative affect:  Beta =  +.04 (.051)

Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- ethnicity
- frequency of vigorous physical activity
- hours sleep
- total energy intake
- use of alcohol

Similar among males and females


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFord et al. (2013): study ZZ Anglo-America 2002
TitleIntake of Meditteranean Foods Associated with Positive and Low Negative Affect
SourceJournal of psychosomatic research, 74 (2013) 142 - 148
URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002239991200311X
DOIdoi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.11.002
Public30+ aged, Adventist church atendees, North America 2002-2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =9255

Correlate
Author's labelProcessed meat
Page in Source 143-146
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreported  intake of processed meat during the last 
year
1  never or rarely
2  1-3 times per month
3  1-6  times per week
4  1-4 times per day
Observed distributionMales: 0,8, females 0,5
Remarks
Assessed usung Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), 
which contains a list of 200 food items.

Processed meat types: processed beef, lamb, chicken or 
turkey and pork.

Intake expressed in standard servings in grams
Food intake was energy adjusted using the residual 
method

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dBeta=- s
positive affect:  Beta =  -.12 (.021)
negative affect:  Beta =  +.11 (.037)

Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- ethnicity
- frequency of vigorous physical activity
- hours sleep
- total energy intake
- use of alcohol

More negative among females


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFord et al. (2013): study ZZ Anglo-America 2002
TitleIntake of Meditteranean Foods Associated with Positive and Low Negative Affect
SourceJournal of psychosomatic research, 74 (2013) 142 - 148
URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002239991200311X
DOIdoi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.11.002
Public30+ aged, Adventist church atendees, North America 2002-2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =9255

Correlate
Author's labelSweets and desserts
Page in Source 143-146
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreported  intake of sweets and desserts during the 
last year
1  never or rarely
2  1-3 times per month
3  1-6  times per week
4  1-4 times per day
Observed distributionMmales: 31, females 24
Remarks
Assessed usung Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), 
which contains a list of 200 food items.

Sweets and desserts types: doughnuts, cake, pastries, 
cookies, store-bought cookies,homemade Cinnamon rolls, 
frozen yogurt, ice cream, ice milk, sweet pies, 
milkshakes.

Intake expressed in standard servings in grams
Food intake was energy adjusted using the residual 
method

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dBeta=- p < .001
positive affect:  Beta =  -.07 (<.001)
negative affect:  Beta =  +.06 (<.001)

Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- ethnicity
- frequency of vigorous physical activity
- hours sleep
- total energy intake
- use of alcohol

Similar among males and females


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFord et al. (2013): study ZZ Anglo-America 2002
TitleIntake of Meditteranean Foods Associated with Positive and Low Negative Affect
SourceJournal of psychosomatic research, 74 (2013) 142 - 148
URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002239991200311X
DOIdoi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.11.002
Public30+ aged, Adventist church atendees, North America 2002-2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =9255

Correlate
Author's labelSoda
Page in Source 143-146
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreported  intake of soda during the last year
1  never or rarely
2  1-3 times per month
3  1-6  times per week
4  1-4 times per day
Observed distributionMales: 89, females 61
Remarks
Assessed usung Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), 
which contains a list of 200 food items.

Sodas are: (1)regular Coke, Pepsi or other caffeine 
free and (2)regular Coke, Pepsi or other with caffeine 

Intake expressed in standard servings in grams
Food intake was energy adjusted using the residual 
method

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dBeta=- s
positive affect:  Beta =  -.03 (001)
negative affect:  Beta =  +.02 (013)

Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- ethnicity
- frequency of vigorous physical activity
- hours sleep
- total energy intake
- use of alcohol

Similar among males and females


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyFord et al. (2013): study ZZ Anglo-America 2002
TitleIntake of Meditteranean Foods Associated with Positive and Low Negative Affect
SourceJournal of psychosomatic research, 74 (2013) 142 - 148
URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002239991200311X
DOIdoi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.11.002
Public30+ aged, Adventist church atendees, North America 2002-2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =9255

Correlate
Author's labelFast food frequency
Page in Source 143-146
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
How often do you eat out (fast food/takeout)?
1  never or rarely
2  1-3 times per month
3  1-6  times per week
4  1-4 times per day
Observed distribution1: Males: 44%, females 49%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dBeta=- p < .001
positive affect:  Beta =  -.05 (<.001)
negative affect:  Beta =  +.05 (<.001)

Beta's controled for:
- age
- gender
- ethnicity
- frequency of vigorous physical activity
- hours sleep
- total energy intake
- use of alcohol

Similar among males and females


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLhttps://worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source 28
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Closed question on amount of consumption per day of:
1. Milk, yogurt, etc.
2. Meat, fish, eggs.
3. Sugar (number of spoons).
4. Fat (bacon and drippings).
5. Fresh fruits.
Remarks
                        
                                    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.14
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.21
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.05 ns
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=-.01 ns
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.04 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyConner & Brookie (2017): study NZ Auckland 2015
TitleLet them eat fruit! The effect of fruit and vergetable consumption on the psychological well-being in young adukts: A randomized controlled trial
SourcePLOS one, febr. 3 2017
DOIDOI:10.1371/journal.pone0171206
PublicStudent participants and controls in a 2 week food intervention, New Zealand 2015
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response174
Respondents N =426

Correlate
Author's labelFruits and Vegetable Intervention (FVI)
Page in Source table 3
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Participants were randomly assigned to:
1 Experimental group for  a 14 day Fruits and Vegetable 
Intervention (FVI)
0 Control group instructed to follow diet as usual

The intervention involved:
a: vouchers for purchasing fruits and vegetables and 
e-mail message reminders to increase their consumption
b: two addoitional daily servings of fruits and 
vegetables on top of their normal diet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-cb=+
CHANGE mood in experimental group
- positive mood  +.02 (01)
- negative mood  -.01 (90)
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-cb=0
CHANGE hange mood in control group
- positive mood  +.01 (53)
- negative mood  -.01 (14)

The authors write: "the experimental conditions 
did not show any improvements in
negative or positive mood relative to participants 
in the control condition (comments to table 3). 
The authors did not compute Affect Balance. 
The data imply that Affect Balance has increased 
in the experimental group, PA going up and NA 
going down. Affect balance did not change in the 
control group. Statistical significance of this 
difference between experimental and control group 
has not been assessed.


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyConner et al. (2015): study NZ Auckland 2013
TitleOn Carrots and Curiosity: Eating Fruit and Vegetables is associated with greater Flourishing in daily Life.
SourceBritish Journal of Health Psychology , 2015, Vol. 20, 413 - 444 .
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080035
DOIdoi: 10.1111/bjhp.12113
PublicUniversity students, New Zealand, 2013, followed 13 days
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =405

Correlate
Author's labelconsumption of vegetables
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Self report in diary of the number of servings eaten 
that days of  vegetables: 
- fresh, frozen, canned 
- excluding juice and chips
Observed distributionRange: 0-4; M = 1,27; SD = 0,75
Remarks
Standatd questions in the New Zealand National 
Nutrition Survey 1997 (NNS'97)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-br=+ s
BETWEEN persons association between average daily 
vegetables consumption and average mood
PA: r = +.11 (05)
NA: r = +.00 (ns)

Affect Balance not reported, but will be positive
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-br=+ s
WITHIN person association between vegetables 
consumption and mood during the day:
PA: r = +.04 (001)
NA: r = -.02 (05)

Affect Balance not reported, but will be positive 
and significant


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyConner et al. (2015): study NZ Auckland 2013
TitleOn Carrots and Curiosity: Eating Fruit and Vegetables is associated with greater Flourishing in daily Life.
SourceBritish Journal of Health Psychology , 2015, Vol. 20, 413 - 444 .
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080035
DOIdoi: 10.1111/bjhp.12113
PublicUniversity students, New Zealand, 2013, followed 13 days
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =405

Correlate
Author's labelconsumption of sweets
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Self report in diary of the number of servings eaten 
that days of  sweets: 
- lollies, chocolate, or other confectionary items
Observed distributionRange: 0-3; M = 0.63; SD = 0,49
Remarks
Standatd questions in the New Zealand National 
Nutrition Survey 1997 (NNS'97)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-br=-
BETWEEN persons association between average daily 
sweets consumption and average mood
PA: r = -.05 (ns)
NA: r = +.06 (ns)

Affect Balance not reported, but will be negative
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-br=+
WITHIN person association between sweets 
consumption and mood during the day:
PA: r = +.03 (05)
NA: r = -.01 (ns)

Affect Balance not reported, but will be positive


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyConner et al. (2015): study NZ Auckland 2013
TitleOn Carrots and Curiosity: Eating Fruit and Vegetables is associated with greater Flourishing in daily Life.
SourceBritish Journal of Health Psychology , 2015, Vol. 20, 413 - 444 .
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080035
DOIdoi: 10.1111/bjhp.12113
PublicUniversity students, New Zealand, 2013, followed 13 days
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =405

Correlate
Author's labelconsumption of chips
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Self report in diary of the number of servings eaten 
that days of chips: 
- potato fries, wedges, kumara chips
Observed distributionRange: 0-3; M = 0.27; SD = 0,33
Remarks
Standatd questions in the New Zealand National 
Nutrition Survey 1997 (NNS'97)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-br=-
BETWEEN persons association between average daily 
chips consumption and average mood
PA: r = -.03 (ns)
NA: r = +.13 (05)

Affect Balance not reported, but will be negative
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-br=0
WITHIN person association between chips 
consumption and mood during the day:
PA: r = +.02 (ns)
NA: r = +.01 (ns)

Affect Balance not reported, but will be zero


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyConner et al. (2015): study NZ Auckland 2013
TitleOn Carrots and Curiosity: Eating Fruit and Vegetables is associated with greater Flourishing in daily Life.
SourceBritish Journal of Health Psychology , 2015, Vol. 20, 413 - 444 .
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080035
DOIdoi: 10.1111/bjhp.12113
PublicUniversity students, New Zealand, 2013, followed 13 days
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =405

Correlate
Author's labelconsumption of fruits
Page in Source table 2+ 3
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Self report in diary of the number of servings eaten 
that days of  fruit: 
- fresh, frozen, canned or stewed fruit
- excluding fruit juice and dried fruit
Observed distributionRange: 0-4; M = 1,16; SD = 0,76
Remarks
Standatd questions in the New Zealand National 
Nutrition Survey 1997 (NNS'97)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-br=+
BETWEEN persons association between average daily 
fruit consumption and average mood
PA: r = +.18 (001)
NA: r = +.00 (ns)
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-br=+
WITHIN person association between fruit 
consumption and mood during the day:
PA: r = +.03 (05)
NA: r = -.02 (ns)

Affect Balance not reported, but will be positive


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyAverina, M. et al. (2005): study RU Archangelsk 1999
TitleSocial and lifestyle determinants of depression, aniety, sleeping disorders and self-evaluated quality of life in Russia
SourceSoc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemol (2005) 40: 511-518
DOIdoi: 10.1007/s00127-005-0918-x
Public15+ aged general public, Arkhangelsk, Russia, 2000
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3705

Correlate
Author's labelLow consumption (of nutrients)
Page in Source 516
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How often do you eat:
a: fresh fruits or vegetables
b:  fish or fish products
c: meat or meat products?
1: rarely or never
2: once a week
3: 2 to 3 times a week, 
4: 4 to 5 times a week
5: almost daily
Observed distributionConsumption once a week or less: Men (fruits or vegetables 40.3%, fish or fish products 33.8%, meat or meat products 15.0%), Women (fruits or vegetables 36.0%, fish or fish products 49.0%, meat or meat products 24.4%).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOR=1.6 p < .000
Unhappiness by LOW consumption of fruits and 
vegetables. CI(1.4-2.0)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOR=1.4 p < .000
Unhappiness by LOW consumption of fish or fish 
products. CI(1.2-2.7)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOR=1.3 p < .05
Unhappinessd by LOW consumption of meat or meat 
products. 
CI(1.02-1.5)
Control variables not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelProtein consumption
Page in Source 20,24
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Protein (% of daily calories from protein) in 
logarithm.
Observed distributionM = 2.59 SD = 0.25

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.22 p < .01
OLRC controled for:
- age
- education
- household size
- children in household
- calories consumed per day in logarithm
- fat share in % of daily calories in logarithm
- food diversity (Transformed Berry Index)
- work (is employed)
- gender (male = 1)
- married (married =1)
- is smoker
- is drinker
- health (having problems last month = 1)
- region
- year of observation


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelFat consumption
Page in Source 20,24
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Fat (share in % of daily calories from fat) in 
logarithm.
Observed distributionM = 3.44 Sd = 0.34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.22 p < .01
OLRC controled for:
- age
- education
- household size
- children in household
- calories consumed per day in logarithm
- protein % of daily calories in logarithm
- food diversity (Transformed Berry Index)
- work (is employed)
- gender (male = 1)
- married (married =1)
- is smoker
- is drinker
- health (having problems last month = 1)
- region
- year of observation


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelDiet diversity
Page in Source 21,24
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Food diversity (Transformed Berry Index = 
ln[BI/(1-BI)])
Observed distributionM = 0.79 Sd = 1.45

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.02 p < .10
OLRC controled for:
- age
- education
- household size
- children in household
- calories consumed per day in logarithm
- fat share in % of daily calories in logarithm
- protein % of daily calories in logarithm
- work (is employed)
- gender (male = 1)
- married (married =1)
- is smoker
- is drinker
- health (having problems last month = 1)
- region
- year of observation


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelCalorie consumption
Page in Source 20,24
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Calories (total calories consumed per day) in 
logarithm.
Observed distributionM = 7.54 SD = 0.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.09 p < .05
OLRC controled for:
- age
- education
- household size
- children in household
- fat share in % of daily calories in logarithm
- protein % of daily calories in logarithm
- food diversity (Transformed Berry Index)
- work (is employed)
- gender (male = 1)
- married (married =1)
- is smoker
- is drinker
- health (having problems last month = 1)
- region
- year of observation


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyAndersson et al. (2013a): study SE Västra Götalands län 2012 /1
TitleGreenhouse Gas Emission and Subjective Well-Being: An Analalysis of Swedish Households.
SourceEcological Economics, 2014, Vol. 102, 75 - 82
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.03.018
Public25-65 aged,general public, southwest Sweden, 2012
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response59.9%
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelRed meat
Page in Source 79
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Meals per week

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.03 ns
Beta controled for:
- education
- gender
- age
- has children


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyChang & Nayga Jr. (2010): study TW 2001
TitleChildhood Obesity and Unhappiness: the Influence of Soft Drinks and Fast Food Consumption.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2010, Vol. 11, 261 - 275
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-009-9139-4
PublicUnder 12 aged, children, Taiwan, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2366

Correlate
Author's labelFast food
Page in Source Table 2 & Table 3
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Mother's answer to question:
How often does your child consume the following food?
a. French fries
b. pizza
c. hamburger

0: never
1: seldom
2: sometimes
3: often
4: always
Observed distributionM = 2.86; SD = 1.88
Remarks
Order reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-rdf-v-3-br=+.08 ns
(p < .10)
A-AOL-g-rdf-v-3-bb=+.05 ns
vs not, evaluated at the sample means (p < .10)

B controlled for:
-Children characteristics
 -age
 -gender
 -health condition
 -dentist
-Household factors
 -family income
 -health condition of family member
-Region and local economy conditions
 -city/country
 -household regional location


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyChang & Nayga Jr. (2010): study TW 2001
TitleChildhood Obesity and Unhappiness: the Influence of Soft Drinks and Fast Food Consumption.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2010, Vol. 11, 261 - 275
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-009-9139-4
PublicUnder 12 aged, children, Taiwan, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2366

Correlate
Author's labelSoft drink
Page in Source Table 2 & Table 3
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Mother's answer to question:
How often does your child consume the following drinks?
a. soda 
b. other sugar-sweetened beverages

0: never
1: seldom
2: sometimes
3: often
4: always
Observed distributionM = 3.55; SD = 1.95
Remarks
Order reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-rdf-v-3-br=+.04 ns
A-AOL-g-rdf-v-3-bb=+.05 ns
vs not, evaluated at the sample means (p < .10)

B controlled for:
-Children characteristics
 -age
 -gender
 -health condition
 -dentist
-Household factors
 -family income
 -health condition of family member
-Region and local economy conditions
 -city/country
 -household regional location


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyGschwandtner et al. (2015): study GB 2012
TitleOn the Relationship between Lifestyle and Happiness in the UK.
SourcePaper for 89th Annual Conference of AES, 2015, 1 - 33, Warwick, England
URLhttp://econpapers.repec.org/paper/agsaesc15/204199.htm
Public16+ aged, general public UK, 2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =31946

Correlate
Author's labelAverage daily portions of fruits and vegetables
Page in Source table 1 + 2
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Average daily portions of fruit and vegetables
1: none (reference)
2: 1-2
3: 2-3
4: 3-4
5: 4-5
Observed distributionMales: M = 3,86; SD = 3,06. Females: M = 3,02; SD = 2,74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+ s
1-2 portions per day (vs none)
- males:  +.09 (05)
- females + 15 (01)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+ s
2-3 portions per day (vs none)
- males:  +.16 (01)
- females + 14 (01)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+ s
3-4 portions per day (vs none)
- males:  +.19 (01)
- females + 27 (01)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+ s
4-5 portions per day (vs none)
- males:  +.20 (01)
- females + 30 (01)

b's controled for:
- socio-economic backgroud (parents education)
- age 
- education
- marital status
- age of youngest child
- ethnicity
- employment status
- region
- health behavior
  - days walk
  - sporting
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-iv=+
Stronger effects in instrumental variable analysis 
in which the net effect of sporting on happiness 
is controled. This suggest a causal effect of 
fruit/vegagetable consumption on happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyBreslin et al. (2013): study GB 2009
TitleSocio-Demographic and Behavioural Differences ans Associations with Happiness for Those Who Are in Good and Poor Health.
SourceInternational Journal of Happiness and Development, 2013, Vol. 1, 142 - 154
URLhttps://doi.org/10.1504/IJHD.2013.055641
Public16+ aged general public Northern Ireland, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response45,4%
Respondents N =4663

Correlate
Author's labelFive portions of fruits and vegetables or more per day
Page in Source 148-149
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Self report of daily portions of fruits and vegetables 
during the last year
1  yes
0  no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-hOR=1.25 p < .05
All repondents: CI95[1.10-1.43]
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-hOR=1.33 p < .05
Respondents in good health only. CI95[1.11-1.59]
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-hOR= ns
Respondents in poor health

OR's controled for:
- age
- social class

Happiness dichotomized: <7 vs 7 or more


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyBlanchflower et al. (2013): study GB Wales 2007
TitleIs Psychological Well-Being Linked to the Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 114, 785 - 801
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0173-y
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-012-0173-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Wales, UK, 2007-2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49972

Correlate
Author's labelFruit and vegetable consumption
Page in Source Table 6
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreport on daily consumption number of fruit and 
vegetables:
1. 1-2 portions
2. 2-3 portions
3. 3-4 portions 
4. 4-5 portions
5. 5-6 portions 
6. 6-7 portions 
7. 7-8 portions
8. 8+  portions

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.04 p < .05
1-2 portions (vs < 1 portion)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.07 p < .01
2-3 portions (vs < 1 portion)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.11 p < .01
3-4 portions (vs < 1 portion)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.14 p < .01
4-5 portions (vs < 1 portion)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.16 p < .01
5-6 portions (vs < 1 portion)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.16 p < .01
6-7 portions (vs < 1 portion)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.18 p < .01
7-8 portions (vs < 1 portion)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.17 p < .01
8+  portions (vs < 1 portion)

B's controlled for:
-Demographic characteristics
 -age
 -gender
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -education
 -occupation
 -household location
-Health
 -disability
 -exercise
 -smoking
 -body mass index


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyNabi et al. (2008): study GB London 1985
TitlePositive and Negative Affect and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: Whitehall 11 Prospective Cohort Study.
SourceBritish Medical Journal, 2008, Vol. 337, 32 - 36
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/20510221.pdf?_=1466603102538
PublicEmployees of a firm, age 35-55, London, United Kingdom, 1985-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response27%
Respondents N =10308

Correlate
Author's labelDaily fruit and vegetables
Page in Source 3
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Daily fruit and vegetables:
0 No  (reference)
1 Yes
Observed distributionNo: 59.0%, Yes: 41.0%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-aDM=+ p < .01
No          M = 17,92
Yes         M = 18,54 
-diffrence      +0,62


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyWarner et al. (2017): study US New England 2013
TitleFruit and Vegetable Intake Predicts Positive Affect
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies,2017, Vol.18, 809 - 826
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-016-9749-6
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-016-9749-6
PublicStudents, New England, United States of America, 2013
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =1263

Correlate
Author's labelFruit and Vergetable Intake (FVI)
Page in Source 819
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Self report on questions on typical daily servings of 
fruits and vegetables in the last month (FVI)
Rated 0 to 8+
Observed distributionM: 2,02, SD: 2,38

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aAoC=+ p < .014
Positive Affect only.
Negative affect ns

Unaffected by gender
Linear relationship


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats

StudyPettay (2008a): study US 2006
TitleHealth Behaviors and Life Satisfaction in college Students.
SourcePhD Thesis, Kansas State University, 2008, USA
PublicUniversity students, Illinois, USA, 2007
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =796

Correlate
Author's labelFruit and vegetables consumption
Page in Source 46, 53
Our classificationWhat one eats
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: 
How many servings of fruits and vegetables do you 
usually eat per day?
Observed distributionM = 4,21, SD = 1,95

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcr=+.12 p < .01
All
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcr=+.13 p < .05
Males only
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcr=+.11 p < .05
Females only
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcBeta=+.04 ns
All:
Beta controled for other health behaviors
- stress mnagement
- BMI
- Physical activity
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcrpc=+.04 ns
All
rpc controled for other health behaviors
- stress mnagement
- BMI
- Physical activity


Correlational finding on Happiness and When one eats

StudyMujcic & Oswald (2016): study AU 2007
TitleEvolution of Well-Being and Happiness After Increases in Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables.
SourceAmerican Journal of Public Health, 2016, Vol 106, 1504 - 1510
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27400354
DOIdoi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303260.
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 3 years 2007-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12385

Correlate
Author's labelRegular breakfast
Page in Source table 1
Our classificationWhen one eats
Operationalization
Eat breakfast every day
1 yes
0 no
Observed distributionM: 0.70, SD: 0,46

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.11 p < .004
b-fix CI95 [+.03, +.18] controled for:
- CHANGE daily consumption of fruits and 
vegetables
- CURRENT
  - socio-demographics
    - age
    - income
    - education
    - marital status
    - employment
  - number of young children in household
  - what one eats
      - never eat red meat
      - never eat fish
      - avoid fatty foods
  - health behavior
    - exercise regularly
    - non-smoker
    - drink alcohol
  - long-term health condition
  - BMI


Correlational finding on Happiness and When one eats

StudyLesani et al. (2016): study IR Tehran 2011
TitleEating Breakfast, Fruit and Vegetable intake and their Relation with Happiness in College Students.
SourceEating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 2016, Vol. 21, 645 - 651
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40519-016-0261-0/fulltext.html
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s40519-016-0261-0
PublicMedical students, Teheran, Iran, 2011
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response50,18%
Respondents N =541

Correlate
Author's labelBreakfast eating
Page in Source A2
Our classificationWhen one eats
Operationalization
Breakfast eating:
1. never
2. sometimes
3. often
4. always
Observed distribution1: 39, 2: 57, 3: 139, 4: 306

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-6-aDMa=+
Never      Ma =  3,49
Sometimes  Ma =  3,78
Often      Ma =  3,80
Always     Ma =  4,04

Dma controled for:
- socio-economic status 
- physical activity
- experience of stress in last 6 months
- cigarette smoking status
O-Sum-u-mq-v-6-aBMCT=+ p < .05
1 < 4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study AT 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Austria, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7007

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,76      8,10      7,35
no:         M= 7,12      7,65      6,73
- difference: +0,64     +0,45     +0,62

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,59      8,00       7,18
no:         M= 6,45      7,29       5,94
- difference: +1,14     +0,71      +1,23

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study BE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Belgium, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =9651

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,62      7,86      7,35
no:         M= 7,03      7,42      6,76
- difference: +0,59     +0,44     +0,80

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,48      7,76       7,21
no:         M= 7,29      7,75       6,74
- difference: +0,19(ns) +0,01(ns)  +0,47(05(

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study BR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Brazil, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =23141

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,71      7,84      7,58
no:         M= 6,98      7,19      6,83
- difference: +0,72     +0,65     +0,75 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all         boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,62        7,75       7,49
no:         M= 6,25        7,49       7,06
- difference: +0,37(.05)  +0,26(ns)  +0,43(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study BG 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Bulgaria, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5928

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,49      7,67      7,27
no:         M= 7,13      7,28      7,02
- difference: +0,37     +0,39     +0,24 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all         boys        girls  
yes:        M= 7,44        7,64        7,23
no:         M= 6,90        6,95        6,84
- difference: +0,54(.05)  +0,69(.05)  +0,39(ns)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study CL 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Chile, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7053

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,54      7,68      7,37
no:         M= 6,90      7,26      6,66
- difference: +0,64     +0,43     +0,71

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,45      7,67       7,22
no:         M= 7,01      7,25       6,83
- difference: +0,44     +0,42      +0,38

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study CN 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, China, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =9841

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 6,89      6,94      6,82
no:         M= 6,01      5,87      6,18
- difference: +0,88     +1,07     +0,64 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys        girls  
yes:        M= 6,84       6,88        6,79
no:         M= 6,08       5,80        6,34
- difference: +1,76(.05) +1,08(.05) +0,45(ns)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study CO 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Colombia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11795

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:           7,98      8,12      7,85
no:            7,09      7,50      6,86
- difference: +0,89     +0,62     +0,99

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all         boys       girls  
yes:           7,91        8,07       7,76
no:            7,07        7,69       6,79
- difference: +0,83(.05)  +0,42(ns)  +0,97(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study CR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Costa Rica, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6866

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 8,34      8,50      8,17
no:         M= 7,47      7,61      7,38
- difference: +0,87     +0,89     +0,79 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 8,21      8,37       8,06
no:         M= 7,56      8,15       7,14
- difference: +0,65(ns) +0,22(ns)  +0,91(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study HR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Croatia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5809

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 8,07      8,32      7,82
no:         M= 7,35      7,66      7,16
- difference: +0,72     +0,66     +0,66 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys       girls  
yes:       M=  7,91       8,20       7,65
no:        M=  7,55       8,02       7,18
- difference: +0,35(.05) +0,17(ns)   +0,47(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study CY 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Cyprus, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5571

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,23      7,42      7,04
no:         M= 6,58      6,80      6,42
- difference: +0,65     +0,61     +0,62 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,12       7,32       6,94
no:         M= 6,57       7,09       6,15
- difference: +0,56(.05) +0,23(ns)  +0,80(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study CZ 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Czech Replublic, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5587

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,20      7,48      6,90
no:         M= 6,69      7,08      6,35
- difference: +0,51     +0,41     +0,55

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,10      7,39       6,79
no:         M= 6,11      6,72       5,78
- difference: +0,99     +0,67      +1,01

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study DO 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Dominican Republic, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4740

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
breakfast      all         boys       girls
yes:        M= 8,60        8,63       8,56
no:         M= 8,04        8,23       7,94
- difference: +0,56(.05)  +0,41(ns)  +0,62(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ ns
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:       M=  8,49      8,55       8,43
no:        M=  8,32      8,53       8,15
- difference: +0,17     +0,02      +0,28 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study EE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Estonia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5587

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,62      7,81      7,43
no:         M= 6,92      7,35      6,57
- difference: +0,70     +0,45     +0,85

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,57      7,80       7,34
no:         M= 6,73      7,04       6,49
- difference: +0,84     +0,76      +0,85

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study FI 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Finland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5882

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 8,01      8,32      7,66
no:         M= 7,26      7,86      6,75
- difference: +0,75     +0,46     +0,92

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,94      8,30       7,56
no:         M= 6,87      7,18       6,67
- difference: +1,07     +1,12      +0,89

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study FR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, France, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6108

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,77      7,96      7,56
no:         M= 7,17      7,40      7,05
- difference: +0,60     +0,56     +0,52

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,67      7,88       7,46
no:         M= 6,80      7,23       6,47
- difference: +0,87     +0,65      +0,99 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study DE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Germany, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6522

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,50      7,86      7,13
no:         M= 6,70      7,20      6,33
- difference: +0,80     +0,65     +0,81 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,36      7,73       7,00
no:         M= 5,72      6,55       5,21
- difference: +1,64     +1,18      +1,80 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study GR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Greece, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5532

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,05      7,36      6,71
no:         M= 6,40      6,59      6,27
- difference: +0,65     +0,77     +0,44

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 6,95      7,25       6,64
no:         M= 6,34      6,68       6,03
- difference: +0,61     +0,58      +0,61

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study HK 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Hong Kong, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5359

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 6,58      6,64      6,51
no:         M= 6,05      6,00      6,11
- difference: +0,52     +0,64     +0,41 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 6,50      6,54       6,45
no:         M= 5,47      5,08       5,77
- difference: +1,03     +1,46      +0,69 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study HU 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Hungary, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5658

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,38      7,72      6,98
no:         M= 6,68      6,91      6,52
- difference: +0,71     +0,81     +0,45

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,23      7,58       6,86
no:         M= 6,35      6,56       6,24
- difference: +0,88     +1,02      +0,62

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study IS 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Iceland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3374

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 8,03      8,42      7,63
no:         M= 6,76      7,69      6,28
- difference: +1,27     +0,73     +1,36 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,86      8,24       7,41
no:         M= 6,24      7,51       5,58
- difference: +1,62     +0,83      +1,83 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study IE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Ireland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5741

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,49      7,68      7,28
no:         M= 6,33      7,79      6,05
- difference: +1,17     +0,90     +1,22 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,32      7,59       7,04
no:         M= 4,75      5,06       4,54
- difference: +2,57     +2,53      +2,05

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study IT 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Italy, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11583

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,09      7,42      6,74
no:         M= 6,25      6,74      5,96
- difference: +0,84     +0,68     +0,78 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ ns
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 6,92      7,31       6,54
no:         M= 6,76      7,23       6,38
- difference: +0,16     +0,09      +0,16 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study JP 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Japan, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6647

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:       M=  6,88      6,83      6,93
no:        M=  5,98      5,90      6,08
- difference: +0,91     +0,94     +0,86

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys      girls  
yes:       M=  6,83       6,76      6,89
no:        M=  6,04       6,35      5,88
- difference: +0,79(.05) +0,41(ns) +1,02(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study KR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Korea (South), 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5581

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 6,49      6,67      6,28
no:         M= 5,88      6,22      5,60
- difference: +0,61     +0,45     +0,68   

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 6,41      6,64       6,15
no:         M= 5,75      5,87       5,66
- difference: +0,66     +0,77      +0,50 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study LV 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Latvia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4869

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,50      7,55      7,44
no:         M= 6,86      6,93      6,80
- difference: +0,64     +0,62     +0,64

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,41      7,47       7,35
no:         M= 6,60      6,85       6,42
- difference: +0,81     +0,63      +0,93

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study LT 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Lithuania, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6525

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 8,01      8,20      7,79
no:         M= 7,29      7,68      7,04
- difference: +0,71     +0,53     +0,75 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,91      8,15       7,67
no:         M= 7,16      7,57       6,84
- difference: +0,75     +0,58      +0,83

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study LU 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Luxembourg, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5299

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,53      7,86      7,18
no:         M= 6,96      7,55      6,52
- difference: +0,56     +0,32     +0,65

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner          all       boys       girls  
yes:       M=   7,41      7,80       7,04
no:        M=   6,88      7,60       6,08
- difference:  +0,53     +0,20      +0,96

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study MO 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Macao, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4476

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 6,65      6,64      6,65
no:         M= 6,19      6,23      6,15
- difference: +0,45     +0,41     +0,49 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys       girls  
yes:       M=  6,61       6,61       6,61
no:        M=  5,88       5,57       5,84
- difference: +0,73(.05) +0,64(ns)  +0,77(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study MY 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Malaysia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =8861

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:           7,16      7,20      7,12
no:            6,70      6,78      6,64
- difference: +0,46     +0,42     +0,47

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all         boys       girls  
yes:           7,09        7,14       7,04
no:            6,77        6,79       6,76
- difference: +0,32(.05)  +0,35(ns)  +0,28(ns)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study MX 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Mexico, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7568

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 8,40      8,41      8,38
no:         M= 7,72      7,94      7,55
- difference: +0,60      +0,47    +0,83 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 8,33      8,37       8,28
no:         M= 7,80      7,95       7,71
- difference: +0,52     +0,42      +0,57 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study ME 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Montenegro, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5665

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,80      8,04      7,57
no:         M= 6,97      7,29      6,71
- difference: +0,86     +0,75     +0,85

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all         boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,75        8,00        7,51
no:         M= 7,37        7,53        5,24
- difference: +0,39(.05)  +0,47(.05)  +0,27(ns)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study NL 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Netherlands, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5385

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,89      8,14      7,35
no:         M= 7,28      7,72      6,73
- difference: +0,60     +0,42     +0,62

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ ns
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M=  -        8,11       7,55
no:         M=  -        7,39        -
- difference:   -       +0,72        - 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study PE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Peru, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6971

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,58      7,67      7,47
no:         M= 6,54      6,84      6,34
- difference: +1,03     +0,83     +1,14 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,51      7,63       7,38
no:         M= 6,98      7,26       6,75
- difference: +0,53     +0,38      +0,63

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study PL 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Poland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4478

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,38      7,65      7,06
no:         M= 6,37      7,75      6,11
- difference: +1,01     +0,90     +0,95

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,24      7,57       6,90
no:         M= 6,36      6,90       5,67
- difference: +0,88     +0,68      +1,23

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study PT 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Portugal, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7325

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all     boys     girls
yes:       M=  7,44     7,66     7,20
no:        M=  6,49     6,82     6,34
- difference:  +0,95    +0,84   +0,86

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ ns
dinner          all     boys    girls  
yes:        M=  7,38    7,63     7,12
no:         M=  7,20    7,50     6,93
- difference:  +0,17   +0,13    +0,18

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study QA 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Qatar, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =12083

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,55      7,62      7,49
no:         M= 6,71      7,72      6,70
- difference: +0,84     +0,90     +0,78 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner          all        boys       girls  
yes:        M=  7,42       7,49       7,36
no:         M=  6,66       7,18       6,29
- difference: +0,76(.05)  +0,31(ns)  +1,07(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study RU 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Russia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6036

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,87      7,99      7,75
no:         M= 6,97      7,36      6,70
- difference: +0,90     +0,63     +1,05 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner          all        boys       girls  
yes:        M=  7,80       7,94       7,67
no:         M=  7,20       7,64       6,88
- difference:  +0,60(.05) +0,30(ns)  +0,79(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study SK 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Slovakia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6350

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,58      7,85      7,28
no:         M= 7,13      7,43      6,89
- difference: +0,45     +0,42     +0,39

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner          all       boys       girls  
yes:       M=  7,49       7,79       7,19
no:        M=  7,13       7,38       6,91
- difference: +0,36(.05) +0,41(.05) +0,29(ns)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study SI 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Slovenia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6406

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,38      7,75      6,94
no:         M= 6,77      7,32      6,32
- difference: +0,60     +0,42     +0,63

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner          all       boys       girls  
yes:       M=  7,19       7,63       6,71
no:        M=  7,11       7,57       6,68
- difference: +0,08(.05) +0,06(.05) +0,03(ns)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study ES 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Spain, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6736

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,58      7,70      7,44
no:         M= 6,59      6,91      6,40
- difference: +0,99     +0,79     +1,05

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,46      7,64       7,29
no:         M= 6,34      6,71       5,97
- difference: +1,22(ns) +0,93(.05) +1,32(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study CH 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Switzerland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5860

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
breakfast      all        boys      girls
yes:       M=  7,82       8,08      7,54
no:        M=  7,32       7,83      6,87
- difference: +0,50(.05) +0,25(ns) +0,67(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys       girls  
yes:       M=  7,71       8,04       7,37
no:        M=  6,97       7,64       6,23
- difference: +0,74(.05) +0,40(ns)  +1,14(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study TW 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Taiwan, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7708

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:       M=  6,67      6,81      6,51
no:        M=  6,10      5,12      6,08
- difference:  +0,57     +0,69     +0,44

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys       girls  
yes:       M=  6,60       6,74        7,18
no:        M=  6,03       6,54        5,94
- difference: +0,57(.05)  +0,19(ns)  +1,23

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study TH 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Thailand, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =8249

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,82      7,85      7,79
no:         M= 6,98      6,93      7,02
- difference: +0,83     +0,92     +0,77 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,74       7,76       6,46
no:         M= 7,18       7,36       5,70
- difference: +0,56(.05) +0,40(ns)  +0,76(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study TN 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Tunisia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5375

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,06      7,06      7,07
no:         M= 6,11      6,43      5,97
- difference: +0,96     +0,63     +1,10

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 6,96      7,03       6,90
no:         M= 6,13      6,33       6,04
- difference: +0,83     +0,70      +0,86

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study TR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Turkey, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5895

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
breakfast      all         boys       girls
yes:       M=  6,39        6,66       6,10
no:        M=  5,09        5,14       5,06
- difference: +1,50(.05)  +1,51(ns)  +1,04(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all         boys       girls  
yes:       M=  6,14        6,43       5,87
no:        M=  5,35        5,88       4,83
- difference: +0,79(.05)  +0,55(ns)  +1,03(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study AE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, United Arab Emirates, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =14167

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,47      7,60      7,33
no:         M= 6,77      6,71      6,80
- difference: +0,70     +0,89     +0,53

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,37      7,51       7,24
no:         M= 6,65      6,79       6,57
- difference: +0,72     +0,72      +0,67

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study GB 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, United Kingdom, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =14157

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,32      7,56      7,03
no:         M= 6,18      6,64      5,90
- difference: +1,14     +0,92     +1,13 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,04      7,37       6,70
no:         M= 5,04      6,40       4,34
- difference: +2,00     +0,97      +2,36 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study US 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, United States of America, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5712

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,64      7,87      7,40
no:         M= 6,64      7,02      6,36
- difference: +1,00     +0,85     +1,03 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,39      7,69       7,10
no:         M= 5,98      6,23       5,82
- difference: +1,41     +1,46      +1,28 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breakfast (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study UY 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Uruguay, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6062

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationBreakfast (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,85      8,05      7,66
no:         M= 6,98      7,37      6,74
- difference: +0,87     +0,68     +0,91

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,74       7,97       7,53
no:         M= 7,23       7,80       6,90
- difference: +0,51(.05) +0,17(ns)  +0,63(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study AT 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Austria, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7007

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,76      8,10      7,35
no:         M= 7,12      7,65      6,73
- difference: +0,64     +0,45     +0,62

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,59      8,00       7,18
no:         M= 6,45      7,29       5,94
- difference: +1,14     +0,71      +1,23

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study BE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Belgium, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =9651

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,62      7,86      7,35
no:         M= 7,03      7,42      6,76
- difference: +0,59     +0,44     +0,80

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,48      7,76       7,21
no:         M= 7,29      7,75       6,74
- difference: +0,19(ns) +0,01(ns)  +0,47(05(

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study BR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Brazil, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =23141

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,71      7,84      7,58
no:         M= 6,98      7,19      6,83
- difference: +0,72     +0,65     +0,75 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all         boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,62        7,75       7,49
no:         M= 6,25        7,49       7,06
- difference: +0,37(.05)  +0,26(ns)  +0,43(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study BG 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Bulgaria, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5928

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,49      7,67      7,27
no:         M= 7,13      7,28      7,02
- difference: +0,37     +0,39     +0,24 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all         boys        girls  
yes:        M= 7,44        7,64        7,23
no:         M= 6,90        6,95        6,84
- difference: +0,54(.05)  +0,69(.05)  +0,39(ns)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study CL 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Chile, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7053

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,54      7,68      7,37
no:         M= 6,90      7,26      6,66
- difference: +0,64     +0,43     +0,71

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,45      7,67       7,22
no:         M= 7,01      7,25       6,83
- difference: +0,44     +0,42      +0,38

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study CN 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, China, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =9841

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 6,89      6,94      6,82
no:         M= 6,01      5,87      6,18
- difference: +0,88     +1,07     +0,64 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys        girls  
yes:        M= 6,84       6,88        6,79
no:         M= 6,08       5,80        6,34
- difference: +1,76(.05) +1,08(.05) +0,45(ns)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study CO 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Colombia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11795

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:           7,98      8,12      7,85
no:            7,09      7,50      6,86
- difference: +0,89     +0,62     +0,99

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all         boys       girls  
yes:           7,91        8,07       7,76
no:            7,07        7,69       6,79
- difference: +0,83(.05)  +0,42(ns)  +0,97(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study CR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Costa Rica, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6866

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 8,34      8,50      8,17
no:         M= 7,47      7,61      7,38
- difference: +0,87     +0,89     +0,79 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 8,21      8,37       8,06
no:         M= 7,56      8,15       7,14
- difference: +0,65(ns) +0,22(ns)  +0,91(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study HR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Croatia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5809

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 8,07      8,32      7,82
no:         M= 7,35      7,66      7,16
- difference: +0,72     +0,66     +0,66 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys       girls  
yes:       M=  7,91       8,20       7,65
no:        M=  7,55       8,02       7,18
- difference: +0,35(.05) +0,17(ns)   +0,47(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study CY 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Cyprus, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5571

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,23      7,42      7,04
no:         M= 6,58      6,80      6,42
- difference: +0,65     +0,61     +0,62 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,12       7,32       6,94
no:         M= 6,57       7,09       6,15
- difference: +0,56(.05) +0,23(ns)  +0,80(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study CZ 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Czech Replublic, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5587

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,20      7,48      6,90
no:         M= 6,69      7,08      6,35
- difference: +0,51     +0,41     +0,55

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,10      7,39       6,79
no:         M= 6,11      6,72       5,78
- difference: +0,99     +0,67      +1,01

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study DO 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Dominican Republic, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4740

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
breakfast      all         boys       girls
yes:        M= 8,60        8,63       8,56
no:         M= 8,04        8,23       7,94
- difference: +0,56(.05)  +0,41(ns)  +0,62(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ ns
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:       M=  8,49      8,55       8,43
no:        M=  8,32      8,53       8,15
- difference: +0,17     +0,02      +0,28 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study EE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Estonia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5587

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,62      7,81      7,43
no:         M= 6,92      7,35      6,57
- difference: +0,70     +0,45     +0,85

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,57      7,80       7,34
no:         M= 6,73      7,04       6,49
- difference: +0,84     +0,76      +0,85

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study FI 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Finland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5882

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 8,01      8,32      7,66
no:         M= 7,26      7,86      6,75
- difference: +0,75     +0,46     +0,92

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,94      8,30       7,56
no:         M= 6,87      7,18       6,67
- difference: +1,07     +1,12      +0,89

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study FR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, France, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6108

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,77      7,96      7,56
no:         M= 7,17      7,40      7,05
- difference: +0,60     +0,56     +0,52

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,67      7,88       7,46
no:         M= 6,80      7,23       6,47
- difference: +0,87     +0,65      +0,99 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study DE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Germany, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6522

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,50      7,86      7,13
no:         M= 6,70      7,20      6,33
- difference: +0,80     +0,65     +0,81 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,36      7,73       7,00
no:         M= 5,72      6,55       5,21
- difference: +1,64     +1,18      +1,80 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study GR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Greece, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5532

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,05      7,36      6,71
no:         M= 6,40      6,59      6,27
- difference: +0,65     +0,77     +0,44

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 6,95      7,25       6,64
no:         M= 6,34      6,68       6,03
- difference: +0,61     +0,58      +0,61

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study HK 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Hong Kong, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5359

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 6,58      6,64      6,51
no:         M= 6,05      6,00      6,11
- difference: +0,52     +0,64     +0,41 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 6,50      6,54       6,45
no:         M= 5,47      5,08       5,77
- difference: +1,03     +1,46      +0,69 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study HU 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Hungary, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5658

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,38      7,72      6,98
no:         M= 6,68      6,91      6,52
- difference: +0,71     +0,81     +0,45

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,23      7,58       6,86
no:         M= 6,35      6,56       6,24
- difference: +0,88     +1,02      +0,62

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study IS 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Iceland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3374

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 8,03      8,42      7,63
no:         M= 6,76      7,69      6,28
- difference: +1,27     +0,73     +1,36 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,86      8,24       7,41
no:         M= 6,24      7,51       5,58
- difference: +1,62     +0,83      +1,83 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study IE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Ireland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5741

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,49      7,68      7,28
no:         M= 6,33      7,79      6,05
- difference: +1,17     +0,90     +1,22 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,32      7,59       7,04
no:         M= 4,75      5,06       4,54
- difference: +2,57     +2,53      +2,05

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study IT 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Italy, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11583

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,09      7,42      6,74
no:         M= 6,25      6,74      5,96
- difference: +0,84     +0,68     +0,78 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ ns
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 6,92      7,31       6,54
no:         M= 6,76      7,23       6,38
- difference: +0,16     +0,09      +0,16 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study JP 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Japan, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6647

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:       M=  6,88      6,83      6,93
no:        M=  5,98      5,90      6,08
- difference: +0,91     +0,94     +0,86

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys      girls  
yes:       M=  6,83       6,76      6,89
no:        M=  6,04       6,35      5,88
- difference: +0,79(.05) +0,41(ns) +1,02(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study KR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Korea (South), 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5581

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 6,49      6,67      6,28
no:         M= 5,88      6,22      5,60
- difference: +0,61     +0,45     +0,68   

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 6,41      6,64       6,15
no:         M= 5,75      5,87       5,66
- difference: +0,66     +0,77      +0,50 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study LV 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Latvia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4869

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,50      7,55      7,44
no:         M= 6,86      6,93      6,80
- difference: +0,64     +0,62     +0,64

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,41      7,47       7,35
no:         M= 6,60      6,85       6,42
- difference: +0,81     +0,63      +0,93

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study LT 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Lithuania, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6525

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 8,01      8,20      7,79
no:         M= 7,29      7,68      7,04
- difference: +0,71     +0,53     +0,75 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,91      8,15       7,67
no:         M= 7,16      7,57       6,84
- difference: +0,75     +0,58      +0,83

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study LU 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Luxembourg, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5299

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,53      7,86      7,18
no:         M= 6,96      7,55      6,52
- difference: +0,56     +0,32     +0,65

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner          all       boys       girls  
yes:       M=   7,41      7,80       7,04
no:        M=   6,88      7,60       6,08
- difference:  +0,53     +0,20      +0,96

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study MO 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Macao, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4476

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 6,65      6,64      6,65
no:         M= 6,19      6,23      6,15
- difference: +0,45     +0,41     +0,49 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys       girls  
yes:       M=  6,61       6,61       6,61
no:        M=  5,88       5,57       5,84
- difference: +0,73(.05) +0,64(ns)  +0,77(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study MY 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Malaysia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =8861

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:           7,16      7,20      7,12
no:            6,70      6,78      6,64
- difference: +0,46     +0,42     +0,47

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all         boys       girls  
yes:           7,09        7,14       7,04
no:            6,77        6,79       6,76
- difference: +0,32(.05)  +0,35(ns)  +0,28(ns)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study MX 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Mexico, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7568

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 8,40      8,41      8,38
no:         M= 7,72      7,94      7,55
- difference: +0,60      +0,47    +0,83 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 8,33      8,37       8,28
no:         M= 7,80      7,95       7,71
- difference: +0,52     +0,42      +0,57 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study ME 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Montenegro, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5665

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,80      8,04      7,57
no:         M= 6,97      7,29      6,71
- difference: +0,86     +0,75     +0,85

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all         boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,75        8,00        7,51
no:         M= 7,37        7,53        5,24
- difference: +0,39(.05)  +0,47(.05)  +0,27(ns)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study NL 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Netherlands, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5385

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,89      8,14      7,35
no:         M= 7,28      7,72      6,73
- difference: +0,60     +0,42     +0,62

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ ns
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M=  -        8,11       7,55
no:         M=  -        7,39        -
- difference:   -       +0,72        - 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study PE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Peru, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6971

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,58      7,67      7,47
no:         M= 6,54      6,84      6,34
- difference: +1,03     +0,83     +1,14 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,51      7,63       7,38
no:         M= 6,98      7,26       6,75
- difference: +0,53     +0,38      +0,63

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study PL 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Poland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4478

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,38      7,65      7,06
no:         M= 6,37      7,75      6,11
- difference: +1,01     +0,90     +0,95

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,24      7,57       6,90
no:         M= 6,36      6,90       5,67
- difference: +0,88     +0,68      +1,23

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study PT 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Portugal, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7325

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all     boys     girls
yes:       M=  7,44     7,66     7,20
no:        M=  6,49     6,82     6,34
- difference:  +0,95    +0,84   +0,86

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ ns
dinner          all     boys    girls  
yes:        M=  7,38    7,63     7,12
no:         M=  7,20    7,50     6,93
- difference:  +0,17   +0,13    +0,18

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study QA 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Qatar, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =12083

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,55      7,62      7,49
no:         M= 6,71      7,72      6,70
- difference: +0,84     +0,90     +0,78 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner          all        boys       girls  
yes:        M=  7,42       7,49       7,36
no:         M=  6,66       7,18       6,29
- difference: +0,76(.05)  +0,31(ns)  +1,07(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study RU 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Russia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6036

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,87      7,99      7,75
no:         M= 6,97      7,36      6,70
- difference: +0,90     +0,63     +1,05 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner          all        boys       girls  
yes:        M=  7,80       7,94       7,67
no:         M=  7,20       7,64       6,88
- difference:  +0,60(.05) +0,30(ns)  +0,79(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study SK 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Slovakia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6350

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,58      7,85      7,28
no:         M= 7,13      7,43      6,89
- difference: +0,45     +0,42     +0,39

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner          all       boys       girls  
yes:       M=  7,49       7,79       7,19
no:        M=  7,13       7,38       6,91
- difference: +0,36(.05) +0,41(.05) +0,29(ns)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study SI 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Slovenia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6406

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,38      7,75      6,94
no:         M= 6,77      7,32      6,32
- difference: +0,60     +0,42     +0,63

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner          all       boys       girls  
yes:       M=  7,19       7,63       6,71
no:        M=  7,11       7,57       6,68
- difference: +0,08(.05) +0,06(.05) +0,03(ns)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study ES 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Spain, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6736

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,58      7,70      7,44
no:         M= 6,59      6,91      6,40
- difference: +0,99     +0,79     +1,05

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,46      7,64       7,29
no:         M= 6,34      6,71       5,97
- difference: +1,22(ns) +0,93(.05) +1,32(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study CH 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Switzerland, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5860

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
breakfast      all        boys      girls
yes:       M=  7,82       8,08      7,54
no:        M=  7,32       7,83      6,87
- difference: +0,50(.05) +0,25(ns) +0,67(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys       girls  
yes:       M=  7,71       8,04       7,37
no:        M=  6,97       7,64       6,23
- difference: +0,74(.05) +0,40(ns)  +1,14(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study TW 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Taiwan, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =7708

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:       M=  6,67      6,81      6,51
no:        M=  6,10      5,12      6,08
- difference:  +0,57     +0,69     +0,44

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys       girls  
yes:       M=  6,60       6,74        7,18
no:        M=  6,03       6,54        5,94
- difference: +0,57(.05)  +0,19(ns)  +1,23

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study TH 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Thailand, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =8249

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,82      7,85      7,79
no:         M= 6,98      6,93      7,02
- difference: +0,83     +0,92     +0,77 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,74       7,76       6,46
no:         M= 7,18       7,36       5,70
- difference: +0,56(.05) +0,40(ns)  +0,76(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study TN 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Tunisia, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5375

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,06      7,06      7,07
no:         M= 6,11      6,43      5,97
- difference: +0,96     +0,63     +1,10

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 6,96      7,03       6,90
no:         M= 6,13      6,33       6,04
- difference: +0,83     +0,70      +0,86

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study TR 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Turkey, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5895

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
breakfast      all         boys       girls
yes:       M=  6,39        6,66       6,10
no:        M=  5,09        5,14       5,06
- difference: +1,50(.05)  +1,51(ns)  +1,04(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all         boys       girls  
yes:       M=  6,14        6,43       5,87
no:        M=  5,35        5,88       4,83
- difference: +0,79(.05)  +0,55(ns)  +1,03(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study AE 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, United Arab Emirates, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =14167

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,47      7,60      7,33
no:         M= 6,77      6,71      6,80
- difference: +0,70     +0,89     +0,53

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,37      7,51       7,24
no:         M= 6,65      6,79       6,57
- difference: +0,72     +0,72      +0,67

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study GB 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, United Kingdom, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =14157

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,32      7,56      7,03
no:         M= 6,18      6,64      5,90
- difference: +1,14     +0,92     +1,13 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,04      7,37       6,70
no:         M= 5,04      6,40       4,34
- difference: +2,00     +0,97      +2,36 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study US 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, United States of America, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5712

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,64      7,87      7,40
no:         M= 6,64      7,02      6,36
- difference: +1,00     +0,85     +1,03 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
dinner         all       boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,39      7,69       7,10
no:         M= 5,98      6,23       5,82
- difference: +1,41     +1,46      +1,28 

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Dinner (or not)

StudyOECD (2017): study UY 2015
TitlePISA 2015 Results. Students' Well-Being. Volume III.
SourceOECD Publishing, 2017, Paris, France
URLhttp://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/pisa-2015-results-volume-iii_9789264273856-en
Public15-16 aged, secundary school students, Uruguay, 2017
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6062

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source Table III.11.27, p.458
Our classificationDinner (or not)
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
before going  to school eat breakfast? 
     1 yes
     0 no
- On the most recent day you attended school, did you 
after leaving school eat diner?
     1 yes
     0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+ p < .05
breakfast      all       boys      girls
yes:        M= 7,85      8,05      7,66
no:         M= 6,98      7,37      6,74
- difference: +0,87     +0,68     +0,91

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=+
dinner         all        boys       girls  
yes:        M= 7,74       7,97       7,53
no:         M= 7,23       7,80       6,90
- difference: +0,51(.05) +0,17(ns)  +0,63(.05)

Difference slightly smaller after control for 
student's socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Where one eats

StudyAustrom (1984): study CA Ontario 1982
TitleThe Consequences of Being Single.
SourcePeter Lang Publisher, 1984, New York, USA
Public23-59 aged English speaking, Toronto and Ontario, Canada, 198?
Sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =1038

Correlate
Author's labelMeals outside home
Page in Source 237
Our classificationWhere one eats
Operationalization
Single open-ended question: Aproximately what 
percentage of your meals do you eat outside of your 
place of residence?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ar=-.08 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Where one eats

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHaving meals at home
Page in Source 215,221
Our classificationWhere one eats
Operationalization
A Having breakfast at home
  1 yes
  0 no
B Having dinner at home
  1 yes
  0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.30 p < .05
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=1.13 ns
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=0.99 ns
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.08 ns
OR and B controled for
- gender
- age cohort
- educational attainment
- marital status
- household income
- unemployed
- rural residency
- life domain satisfaction
- value priorities


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's nutrition

StudyAverina, M. et al. (2005): study RU Archangelsk 1999
TitleSocial and lifestyle determinants of depression, aniety, sleeping disorders and self-evaluated quality of life in Russia
SourceSoc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemol (2005) 40: 511-518
DOIdoi: 10.1007/s00127-005-0918-x
Public15+ aged general public, Arkhangelsk, Russia, 2000
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3705

Correlate
Author's labelUnsatisfied with nutrition
Page in Source 514
Our classificationAttitudes to one's nutrition
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How do you evaluate your nutrition?
-  good
- satisfactory
-  poor
0 good, satisfactory
1 poor
Observed distributionMen 10,8%, Women 21.9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOR=3.8 p < .000
Unhappiness by Unsatisfied with nutriton 
CI(3.1-4.7)
Control variables not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's nutrition

StudyPettay (2008a): study US 2006
TitleHealth Behaviors and Life Satisfaction in college Students.
SourcePhD Thesis, Kansas State University, 2008, USA
PublicUniversity students, Illinois, USA, 2007
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =796

Correlate
Author's labelStage of change in fruit and vegetable consumption
Page in Source 59
Our classificationAttitudes to one's nutrition
Operationalization
Self report on questions about change for fruit and 
vegetable consumption:
1: precontemplation
2: contemplation
3; preparation
4: action
5: maitenance
Observed distribution1: 48%, 2: 6%, 3: 37%, 4: 2%, 5: 7%
Remarks
Scores derived from the following combinations of 
questions
A: How many servings of fruits and vegetables do you 
usually eat a day? (0 to.6 or more)
B: Do you intend to eat more than 5 servings in the 
next 6 monnths? (yes/no)
C: Do you intend to start eating 5 or more servings in 
the next 30 days? (yes/no)
D: Have you been eating 5 or more servings in the last 
6 months? (yes/no)
1 = A<4 + B no
2 = A,<4 + C no
3 = A <5 + D no
4 = A<5 + D yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcMW=+ ns
Similar for males and females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about nutrition

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelHealthy eating habits
Page in Source 52
Our classificationConcern about nutrition
Operationalization
Direct question:"Do you pay attention to healthy food 
habits?"
Answer categories: "In general I don't take care/ in 
general I take care"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.02
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.05 p < .05
ß controlled for: gender, age, community size, 
education, professional status, marital status, 
income, body weight, weight control, alcohol 
consumption, physical fittness activity, 
psychosomatic complains, illness and satisfaction 
with health.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about nutrition

StudyCamfield et al. (2009): study BD 2004
TitleWell-Being, Happiness and why Relationships Matter: Evidence from Bangladesh.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 71 - 91
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9062-5
Public18+ aged, general public,rural and urban areas, Bangladesh, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelFood shortage
Page in Source 79
Our classificationConcern about nutrition
Operationalization
Selfreport of  food sufficiency:
1 Sufficient
0 Inadequate

(questions not reported)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-oq-v-3-aD%=+
% Not too happy:
- shortage of at least 1 food item  35%
- average                           19%
difference                         +14%
O-HL-u-oq-v-3-aD%=+
% Not too happy:
- inadequate                        44%
- average                           19%
difference                         +25%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about nutrition

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labeldiet
Page in Source 178
Our classificationConcern about nutrition
Operationalization
Single question:
"How is your diet ?"
a: I eat what I like
b: I think my diet is healthy
c: I don't think my diet is healthy
d: I eat so as to keep my weight down
e: I eat ready-prepared dishes or fast food 
   at least once a week
f: I eat vegatarian
g: Information campaigns influence my 
   dietary habits
Observed distributionN: a:833, b:831, c:160, d:180, e:188, f:32, g:153
Remarks
The same respondents may appear in several groups

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
 a: Mt=7.89
 b: Mt=7.88
 c: Mt=7.14
 d: Mt=7.65
 e: Mt=7.63
 f: Mt=8.05
 g: Mt=7.73
All Mt=7.89
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
 a: Mt=7.50
 b: Mt=7.64
 c: Mt=6.55
 d: Mt=7.46
 e: Mt=7.25
 f: Mt=7.83
 g: Mt=7.54
All Mt=7.46
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
 a: Mt=7.00
 b: Mt=7.08
 c: Mt=6.39
 d: Mt=7.10
 e: Mt=6.83
 f: Mt=7.19
 g: Mt=6.95
All Mt=6.98


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with one's nutrition

StudyGuardiola et al. (2013): study MX Yucatán 2008
TitleThe Influence of Water Access in Subjective Well-Being: Some Evidence in Yucatan, Mexico
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 110, 207 - 218
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-011-9925-3
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9925-3
Public373 heads of household, town in rural area, Mexico, Yucatan, 2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =373

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with nurture
Page in Source 8
Our classificationSatisfaction with one's nutrition
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: 'How do you feel in 
relation to your nurture'. Rated on a 0-10 numerical 
scale.
Observed distributionM = 7,87, SD = 1,58

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-gb=+.11 p < .06
B controled for satisfaction with:
- health
- work
- money
- house
- leisure
- community
- water

Values not much different from model without 
water.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with one's nutrition

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with nutrition
Page in Source question 19
Our classificationSatisfaction with one's nutrition
Operationalization
How satisfied are you with your family nutrition? 
1 completely dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
3 rather satisfied
4 quite satisfied
- DK/NA
Observed distribution1: 15,8% 2: 35,6% 3: 34,4% 4: 12% DK/NA: 2,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=+
1: M = 1,98
2: M = 2,36
3: M = 2,73
4: M = 3,14
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=+.42 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with one's nutrition

StudyBharadwaj & Wilkening (1977): study US Wisconsin 1972
TitleThe Prediction of Perceived Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1977, Vol. 4, 421 - 439
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00353143
Public18+ aged, general public, Wisconsin, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response12%
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with food
Page in Source 430
Our classificationSatisfaction with one's nutrition
Operationalization
direct closed question rated on a 7-point scale, 
ranging from "completely satisfied" to "completely 
dissatisfied".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.3?
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=ns
All ß`s controlled for satisfaction with 
family-life, standard of living, work, health, 
sparetime activities, income, community, housing, 
spiritual matters, education, organizational 
involvement,natural environment, national 
government.
AGE                INCOME
under 30  ß:  ns   under $4000    ß:+.06
30-49     ß:+.07   $4000- 7999    ß:  ns
50-64     ß:+.ns   $8000-15999    ß:  ns
over 65   ß:  ns   over $16000    ß:+.05


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cw-rdf-v-7-aRating by mother of infants affective reactions

During the last week how often did your child show
a: pleasure in high intensity situations such as peek-a boo game
b: pleasure in low intensity situations, such as playing quietly with a favorite toy
c: smile in sitiations such as being undressed
d: distress to limitations
e: fear
f: sadness
Each rated:
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Computation: (a+b+c) - (d+e+f)

Items part of the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire IBQ
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-bSelfreport on 19 questions repeated 13 days

To what extent did you feel today,,
A calm
B cheerful
C pleasant
D energetic
E enthusiastic
F excited
G sad
H dejected
I depressed
J nervous
K anxious
L tense
O angry
P irritable
Q hostile

Rated
1 not at all
2
3
4
5 extremely

Computation: (A to F) - (G toQ)
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-cSelfreport on 19 questions repeated 13 days

To what extent did you feel today,,
A happy
B enthusiastic
C relaxed
D sad
E anxious
F angry

Rated
1 not at all
2
3
4
5 extremely

Computation: (A +B+C) - (D+E+F)
A-AOL-g-rdf-v-3-bRating by mother in response to single question:

How often does your child feel unhappy, sad or depressed?
1 often
2 selden
3 never
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 11 questions:

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel.....?"
A angry
B bored
C could not get going
D depressed
E lonely
F too busy
G uneasy
H excited
I on top of the world
J pleased
K proud

Answer options and scoring:
- yes = 1
- no = 0

Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on H, I, J, K
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores A, B, C, D, E, F, G
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range: -7 to +5

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 20 questions:

Lead item not reported.
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H excited
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Rated:
1: slightly/not at all
.
.
5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson's PANAS version not reported
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dSelfreport on 10 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. As I read each item, I ask that you refer to your response card an d tell me to wgat extent you have felt in that way during the past year :
A excited
B enthusiastic
C alert
D inspired
E determined
F distressed
G scared
H upset
I nervous
J ashamed

Answer options:
1 not at all
2 a little
3 somewhat
4 quite a bit
5 very much

Negative affect score (NAS): F to J
Positive affect score (PAS): A to G
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Shortened Watson's PANAS; Kiercher version
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-aRating by parents of smiling and laughter in 15 different situations, such as

During the last week, when being undressed, how often did your child smile or laugh?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported

Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire IBQ
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abRating by parents of pleasure in different high stimulus intensity situations, such as:

During a peek-a-boo game, how often did the baby smile?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported.

Part of Rothbart Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-baRating by parents of pleasure in different low stimulus intensity situations, such as:

When playing quietly with one of his/her favorite toys, how often did the baby show pleasure?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported.

Part of Rothbart Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. The top of the ladder '10' represents the best possible life for you and the bottom '0' is the worst possible life for you. In general , where on the ladder do you feel you stand at the moment? Tick the box next to the number that best describes where you stand
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question:

How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want out of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none
- don't know
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy

B How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never

C How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want out of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none

Computation not reported: 0 to 6
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

We want to know how you feel. Please indicate on the scale below.
10 means that you are doing well, 0 means that you are doing badly
10 you are doing well
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 doing badly
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

During the past 4 weeks.. Have you been a happy person?
5 all of the time
4 most of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time

Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form) version 2 (5-step rating scale)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How much of the time during the past 4 weeks have you felt happy?
5 all the time
4 most of the time
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
- don't remember

Part of 9 item ODIN Affect Balance Scale (A-AB/cm/mq/v/5/..)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
6 all of the time
5 most of the time
4 a good bit of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time

Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how happy are you with your life these days?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- cannot choose
- skipped
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question

In general, how do you feel about your life at present?
4 I feel very happy
3 I feel happy
2 I don't feel happy
1 I am not happy at all
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mSelfreport on single question

All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy
- Don't know
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mSelfreport on single question

In general, how would you describe your happiness?
4 very happy
3 mostly happy
2 a little bit happy
1 not happy at all
O-HL-u-oq-v-3-aSelfreport on open question

How happy are you with your life as a whole?
3 very happy
2 happy
1 not too happy

Ratings made by the interviewer
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-hSelf report on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are?
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Labels of scale ends not reported

1. Least happy score
2
3
-
-
10. Most happy score
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-gSelfreport on single question:

In general terms, how happy do you feel with your life?
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Scale labels not reported
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, are you…?
5 fully satisfied
4 not fully satisfied but generally
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 still dissatisfied
1 extremely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fSelfreport on single question:

All in all, to what degree are you satisfied with your life now?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 completely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
4 quite satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 rather unsatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
- not applicable
- hard to say
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tSelfreport on single question:

How would you describe your satisfaction with life in general at present......?
1 bad
2 poor
3 fair
4 good
5 excellent
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Please tell me how satisfied you are with your life overall. Would you say that you are..
4 very satisfied
3 mostly satisfied
2 mostly dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- don't know
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole?
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport on single question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole........?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied

Summation: both scores added
Possible range: 2 to 14
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are....?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 rather happy than unhappy
2 rather unhappy than happy
1 very unhappy
- DK/NA

B When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 rather satisfied than dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied than satisfied
1 fairly dissatisfied
- DK/NA

C How do you feel right now? Is your well-being.....?
5 very high
4 high
3 moderate
2 rather low
1 very low
- DK/NA

Summation: The summed scores were divided in three strata: low, medium and high quality of life
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bcSelfreport on 3 questions:

Using the 1-5 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life

Answers rated:
5 strongly agree
4 slightly agree
3 neither agree nor disagree
2 slightly disagree
1 strongly disagree

Computation:( A+B+C)/3

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)
O-Sum-u-mq-v-6-aSelfreport on 3 questions

A I feel that life is very rewarding
B I am well satisfied about everything in my life
C I am very happy
Rated
1 strongly disagree
2
3
4
5
6 strongly agree

Computation: (A+B+C)/3

Items in Oxford happiness Questionnaire (OHIQ)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoCANALYSIS of COVARIANCE (ANCOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlates: at least one nominal and at least one metric, Happiness: metric.

Just as in an ANOVA, in an ANCOVA the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is partitioned into several parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least two of those sources are the variability of the correlates, in case there is one for each correlate, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

In an Analysis of Covariance, the treatment means for all levels of the nominal correlate are 'adjusted' for differences in the mean values of the metric correlate.
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
b-ivREGRESSION COEFFICIENT in regression ananlysis with instrumental variable as one or more explanatory variables
Type: test statistic.
Correlate level: metric, Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

The instrument must be correlated with the endogenous explanatory variables, conditionally on the other covariates. If this correlation is strong, then the instrument is said to have a strong first stage. A weak correlation may provide misleading inferences about parameter estimates and standard errors.
The instrument cannot be correlated with the error term in the explanatory equation, conditionally on the other covariates. In other words, the instrument cannot suffer from the same problem as the original predicting variable. If this condition is met, then the instrument is said to satisfy the exclusion restriction.


See Mardia Kent & Bibby (1979): Multivariate Analysis
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
MWWILCOXON (MANN-WHITNEY) TWO SAMPLE TEST
Type: statistical procedure.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: ordinal
Symbol test statistic: W (Wilcoxon) or U (Mann-Whitney).
Relationship: W = U + ½n1(n1 + 1), where n1 and n2 = Ne - n1 , while n1 <= n2, are the sizes of the two samples.
Range U [ 0; n1n2 ] and W [ ½n1(n1 + 1); ½n1(n1+ 2n2 +1].

Meaning:
At the limit values of U and W there is the strongest possible association.
U = ½n1n2 <-> W = ½ n1(Ne + 1) « no association.
OLRCOLRC: Regression coefficient in ordered categorical logistic regression.
Only the sign of the computed coefficient is informative.

Happiness is an ordered categorical variable. Higher categories correspond to being happier.

OLRC < 0 indicates that the odds of being beyond a chosen happiness category-to- be-ing at or below that category decreases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OLRC > 0 indicates an increase in the odds for both the above cases.
OROR: Odds ratio in binary logistic regression.

Happiness is a binary or dichotomous variable with Happy =1 and Unhappy=0.

OR < 1 indicates that the odds of being happy-to-being unhappy
decreases by a factor OR when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases by one unit
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OR > 1 indicates an increase by a factor OR for both the above cases.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness


A new version of this website is available since 2020 August 1 at the old address worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl
This old website is renamed as worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl and is still maintained.
The new website links to some parts of this old website for the time being.


Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
14971 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 7730 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1354 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12851 distributional findings in the general public, of which 9280 in 173 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3571 findings in 2299 regions and cities in nations.
3068 studies with findings in 175 specific publics.
20128 correlational findings observed in 2592 studies, excerpted from 1898 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Number of Studies
ACTIVITY (how much one does)3
ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)374
AFFECTIVE LIFE81
AGE857
AGGRESSION15
ANOMY35
APPEARANCE (good looks)28
ATTITUDES17
AUTHORITARIANISM4
BIRTH CONTROL2
BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)201
BODY113
CHILDREN13
CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)349
CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN40
CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN19
CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)36
COMMUNAL LIVING16
COMPETENCES21
CONCERNS50
CONSUMPTION174
COPING71
CREATIVENESS8
CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR3
CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)51
DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
DISASTER3
EDUCATION724
EMPLOYMENT 1078
ERA (temporal period)163
ETHNICITY231
EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
EVENTS2
FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)528
FAMILY OF PROCREATION154
FAMILY OF RELATIVES270
FARMING68
FREEDOM59
FRIENDSHIP375
GENDER840
GRIEF1
HABITS2
HANDICAP55
HAPPINESS: BEHAVIOR4
HAPPINESS: CAREER302
HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS20
HAPPINESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS3
HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES397
HAPPINESS: OF OTHERS23
HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS27
HAPPINESS: SEQUALE1
HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS164
HEALTH: BEHAVIOR67
HEALTH: MENTAL308
HEALTH: PHYSICAL966
HEALTH: PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS71
HEALTH: PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT548
HEALTH: TREATMENT MEDICAL201
HELPING19
HOPE38
HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION336
HOUSEHOLD: WORK48
HOUSING389
INCOME1385
INSTITUTIONAL LIVING64
INTELLIGENCE92
INTERNET205
INTERESTS29
INTERVIEW 104
INTIMACY220
LANGUAGE51
LEADERSHIP15
LEISURE470
LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS527
LIFE CHANGE72
LIFE EVENTS149
LIFE GOALS131
LIFE HISTORY12
LIFE STYLE 76
LOCAL: CULTURE11
LOCAL: DEMOGRAPHY38
LOCAL: ECONOMY238
LOCAL: GEOGRAPHY303
LOCAL: LIVABILITY (fit with human needs/capacities)8
LOCAL: POLITICS14
LOCAL: RESIDENCE89
LOCAL: SOCIETY263
LOTTERY13
LOVE-LIFE46
MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER120
MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS1050
MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP197
MARRIAGE: PARTNER84
MEANING35
MEDITATION8
MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY125
MIGRATION: TO OTHER REGION1
MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)54
MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN REGION0
MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
MILITARY LIFE14
MINORITY STATUS0
MODERNITY62
MOOD408
MOTIVATION25
MOBILITY (travel)0
NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONE'S NATION80
NATION: CULTURE191
NATION: DEMOGRAPHY40
NATION: ECONOMY498
NATION: GEOGRAPHY90
NATION: HISTORY7
NATION: JUSTICE61
NATION: LIFESTYLE12
NATION: LIVABILITY (fit with human needs/capacities)70
NATION: NATIONALITY82
NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)88
NATION: POLITICS234
NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION23
NATION: SOCIETY315
NUTRITION184
OCCUPATION262
PERFORMANCE149
PERSONALITY: HISTORY57
PERSONALITY: CHANGE15
PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS864
PERSONALITY: LATER22
PETS4
PLANNING12
POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR320
POPULARITY33
PREFERENCES6
POSSESSIONS274
PRISON3
PROBLEMS40
REGION OF RESIDENCE112
REGION: CULTURE11
REGION: DEMOGRAPHY9
REGION: ECONOMY48
REGION: GEOGRAPHY34
REGION: HISTORY0
REGION: LIVABILITY. Fit environment - human needs/capacities6
REGION: PERSONALITY0
REGION: POLITICS11
REGION: POSITION1
REGION: SOCIETY7
RELIGION548
RESOURCES37
RETIREMENT170
ROLES31
SCHOOL1429
SELF-IMAGE355
SEX-LIFE88
SLEEP19
SOCIAL MOBILITY27
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS114
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS162
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)61
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS211
SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED148
SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED25
SPORTS226
STIMULANTS104
SUICIDE10
SUMMED DETERMINANTS217
SUSTAINABLE BEHAVIOR0
TIME 239
TOLERANCE40
TRAVEL30
TREATMENT0
TRUST71
VALUE DEVELOPMENT8
VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)172
VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)14
VALUES: LIVING UP TO20
VICTIM 47
WAR9
WISDOM1
WORK: CAREER2
WORK: CONDITIONS152
WORK: ATTITUDES466
WORK: PERFORMANCE42
WORRIES60
UNCLASSIFIED31
X0


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
NUTRITIONFood
Earlier nutritionEarlier life (antecedents of happiness)
Change in nutritionDietary treatment
Change in nutritionChange in life
Later nutritionLater life (consequences of happiness)
How much one spends on eatingConsumption
How often one eatsWhen one eats
What one eatsDietary treatment
What one eatsSnacking between meals
What one eatsSTIMULANTS
When one eatsEating
When one eatsCurrent time-organization
Snacking between mealsWhat one eats
Where one eatsEating/drinking out
Concern about nutritionAttitudes to health-maintenance

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings