Findings on Happiness and REGION: POLITICS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and main subject: REGION: POLITICS

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Nr of Studieson subject
REGION: POLITICS
  Development of political conditions in one's region
    Change in political conditions uin region
1       Change in centralization in region
1   Current political conditions in one's region
    Centralization in region
    Democracy in region
    Dominant political ideology in region
    Government in region
1       Centralization in region
4       Size of government in region
    Institutional quality in region
4     Political violence in region
  Attitudes to political conditions in one's region

Appendices
Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
Appendix 2: Statistics used
Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 4: Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness
Appendix 5: Related Subjects

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and REGION: POLITICS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=0146
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2021, Netherlands


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in centralization in region

StudyFleche (2015): study SY 1999
TitleDistaste for Centralization: Evidence from a Quasi-Natural Experiment in Switzerland.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2015, No 1383, 1 - 48, London, UK
URLhttp://eprints.lse.ac.uk/64999/
Public14+ aged general public, Switserland, followed 12 years 1999-2012
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelCentralization in canton
Page in Source table 4, 6 and A9
Our classificationChange in centralization in region
Operationalization
Transfer of tasks from municipalities to canton
1 contralization reform (treated)
0 no reform (control)
Observed distribution 1: 19 cantons, 0: 7 cantons
Remarks
Financial equivalence of the transfers was about 4% of 
the cantonal budget
Cantons are highly autonomous provinces inb higly 
democratic Switserland

Whether or not centralization reform took place in a 
canton appeared to be unrelated to
varous cantonal characteristics and is therefore be 
considered random

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hb-fix=-.05 p < .05
LEVEL of happiness in centralized cantons (vs no 
reform)

b-fix controled for
- personal characteristics
  - sexe
  - age
  - personal income
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - education
  - religion
  - language
  - political preference
  - self rated health
  - foreign born
Unaffected by additional control for
- canton characteristics
  - income per capita
  - unemployment rate
- municipal population size
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hb-fix=-.04 p < .05
CHANGE of happiness in centralized cantons 
(difference before and after reform)

b-fix controled for
- personal characteristics
  - sexe
  - age
  - personal income
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - self rated health
Slightly lower (.003) after additional control 
for:
- canton characteristics
  - income per capita
  - unemployment rate
- municipal population size

Effect dissipates over time
1 year prior reform     b-fix = -.01 (ns)
year of implementation  b-fix = -.04 (05)
1-2 years after         b-fix = -.03 (05)
3 years after           b-fix = -.01 (ns)

No difference in effect across
- personal characteristics
  - gender
  - personal incomer
  - emploment statis
  - health
  - children under 18
  - left voter
  - on electoral register
  - langiage
- cantonal and munipipal characteristics
  - degree of direct democracy
  - approval of reform
  - time of reform
- municipality size


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current political conditions in one's region

StudyAlvarez-Diaz et al. (2009): study US 1985
TitleThe Politics of Happiness: On the Political Determinants of Quality of Life in the American States.
SourceThe Journal of Politics, 2010, Vol. 72, 894 - 905
DOIDOI: 10.1017/S0022381610000241
Public16+ aged, general public, USA, 1985-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelDemocratic party control
Page in Source 900,902
Our classificationCurrent political conditions in one's region
Operationalization
State legislature controlled by Democratic Party  (%),  
(cumulative average)
Remarks
Data: Klarner n.d.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=+.01 p < .009
AVERAGE happiness in state by democratic party 
control in 48 US states

B controlled for state characteristics
- Size
- Income
- Racial diversity
- Social capital
- Culture
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=+.01 p < .007
INDIVIDUAL happiness by democratic party control 
in 48 US states

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  - Income
  - Financial Satisfaction
  - Education
  - Employment status
  - Gender
  - Children
  - Age
  - Age squared
  - Marital status
  - Church attendance
  - Ethnicity
  - Interpersonal Trust
  - Health of respondent
- State characteristics
  - Size
  - Income
  - Racial diversity
  - Social capital
  - Culture


Correlational finding on Happiness and Centralization in region

StudyFleche (2015): study SY 1999
TitleDistaste for Centralization: Evidence from a Quasi-Natural Experiment in Switzerland.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2015, No 1383, 1 - 48, London, UK
URLhttp://eprints.lse.ac.uk/64999/
Public14+ aged general public, Switserland, followed 12 years 1999-2012
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelCentralization in canton
Page in Source table 4, 6 and A9
Our classificationCentralization in region
Operationalization
Transfer of tasks from municipalities to canton
1 contralization reform (treated)
0 no reform (control)
Observed distribution 1: 19 cantons, 0: 7 cantons
Remarks
Financial equivalence of the transfers was about 4% of 
the cantonal budget
Cantons are highly autonomous provinces inb higly 
democratic Switserland

Whether or not centralization reform took place in a 
canton appeared to be unrelated to
varous cantonal characteristics and is therefore be 
considered random

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hb-fix=-.05 p < .05
LEVEL of happiness in centralized cantons (vs no 
reform)

b-fix controled for
- personal characteristics
  - sexe
  - age
  - personal income
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - education
  - religion
  - language
  - political preference
  - self rated health
  - foreign born
Unaffected by additional control for
- canton characteristics
  - income per capita
  - unemployment rate
- municipal population size
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hb-fix=-.04 p < .05
CHANGE of happiness in centralized cantons 
(difference before and after reform)

b-fix controled for
- personal characteristics
  - sexe
  - age
  - personal income
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - self rated health
Slightly lower (.003) after additional control 
for:
- canton characteristics
  - income per capita
  - unemployment rate
- municipal population size

Effect dissipates over time
1 year prior reform     b-fix = -.01 (ns)
year of implementation  b-fix = -.04 (05)
1-2 years after         b-fix = -.03 (05)
3 years after           b-fix = -.01 (ns)

No difference in effect across
- personal characteristics
  - gender
  - personal incomer
  - emploment statis
  - health
  - children under 18
  - left voter
  - on electoral register
  - langiage
- cantonal and munipipal characteristics
  - degree of direct democracy
  - approval of reform
  - time of reform
- municipality size


Correlational finding on Happiness and Size of government in region

StudyFeng et al. (2018): study CN 2013
TitleDoes the Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies Improve the Subjective Well-Being of Citizens? A Micro-Level and City-Level Empirical Investigation.
SourceConference Paper, 2018, The 22nd Biennial Conference of the International elecommunications Society: "Beyond the Boundaries: Challenges for Business, Policy and Society", June 24th - 27th, 2018, Seoul, Korea
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/190381
Public18+ aged, adults, China, 2013
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5463

Correlate
Author's labelPublic finance expenditures for the city
Page in Source 7-10
Our classificationSize of government in region
Operationalization
Public finance expenditures for local government 
(million yuan) for the city
Observed distributionM=8.75; SD=7.19
Error EstimatesSE= .479

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ab=+.96 p < .05
b controlled for:
- personal characteristics:
  - ICT usage
  - income
  - worktime
  - social activities
  - education
  - gender
  - member of communist party
  - religion
  - immigrant
- local characteristics:
  - capital city vs. not
  - gross regional product
  - proportion of telephone subscriptions in
-  city
  - proportion of students in city
  - proportion of social workers in city


Correlational finding on Happiness and Size of government in region

StudyGao & Meng (2015): study CN 1998
TitleThe Impact of Government Size on Chinese Elders' Life Satisfaction: 1998-2008
SourceFilomena Maggino, Ed.: "Social Indicators Research Series 57, A New Research Agenda for Impovements in Quality of Life", Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, Swiss, 2015, 135 - 161
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15904-1_7
Public65+ aged, China, followed 10 years, 1998-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =50674

Correlate
Author's labelGovernment Size
Page in Source 138, 146.
Our classificationSize of government in region
Operationalization
government consumption as % GDP

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=-.01 p < .05
Individual happiness by size of provincial 
government.

OPRC (-0,0103) controlled for:

-provincial characteristics:
 -Real GDP per capita
 -Government medical expenses
 -Capital Formation Rate

-individual characteristics:
 -Gender
 -Living arrangement
 -Age (groups)
 -Urban (residence)
 -Etnicity (Han = 1)
 -Education
 -White Collar (= 1)
 -Frequency visits by child or sibling
 -Chronic conditions score
 -ADL-score (Physical limitations)

Similar results if addionally controlled for:
-Household income (quartiles)
-Feeling rich or fair


Correlational finding on Happiness and Size of government in region

StudyKotakorpi & Laamanen (2010): study FI 2000
TitleWelfare State and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from Public Health Care.
SourceEconomica, 2010, Vol. 77, 565 - 583
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1468-0335,2008,00769,x
Public18+ aged, general public, Finland, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelExcess expenditure on primary public healthcare in community
Page in Source 9
Our classificationSize of government in region
Operationalization
More expenses for primary public health care than 
expected on the basis of visits to public health 
centres and treatment days in public health care 
(residue variance in regression with expenses as 
dependent variable and visits and treatment days as 
independent variables)
Observed distributionNot reported.
Remarks
Approximately 2/3 of all health care services in 
Finland are provided by the public sector.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.42 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- Individual characteristics:
  - income
  - age
  - gender
  - employment
  - education
  - marital status
  - children
  - religiousness
  - time spend with friends
  - unfit for work
- Municipality level variables: 
  - log of average income
  - unemployement rate
  - log of houseprices
  - log of net expenditures in soc. services & 
administration
  - log of net expenditures in education & culture
  - net expenditures in other sectors
  - excess exenditures in special private 
healthcare


Correlational finding on Happiness and Size of government in region

StudyKotakorpi & Laamanen (2010): study FI 2000
TitleWelfare State and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from Public Health Care.
SourceEconomica, 2010, Vol. 77, 565 - 583
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1468-0335,2008,00769,x
Public18+ aged, general public, Finland, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelExcess expenditures on special private healthcare in community
Page in Source 9
Our classificationSize of government in region
Operationalization
More expenses than expected on the basis of treatment 
days in special private health care (residue variance 
in regression with expenses as dependent variable and 
visits and treatment days as independent variables).
Observed distributionNot reported
Remarks
Approximately 1/3 of all health care services in 
Finland are provided in special private health care.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.12 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  - income
  - age
  - gender
  - employment
  - education
  - marital status
  - children
  - religiousness
  - time spend with friends
  - unfit for work
- Municipality level variables: 
  - log of average income
  - unemployement rate
  - log of houseprices
  - log of net expenditures in soc. services & 
administration
  - log of net expenditures in education & culture
  - net expenditures in other sectors
  - excess exenditures in primary public 
healthcare


Correlational finding on Happiness and Political violence in region

StudyFrey et al. (2009): study FR 1973
TitleThe Life Satisfaction Approach to Valuing Public Goods.
SourcePublic Choice, 2009, Vol. 138, 317 - 345
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11127-008-9361-3
Public15+ aged, general public, regions, France, 1973-2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =38062

Correlate
Author's labelTerrorist attacks
Page in Source 331-338
Our classificationPolitical violence in region
Operationalization
Number of attacks in region 

Only attacks due to international terrorism. 
International terrorism includes attacks by separatist 
groups as well attacks by domestic terrorist groups 
whenever foreigners are involved.
Observed distributionRange = Paris: 0-66 South-East: 0-17 Rest: 0-18 Mean = Paris: 13,04 South-East: 3,35 Rest: 3,46 SD = Paris: 13,80 South-East: 4,15 Rest: 3,94
Remarks
Data: RAND-St. Andrews Chronology of International 
Terrorism and the Terror Attack Database.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 p < .01
B (-.0022)controled for:
-income
-personal characteristics
-year dummies
-region dummies

B (-.0024) unaffected when additionaly controled 
for:
-GPD per capita growth
-Unemployment rate growth
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
Almost no effect (B -.0002) when an individual 
lives in a rural area
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.01 p < .01
Larger effect (B -0.0109) for Agnostics

B means that a terroristic attack decreases mean 
happiness by .0022 points (0,073 %) on the 
happiness scale 1-4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Political violence in region

StudyFrey et al. (2009): study FR 1973
TitleThe Life Satisfaction Approach to Valuing Public Goods.
SourcePublic Choice, 2009, Vol. 138, 317 - 345
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11127-008-9361-3
Public15+ aged, general public, regions, France, 1973-2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =38062

Correlate
Author's labelTerrorist fatalities
Page in Source 331-338
Our classificationPolitical violence in region
Operationalization
Number of fatalities in region 

Only fatalities due to international terrorism. 
International terrorism includes attacks by separatist 
groups as well attacks by domestic terrorist groups 
whenever foreigners are involved.
Observed distributionRange = Paris: 0-18 South-East: 0-10 Rest: 0-9 Mean = Paris: 3,58 South-East: 0,70 Rest: 1,42 SD = Paris: 4,73 South-East: 2,07 Rest: 2,32
Remarks
Data: RAND-St. Andrews Chronology of International 
Terrorism and the Terror Attack Database.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.01 p < .05
B (-.0050)controled for:
-income
-personal characteristics
-year dummies
-region dummies

B (-.0050) unaffected when additionaly controled 
for:
-GPD per capita growth
-Unemployment rate growth
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
B (-.0031) when living in a rural area
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.01 ns
Larger effect (B -0.013) for Agnostics

B means that a terroristic fatality decreases mean 
happiness by .005 points (0,16 %) on the happiness 
scale 1-4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Political violence in region

StudyFrey et al. (2009): study ZZ Various nation sets 1975
TitleThe Life Satisfaction Approach to Valuing Public Goods.
SourcePublic Choice, 2009, Vol. 138, 317 - 345
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11127-008-9361-3
Public15+ aged, general public, regions, United Kingdom and Ireland, 1975-2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =62320

Correlate
Author's labelTerroristic attacks
Page in Source 331-339
Our classificationPolitical violence in region
Operationalization
Number of attacks in region 

Only attacks due to international terrorism. 
International terrorism includes attacks by separatist 
groups as well attacks by domestic terrorist groups 
whenever foreigners are involved.
Observed distributionRange = Ireland: 0-5 Great Britain: 0-37 Northern Ireland: 232-3336 Mean = Ireland: 1.08 Great Britain: 13.12 Northern Ireland: 1035.88 SD = Ireland: 1,47 Great Britain: 9,97 Northern Ireland: 709,57
Remarks
Data: RAND-St. Andrews Chronology of International 
Terrorism and the Terror Attack Database

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 p < .01
B (-.000076)controled for:
-income
-individual characteristics
-year dummies
-region dummies

B (-.000080) unaffected when additionaly controled 
for:
-GPD per capita growth
-Unemployment rate growth
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 p < .01
Smaller effect B (-.000060) when an individual 
lives in a rural area
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
Larger effect (B -0.000138) for Agnostics
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
Larger effect (B -0.000108) for Catholics

B means that a terroristic attack decreases mean 
happiness by .00076 points (0,0025 %) on the 
happiness scale 1-4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Political violence in region

StudyFrey et al. (2009): study ZZ Various nation sets 1975
TitleThe Life Satisfaction Approach to Valuing Public Goods.
SourcePublic Choice, 2009, Vol. 138, 317 - 345
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11127-008-9361-3
Public15+ aged, general public, regions, United Kingdom and Ireland, 1975-2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =62320

Correlate
Author's labelTerrostic fatalities
Page in Source 331-339
Our classificationPolitical violence in region
Operationalization
Number of fatalities in region 

Only fatalities due to international terrorism. 
International terrorism includes attacks by separatist 
groups as well attacks by domestic terrorist groups 
whenever foreigners are involved.
Observed distributionRange = Ireland: 0-9 Great Britain: 0-16 Northern Ireland: 7-287 Mean = Ireland: 2,16 Great Britain: 3,8 Northern Ireland: 80,84 SD = Ireland: 2,46 Great Britain: 3,95 Northern Ireland: 62,99
Remarks
Data: RAND-St. Andrews Chronology of International 
Terrorism and the Terror Attack Database

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 p < .01
B (-.00064)controled for:
-income
-personal characteristics
-year dummies
-region dummies

Larger effect B (-.00076) when additionaly 
controled for:
-GPD per capita growth
-Unemployment rate growth
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 p < .01
Smaller effect (B -.00045) when an individual 
lives in a rural area
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
Larger effect (B -0.00121) for Agnostics
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
Larger effect (B -0.00096) for Catholics

B means that a terroristic fatality decreases mean 
happiness by .00064 points (0,0213 %) on the 
happiness scale 1-4


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you rate your life at present?
1 bad or very bad
2 fair
3 good
4 very good
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

I am very satisfied with the way things are going in my life these days:
1 definitely disagree
2
3
4
5
6 definitely agree
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-hSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
OPRCOPRC: Regression coefficient in ordered categorical probit regression.
Only the sign of the computed coefficient is informative.

Happiness is an ordered categorical variable. Higher categories correspond to being more happy.

OPRC < 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category decreases and the probability of being at or below that category increases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OLRC > 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category
increases and the probablity of being at or below that category decreases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness


A new version of this website is available since 2020 August 1 at the old address worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl
This old website is renamed as worlddatabaseofhappiness-archive.eur.nl and is still maintained.
The new website links to some parts of this old website for the time being.


Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
14971 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 7730 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1354 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12851 distributional findings in the general public, of which 9280 in 173 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3571 findings in 2299 regions and cities in nations.
3068 studies with findings in 175 specific publics.
20128 correlational findings observed in 2592 studies, excerpted from 1898 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Number of Studies
ACTIVITY (how much one does)3
ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)374
AFFECTIVE LIFE81
AGE857
AGGRESSION15
ANOMY35
APPEARANCE (good looks)28
ATTITUDES17
AUTHORITARIANISM4
BIRTH CONTROL2
BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)201
BODY113
CHILDREN13
CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)349
CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN40
CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN19
CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)36
COMMUNAL LIVING16
COMPETENCES21
CONCERNS50
CONSUMPTION174
COPING71
CREATIVENESS8
CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR3
CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)51
DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
DISASTER3
EDUCATION724
EMPLOYMENT 1078
ERA (temporal period)163
ETHNICITY231
EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
EVENTS2
FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)528
FAMILY OF PROCREATION154
FAMILY OF RELATIVES270
FARMING68
FREEDOM59
FRIENDSHIP375
GENDER840
GRIEF1
HABITS2
HANDICAP55
HAPPINESS: BEHAVIOR4
HAPPINESS: CAREER302
HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS20
HAPPINESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS3
HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES397
HAPPINESS: OF OTHERS23
HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS27
HAPPINESS: SEQUALE1
HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS164
HEALTH: BEHAVIOR67
HEALTH: MENTAL308
HEALTH: PHYSICAL966
HEALTH: PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS71
HEALTH: PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT548
HEALTH: TREATMENT MEDICAL201
HELPING19
HOPE38
HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION336
HOUSEHOLD: WORK48
HOUSING389
INCOME1385
INSTITUTIONAL LIVING64
INTELLIGENCE92
INTERNET205
INTERESTS29
INTERVIEW 104
INTIMACY220
LANGUAGE51
LEADERSHIP15
LEISURE470
LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS527
LIFE CHANGE72
LIFE EVENTS149
LIFE GOALS131
LIFE HISTORY12
LIFE STYLE 76
LOCAL: CULTURE11
LOCAL: DEMOGRAPHY38
LOCAL: ECONOMY238
LOCAL: GEOGRAPHY303
LOCAL: LIVABILITY (fit with human needs/capacities)8
LOCAL: POLITICS14
LOCAL: RESIDENCE89
LOCAL: SOCIETY263
LOTTERY13
LOVE-LIFE46
MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER120
MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS1050
MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP197
MARRIAGE: PARTNER84
MEANING35
MEDITATION8
MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY125
MIGRATION: TO OTHER REGION1
MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)54
MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN REGION0
MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
MILITARY LIFE14
MINORITY STATUS0
MODERNITY62
MOOD408
MOTIVATION25
MOBILITY (travel)0
NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONE'S NATION80
NATION: CULTURE191
NATION: DEMOGRAPHY40
NATION: ECONOMY498
NATION: GEOGRAPHY90
NATION: HISTORY7
NATION: JUSTICE61
NATION: LIFESTYLE12
NATION: LIVABILITY (fit with human needs/capacities)70
NATION: NATIONALITY82
NATION: PERSONALITY (modal)88
NATION: POLITICS234
NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION23
NATION: SOCIETY315
NUTRITION184
OCCUPATION262
PERFORMANCE149
PERSONALITY: HISTORY57
PERSONALITY: CHANGE15
PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS864
PERSONALITY: LATER22
PETS4
PLANNING12
POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR320
POPULARITY33
PREFERENCES6
POSSESSIONS274
PRISON3
PROBLEMS40
REGION OF RESIDENCE112
REGION: CULTURE11
REGION: DEMOGRAPHY9
REGION: ECONOMY48
REGION: GEOGRAPHY34
REGION: HISTORY0
REGION: LIVABILITY. Fit environment - human needs/capacities6
REGION: PERSONALITY0
REGION: POLITICS11
REGION: POSITION1
REGION: SOCIETY7
RELIGION548
RESOURCES37
RETIREMENT170
ROLES31
SCHOOL1429
SELF-IMAGE355
SEX-LIFE88
SLEEP19
SOCIAL MOBILITY27
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS114
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS162
SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)61
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS211
SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED148
SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED25
SPORTS226
STIMULANTS104
SUICIDE10
SUMMED DETERMINANTS217
SUSTAINABLE BEHAVIOR0
TIME 239
TOLERANCE40
TRAVEL30
TREATMENT0
TRUST71
VALUE DEVELOPMENT8
VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)172
VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)14
VALUES: LIVING UP TO20
VICTIM 47
WAR9
WISDOM1
WORK: CAREER2
WORK: CONDITIONS152
WORK: ATTITUDES466
WORK: PERFORMANCE42
WORRIES60
UNCLASSIFIED31
X0


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
REGION: POLITICSNATION: POLITICS
Development of political conditions in one's regionDevelopment of local political conditions
Development of political conditions in one's regionDevelopment of politics in one's nation
Change in centralization in regionChange in centralization
Current political conditions in one's regionCurrent local political conditions
Current political conditions in one's regionCurrent political conditions in nation
Centralization in regionCentralization in nation
Democracy in regionPolitical democracy in nation
Dominant political ideology in regionDominant political ideology in nation
Centralization in regionCentralization in nation
Size of government in regionCurrent local political conditions
Size of government in regionSize of government in nation
Institutional quality in regionCurrent local political conditions
Institutional quality in regionQuality of government in nation
Political violence in regionPolitical violence in nation
Attitudes to political conditions in one's regionAttitudes to local political issues
Attitudes to political conditions in one's regionAttitudes to politics in nation

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings